If you find this site useful, please

Advanced Biofuels USA: promoting the understanding, development and use of advanced biofuels around the world.

Advanced BioFuels USA

Tag "Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)"

Kaloyan Tsilev on the GMobility Platform in Europe

(Future Fuel Strategies) Recently, I talked to Kaloyan Tsilev with NGVA Europe about its GMobility Platform. Following are several excepts from our discussion, which you can listen to or download below or in

September 19, 2019 Read Full Article

Biofuels Threatened as Push Builds for Electric Vehicles

by Ben Nuelle (Agri-Pulse)  Biofuel advocates may be fuming about the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent actions granting small refinery exemptions to oil refineries, but they’d better check their rearview mirror.

September 18, 2019 Read Full Article

Full Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Hearing on Minerals and Clean Energy Technologies

(Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources)  Opening Statement Hearing to Examine the Minerals Needed for Clean Energy Senator Lisa Murkowski —  …  Minerals are the fundamental building blocks for

September 17, 2019 Read Full Article

Oil vs. Electric Vehicles

by Kelsey Tamborrino (Politico’s Morning Energy)  Oil-backed groups are countering utilities’ plans to expand electric vehicle infrastructure with regulatory and lobbying campaigns against the proposals in at least 10 states

September 16, 2019 Read Full Article

City Grids Risk Being Overwhelmed by EV Growth: Report

(Utility Dive) Dive Brief:  Cities’ increased reliance on electric vehicles (EVs) and electric buses could overwhelm their electric grids and result in outages, warned a new report from the Rocky Mountain Institute

September 10, 2019 Read Full Article

CABA Comments on the CA Energy Commission’s Updated Investment Plan for the Clean Transportation Program

(California Advanced Biofuels Alliance Comments)  Re: Docket No. 18-ALT-01 – 2019-2020 Investment Plan Update for the Clean Transportation Program (ARFVTP) – California Advanced Biofuels Alliance Comments Dear Commissioners, Staff and

September 3, 2019 Read Full Article

Subsidize My Electric Car, Please: Auto Makers Want Congress to Expand This Gift to the Affluent.

(Wall Street Journal) The great myth of political subsidies for business is that they will help an industry get started and then go away. We’ll soon see if Congress can

September 3, 2019 Read Full Article

Costs Inhibit Government Purchases of Electric Vehicles: GAO

by Maxine Joselow (E&E News) Federal agencies have been reluctant to buy electric vehicles because of high prices and a lack of charging infrastructure, the government’s internal watchdog said in

August 29, 2019 Read Full Article

New Michael Moore-Backed Doc Tackles ‘Dark Side’ of Alternative Energy

by Lindsey Bahr (Associated Press/ABC 33/40)  What if alternative energy isn’t all it’s cracked up to be? That’s the provocative question explored in the documentary “Planet of the Humans,” which

August 26, 2019 Read Full Article

Estimating Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Costs Across Major U.S. Metropolitan Areas

(The International Council on Clean Transportation/Our Energy Policy) This paper analyzes the capital costs of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure needed for public, workplace, and home charging for the most populous

August 24, 2019 Read Full Article

The Energy 202: Bernie Sanders Announces a $16.3 Trillion Green New Deal

by Dino Grandoni (Washington Post) Bernie Sanders released a comprehensive plan to address a “climate crisis” on par with the threat America faced during the Second World War, vowing to declare the global

August 23, 2019 Read Full Article

Why Energy Companies Are Still Investing Gasoline in the Age of the Electric Vehicle

by Marissa Luck (Houston Chronicle)  … As Shell’s largest research and development center, the 200-acre Houston campus has 1,500 employees and hundreds of contractors. They’re working on everything from formulating new biodiesel

July 31, 2019 Read Full Article

Is There a Future for Service Stations? The End of an Era in Fuel Retail

by Mirko Rubeis , Stuart Groves , Tony Portera , and Giuseppe Bonaccorsi (Boston Consulting Group)  A number of far-reaching trends are disrupting the fuel retail market. Among the most powerful

July 15, 2019 Read Full Article

Daily on Energy: Biden’s Electric-Car Plan Could Suffer from Obama’s Lackluster Legacy

by John Siciliano & Josh Siegel (Washington Examiner) … Former vice president Joe Biden has some scratching their heads over a climate plan he introduced last week during the Democratic debates to

July 2, 2019 Read Full Article

In Lobbying Battle for Electric Vehicle Tax Credit, It’s Car Makers vs. the Oil and Gas Industry

by Dino Grandoni and Steven Mufson (Washington Post)  … GM, like a fleet of other car manufacturers, is seeking the extension of a tax break that has for a decade helped sustain the

June 26, 2019 Read Full Article

Co-Optima Identifies Innovation Needed to Continue Momentum in Fuel Economy Gains

(U.S. Department of Energy)  Today’s cars are advancing at lightning speed: from electric vehicles to efficient internal combustion engines to automated vehicles. Transportation is changing. Although the fuel-economy ratings of

June 24, 2019 Read Full Article

Arizona Fire Highlights Challenges for Energy Storage

by Jonathan J. Cooper (Associated Press)  Arizona’s largest electric company installed massive batteries near neighborhoods with a large number of solar panels, hoping to capture some of the energy from the

June 24, 2019 Read Full Article

Mining Lithium for Electric Cars Is Hurting This Desert’s Local Environment

(Bloomberg/Washington Post)  The Atacama Desert in northern Chile allowed humans and animals to survive for thousands of years in the world’s driest climate. That was before the mining started. Atacama has

June 14, 2019 Read Full Article

APPG for British Bioethanol Publishes Interim Report on E10 Inquiry

(British Bioethanol)  Chair of the APPG for British Bioethanol Nic Dakin MP today launched the publication of the interim report into introduction of E10 in Westminster. … Interim recommendations: Green solution needed

June 12, 2019 Read Full Article

Cutting Through the Noise: How Green Are EVs?

by Miro Korenha (Our Daily Planet)  … Transportation took over last year as the biggest source of U.S. GHG emissions but if folks switch to EVs and our power plants are still

June 11, 2019 Read Full Article

Net-Zero Plans Face EV Reality: Real World, Road Rules

by Kelsey Tamborrino (Politico’s Morning Energy)  With few detailed proposals out there, presidential candidates’ calls for net zero carbon emissions in the transportation sector will likely lean on increasing the

May 31, 2019 Read Full Article

“Volkswagen Settlement State Scorecard” Gets a Failing Grade, Places Technology Favorites over Clean Air, State Independence

by Allen Schaeffer (Diesel Technology Forum)   Report Ignores Basic Premise of Settlement, Wrongly Vilifies States that Diversify Spending and Chose Clean Air First  —  Statement from the desk of Allen Schaeffer, executive

May 29, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Doing the Heavy Lifting in Transport Climate Action

by James Cogan (Ethanol Europe/Climate Change News)  New E5, E10 and B7 labels recently appeared on petrol and diesel nozzles across Europe with hardly a mention. Behind them is the intriguing story of

May 17, 2019 Read Full Article

Going Green on a Budget: Lessons Taught and Learned at the Green Neighbor Festival

by Joanne Ivancic* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  Coal powers the GM Bolt with West Virginia license plates parked in the EV section at Frederick Maryland’s Green Neighbor Festival, explained the enthusiastic

May 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Should Electric Vehicle Drivers Pay A Mileage Tax?

by Lucas Davis and James Sallee (Energy Institute at Haas)  In many countries the revenue from gasoline taxes is used to fund highways and other transportation infrastructure. As the number of electric vehicles on

April 18, 2019 Read Full Article

The Driven Podcast: Biofuels, Batteries, or Hydrogen

by Giles Parkinson (Renew Economy)  Two years ago, Stephanie Moroz was named one of Australia’s most innovative engineers by Engineers Australia, and her experience working across lithium-ion batteries, internal combustion engines, fuel

April 17, 2019 Read Full Article

South America Resists Electric Vehicles as Local Fuels Remain in Favor

by Marcelo Rochabrun  (Reuters) Meeting in Brazil this week, auto executives from Toyota to GM talked up traditional fuel sources like ethanol, natural gas and diesel, underlining how South America’s protected auto

March 27, 2019 Read Full Article

How Much Oil Is Displaced by Electric Vehicles? Not Much, So Far

by Dan Murtaugh (Bloomberg)  Cumulative replacement of 352,000 barrels/day since 2011: BNEF; Global oil demand grew 12 million barrels/day over same period —  … Gasoline and diesel displacement by electric vehicles will

March 20, 2019 Read Full Article

Tesla Factory Store Uses Diesel Generators to Recharge Slow-Moving Model 3 Inventory

by Ronnie Schreiber (The Truth About Cars)  … PlainSite’s reporter also noticed a Tesla store employee trying to charge some unsold Model 3s whose batteries apparently discharged while waiting for their

March 19, 2019 Read Full Article

What Is Electricity and What Are Its Risks as a Fuel?

by Eleanor Johnstone (ACT News/GNA) Electricity is an intangible fuel that we are increasingly relying on to power our transportation. Where it comes from, how it’s delivered, and where it’s stored matters

March 15, 2019 Read Full Article

Energy Department Announces Opening of Battery Recycling Center at Argonne National Lab

(U.S. Department of Energy)  In celebration of National Battery Day on February 18th, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Daniel Simmons announced the opening of a Battery Recycling

February 20, 2019 Read Full Article

As More Electric Cars Arrive, What’s the Future for Gas-Powered Engines?

by Camila Domonoske (National Public Radio)  … Electric vehicles are currently a tiny fraction of the car market, which is dominated by internal combustion engines. But many more electric car models

February 19, 2019 Read Full Article

Bank Of America: Oil Demand Growth To Hit Zero Within A Decade

by Nick Cunningham (OilPrice.com)  By 2030, oil demand could hit a peak and then enter decline, according to a new report. For the next decade or so, oil demand should continue

February 6, 2019 Read Full Article

When It Comes to Getting the Carbon out of Transportation, EVs Can’t Do It Alone

by Frank Jossi (Energy News)  A recent report says low-polluting biofuels and reducing vehicle miles traveled will need to play a role.  —  Low-polluting biofuels will play an important role in reducing

February 5, 2019 Read Full Article

How Do Your Fuel Decisions Impact Our Environment?

by Jessie Stolark (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)  EESI Policy Associate Jessie Stolark spoke on a roundtable panel about the health and environmental considerations of fuel choices, at the Iowa Renewable

February 3, 2019 Read Full Article

With Rise of Electric Vehicles, a New Foreign Energy Dependence Looms

by James Osborne (Houston Chronicle) Forecasts say that electric vehicle sales are about to take off worldwide and increase demand for the raw materials that go into batteries. — Energy Secretary Rick

January 28, 2019 Read Full Article

Selling Ethanol to China Just Got More Complicated

by Clinton Griffiths (AgDay TV) As some ethanol operations throttle production or shutter plants, Peter Meyer with S&P Global Platts isn’t sold on Chinese demand rescuing the biofuel and corn industries. …

January 25, 2019 Read Full Article

A Rightful Role in the RFS: The Electric Vehicle Market Is Predicted to Soar, and, Pending Overdue Action by the U.S. EPA, Biomass Power Producers Are Positioned to Help Meet Goals Set Forth in the Renewable Fuel Standard.

by Anna Simet (Biomass Magazine)  … The vast complexities of the RFS extend far beyond these components, but a much lesser-known provision is beginning to attract attention—the role of renewable

January 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Before the Electric Car Takes Over, Someone Needs to Reinvent the Battery

by David Stringer and Kevin Buckland (Bloomberg)  Solid-state technology promises to be cheaper and charge faster than anything on the road today. But no one is close to figuring it out. 

January 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Senate Bill Seeks To Transition U.S. To 100 Percent Zero-Emission Vehicles:

(Bergeson & Campbell’s Clients and Friends Memorandum)  On November 28, 2018, Senators Jeff Merkley (D-OR) and Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI), both senior members of the Senate Environment and Public Works (EPW) Committee,

December 19, 2018 Read Full Article

Congress Should End Electric Car Subsidies, Not Expand Them

by Liam Sigaud  (American Consumer Institute) … These subsidies overwhelmingly benefit the wealthy. Tesla buyers, for example, had an average household income of $293,200 in 2013. A study in 2015 found that electric Ford

December 11, 2018 Read Full Article

IEA Chief: Ethanol ‘Very Important’ to Reduce Oil Dependence

by Sarantis Michalopoulos (EurActiv)  Ethanol will have a very important role in decarbonising the transport sector globally, the executive director of the International Energy Agency (IEA) has told EURACTIV.com. Another energy

December 11, 2018 Read Full Article

Biofuels and Electromobility Are Key in Portugal’s Transport Decarbonisation

by Sarantis Michalopoulos  (EurActiv)  EURACTIV.com interviewed José Mendes, Portuguese First Secretary of State for Mobility – Environment and Energy Transition, on the sidelines of COP24 climate talks in Katowice, Poland — 

December 10, 2018 Read Full Article

British Columbia Details Plan to Shift Homes, Cars to Clean Energy

by Julie Gordon (Reuters)  The Western Canadian province of British Columbia on Wednesday outlined the first measures it will take to cut carbon emissions by 40 percent by 2030, including shifting

December 6, 2018 Read Full Article

Even in a Carbon-Constrained World, Fossil Fuels Remain Dominant: WoodMac

by Robert Walton (Utility Dive)  Even with rapid deployment of electric vehicles and the accelerated development of renewable energy resources, fossil fuels will still play a dominant role in the

December 5, 2018 Read Full Article

Kudlow Calls for End to Subsidies for Electric Cars, Renewables

by Megan Keller and Timothy Cama (The Hill)  White House chief economic adviser Larry Kudlow said on Monday the Trump administration will seek to end subsidies for electric cars and renewable

December 4, 2018 Read Full Article

EEA Report Confirms: Electric Cars Are Better for Climate and Air Quality

(European Environment Agency)  Battery electric cars emit less greenhouse gases and air pollutants over their entire life cycle than petrol and diesel cars, according to a European Environment Agency (EEA) report,

November 30, 2018 Read Full Article

Approved ROTA 2030 Amendment Enabling Incentives for Flex Hybrid Vehicles and Ethanol Powered Fuel Cells

(Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce)  Federal Deputy Arnaldo Jardim presented on November 6th, yesterday, amendment to Provisional Measure No. 843, which deals with tax incentives to the automotive industry to improve the

November 14, 2018 Read Full Article

ELECTRIC VEHICLES: Big Oil Looks to Stop Utilities’ Charging Investments

by Jeffrey Tomich (E&E News Energywire)  State utility regulators across the Midwest are revving up their interest in electric vehicle charging infrastructure. And the petroleum industry and its allies are urging them

October 25, 2018 Read Full Article

No Commercial Permit for Vehicles Plying on Ethanol

by Dipak K Dash (Times of India)  Electric-battery operated vehicles and the ones running on 100% ethanol or methanol will now not require commercial permits from the state transport departments. … “The

October 25, 2018 Read Full Article

Move Aside Lithium – Vanadium Is The New Super-Metal

by James Burgess (OilPrice.com)  … That’s vanadium—Element 23. The answer to our issue of scale. “It’s no longer a technological maybe,” says Matt Rhoades, president and CEO of United Battery Metals, a Colorado

October 11, 2018 Read Full Article

Energy Security: A Bipartisan Issue in a Partisan Year

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … What this country — and every country — needs is a bigger vision so that the friends of energy security are not divided by their

October 2, 2018 Read Full Article

Everything You Need to Know about Wednesday’s Cars CO2 Vote

by Greg Archer (Transport & Environment/EurActiv)  While most of the political attention is – rightly – focused on the headline target for CO2 reduction, the discussion on car emissions has also much

October 1, 2018 Read Full Article

Automakers Seek Flexibility at Hearing on Mileage Standards

by Tom Krisher adn Sudhin Thanawala (Associated Press) Automakers sought flexibility while environmental groups blasted the Trump administration’s proposal to roll back fuel economy standards at a public hearing on the

September 26, 2018 Read Full Article

California Urges Trump Administration to Abandon Fuel Rule Plan

by David Shepardson (Reuters)  California’s top air regulator urged the Trump administration on Sunday to abandon a plan to freeze fuel efficiency standards through 2026, as automakers urged state and federal

September 24, 2018 Read Full Article

Renewable Electricity and the Renewable Fuel Standard – An Untapped Opportunity?

by John Mosheim (Clean Energy Business Network)  …   Currently, electricity generated from the combustion of cellulosic biogas under the RFS is an approved pathway for RIN generation.[1] In July 2014

September 14, 2018 Read Full Article

Despite Cleanup Vows, Smartphones and Electric Cars Still Keep Miners Digging by Hand in Congo

by Scott Patterson and Alexandra Wexler (Wall Street Journal)  Apple Inc., Volkswagen AG and about 20 other global manufacturers found themselves on the defense when Amnesty International reported two years ago that

September 14, 2018 Read Full Article

Electric Vehicles, Green Automobiles to Be Exempted from Permit Requirements, Says Nitin Gadkari

(Business Today India)  Vehicles using electricity or ethanol, biodiesel, CNG, methanol and biofuel need not apply for permits, said Union Road Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari. — The government has decided to keep

September 10, 2018 Read Full Article

Govt to Exempt Electric Vehicles, Alternative Fuel-Powered Vehicles from Permit Requirements: Gadkari

(PTI/India TV)  Urging automakers to focus in this direction, the minister said demand for EVs could also be created by mandating cab aggregators like Ola and Uber to induct a certain

September 7, 2018 Read Full Article

A Reality Check on Clean Mobility

by Emmanuel Desplechin (ePURE/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  … Two new studies offer a timely reality check on what kind of cars are likely to be on Europe’s roads between now and 2050—and

September 3, 2018 Read Full Article

Dairy Industry Sustainability Summit Dairy Industry Inaugural Summit Highlights Methane Emission Solutions

by Cliff Gladstein (ACT News)  … One of the best, easiest and most cost-effective ways to reduce methane emissions from dairies is

September 1, 2018 Read Full Article

Electric Vehicle Revolution Poses Threat to Biofuel

by D’Arce McMillan (Western Producer)  They may seem like a novelty now, but electric vehicles could quickly grow in number and significantly

September 1, 2018 Read Full Article

How to Reverse the Upward Trend of GHG Emissions in California

by Cliff Gladstein (GNA/ACT News)  …  It warrants digging a little deeper into the increase in emissions from the transportation

August 17, 2018 Read Full Article

The Future of Electric Vehicles Lie in the Sourcing of Lithium and Cobalt for Batteries

by Vishnu Rajamanickam  (Freight Waves)  … But unless the manufacturing process and the raw material sourcing is regulated and stabilized, it would

August 6, 2018 Read Full Article

Bioenergy (Biofuels/Biomass) RFS Roundup: To Grow Cellulosic Fuel Volumes, Address Low Hanging Fruit in RFS Changes

by Jessie Stolark (Energy and Environmental Study Institute)  On Wednesday July 25, the House Energy & Commerce Committee held a hearing

August 1, 2018 Read Full Article

High Performance Fuels & Vehicles, Both: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to DOE’s Co-Optima Project and HP Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The US Department of Energy has a key project called Co-Optima, which aims to determine key

July 31, 2018 Read Full Article

Shuster Infrastructure Draft Boosts Gas Tax in Short Term

by Kelsey Tamborrino (Politico’s Morning Energy)   House Transportation Chairman Bill Shuster released his long-awaited infrastructure discussion draft on Monday. The

July 24, 2018 Read Full Article

Croatia Approves 0.1% Advanced Biofuels Mandate

by Meghan Sapp (Biofuels Digest)  In Croatia, not to be left behind as the European Union moves towards advanced biofuel consumption, the

July 20, 2018 Read Full Article

California Is Cutting Greenhouse Gases, but Not from Cars. Can That Change?

by David R. Baker (San Francisco Chronicle)  … Emissions from transportation — cars, trucks, trains, planes and ships — keep rising.

July 17, 2018 Read Full Article

EVs Could Drive 38% Rise in US Electricity Demand, DOE Lab Finds

by Robert Walton (Utility Dive)  Rising electricity demand could lead to sustained absolute growth of 80 terawatt-hours per year, according to

July 12, 2018 Read Full Article

Big Oil, Utilities Are Lining up for an Electric Vehicle War

by Kelly Gilblom and Anna Hirtenstein  (Bloomberg)  BP and Shell have bought electric-car charging companies; Power utilities are boosting sales to homes, chargers

July 5, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Mazda: ‘Well-to-Wheel’ Gives ICE the Advantage over Electric, Manufacturer Claims

by Stephen Briers (Fleet News)  Change the debate to get true global picture on emissions says manufacturer as it continues to

June 27, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Adoption of Autonomous Vehicles Could Increase U.S. Transportation Energy Consumption

(U.S. Energy Information Administration)  Autonomous vehicles are one of the main sources of uncertainty in the future of U.S. transportation energy

June 20, 2018 Read Full Article

Strategic Intent: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to BASF

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  What are the strategic plans, progress and future milestones of BASF, a major stakeholder in the Advanced

June 11, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

An Open Letter to ARB: Don’t Miss Out on California’s Opportunity for the Fastest, Most Cost-Effective Path to Cleaner Air

(Diesel Technology Forum)  The following is an open letter from Allen Schaeffer, executive director of the Diesel Technology Forum, regarding

May 30, 2018 Read Full Article

Fuel-Efficient Cars Will Be Worse for Oil Than Electric Vehicles: BNEF

by Heesu Lee (Bloomberg)   Fuel efficient engines to cut oil demand by 7.5m b/d by 2040; Demand from cars to peak in

May 23, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

By the Gallon and Trade Groups: What about EVs?

by Kelsey Tamborrino (Politico’s Morning Energy)  While the numbers are still making their way through the regulatory process, sources tell

May 23, 2018 Read Full Article

Utilities Join with Tesla to Sue EPA over Fuel Standard Rollback

by Gavin Blade (Utility Dive)  o  A coalition of utilities and electric transportation companies sued the Enviornmental Protection Agency earlier this month

May 21, 2018 Read Full Article

Ryan Zinke Moves to Protect Critical Minerals from Foreign Threats

by John Siciliano (Washington Examiner)  Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke is listing 35 minerals used in aircraft, cellphones, and other important technologies

May 18, 2018 Read Full Article

QUOTE OF THE WEEK — Manhattan Institute

The Manhattan Institute looked at “zero emission vehicles” and found: Broad-based adoption of ZEVs will increase overall emissions of sulfur

May 15, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Short Circuit: The High Cost of Electric Vehicle Subsidies

(Manhattan Institute)  Many claim that “zero-emissions vehicles” (ZEVs), especially battery-powered electric vehicles, should replace most, if not all, cars and trucks

May 15, 2018 Read Full Article

EU Low Carbon Fuels Conference Week, Part 2: Driving Capability with Flexibility

By Steve Bi* (Advanced Biofuels USA) Part one of this article addressed the first two consensuses emerging from international biofuels

May 11, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

EVs and Ethanol Mix Well Together

by Cindy Zimmerman (Energy.AgWired.com)  The future is bright for electric vehicles and ethanol to work together to increase future vehicle energy

May 9, 2018 Read Full Article

Wolf Administration Allocates $5 Million to Support Alternative Fuel Transportation Initiatives DEADLINES July 13, 2018 and December 14, 2018

(Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection)  The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) is accepting grant applications for innovative, advanced fuel, and

May 8, 2018 Read Full Article

RFA to Testify at House Hearing on “Sharing the Road: Policy Implications of Electric and Conventional Vehicles in the Years Ahead.”

(Renewable Fuels Association)  At the National Ethanol Conference in February, speakers offered differing views on the potential for electric vehicles in the vehicle marketplace,

May 7, 2018 Read Full Article

Metals Shortfall to Crimp Electric-Car Battery Supply, Moody’s Says

by Claudia Assis (Market Watch)  A shortfall in supplies of metals such as cobalt, copper, lithium and nickel is likely to

May 3, 2018 Read Full Article

How Trump Will Go after California’s Auto GHG Authority

by Kelsey Tamborrino (Politico’s Morning Energy)  The Trump administration plans to argue that California does not have the authority to enforce stringent

April 30, 2018 Read Full Article

As Petroleum Prices, Demand Soars, US, EU Dither on Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) … US gasoline prices are at a three-year high, says CNBC. This time, the response has been

April 26, 2018 Read Full Article

A New Lithium War Is About To Begin

by James Stafford (OilPrice.com)  It’s the modern gold rush. Around the world, the most sought-after mineral isn’t a precious metal, nor

April 25, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Vehicle Efficiency Transportation 2050: More EVs, but Conventional Vehicles Will Still Dominate

by Jieyi Lu (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)  Making Vehicles More Efficient Is Critical to Reduce Emissions  —  … Over the next

April 20, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Messages from Brussels: More Biofuels for Transport Are Badly Needed and Can Be Produced Sustainably

(BioFuture Platform)  Several international initiatives and organizations met in Brussels to discuss the need and the ways to scale up

April 18, 2018 Read Full Article

Shell Releases Energy Transition Report: Commits to 50% Lower Emissions by 2050, Biofuels to Top Oil by 2100 in “Sky” Scenario

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In the Netherlands and England, Shell released its most definitive statement yet on its low-carbon future

April 18, 2018 Read Full Article

Your Regular Audi Could Run on Straw Soon

by Francois De Beaupuy and Ania Nussbaum  (Bloomberg)  Global Bioenergies looks to extract fuels from non-food crops; Unlike ethanol, fuel works in any

April 18, 2018 Read Full Article

Cars Threaten Climate Goals in Blue States

by Benjamin Storrow (E&E News) … Transportation emissions threaten to undercut blue states’ climate goals, raising questions about their ability

April 18, 2018 Read Full Article

QUOTE OF THE WEEK

Speaking of resilience, Biofuels Digest’s Jim Lane described the danger in putting all our eggs into the electric vehicle basket,

April 12, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

“Brexit Is the Impetus to Reinvigorate”: The Advanced Bioeconomy, Resilience, and a New Role for the Commonwealth?

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) delegates will hear quite a bit about blockchain, gene

April 12, 2018 Read Full Article

Tariff Talk

by Kelsey Tamborrino  (Politico’s Morning Energy)  The Trump administration escalated trade-war tensions with China on Tuesday, publishing a proposed list of

April 4, 2018 Read Full Article

Trump to Roll Back Fuel Standards for Cars, Light Trucks — Ford, GM Positions

by Todd Spangler and Eric Lawrence (Detroit Free Press) … General Motors said that, regardless of what standard is ultimately set,

April 3, 2018 Read Full Article

EPA Publishes CAFE Standards Mid-Term Evaluation Final Determination

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)  On April 2, 2018, the Administrator signed the Mid-term Evaluation Final Determination which finds that the model

April 2, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Europe’s Ethanol CEOs Besieged by RED II and Illusory Truths

by James Cogan (Ethanol Europe Renewables Ltd/Biofuels Digest)  The CEOs of Europe’s big ethanol firms (Tereos, Cristal Union, Alco Group, Crop Energies)

March 30, 2018 Read Full Article

Shell — Yes, That Shell — Just Outlined a Radical Scenario for What It Would Take to Halt Climate Change

by Chris Mooney and Steven Mufson (The Washington Post)  Royal Dutch Shell on Monday outlined a scenario in which, by 2070, we

March 30, 2018 Read Full Article

CEC: California EV chargers Will Add 1 GW of Peak Demand by 2025

by Gavin Blade (Utility Dive)  o  California will need between 229,000 and 279,000 electric vehicle chargers in public locations and

March 21, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Geothermal Could Profit from U.S. Executive Order to Support Lithium Mining

by Alexander Richter (Think GeoEnergy)  An executive order by U.S. President Donald Trump to support mining activities for critical minerals, could

March 15, 2018 Read Full Article

Murkowski Says Gasoline Not “Energy Future,” Congress “Very Excited” by Electric Cars

by James Osborne (Houston Chronicle)  Sen. Lisa Murkowski said Friday she believed an electric vehicle revolution was coming and Congress is

March 12, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Toyota Pursues Petrol but Sees Electric Potential in New Technology

by Naomi Tajitsu  (Reuters)  Toyota Motor Corp (7203.T) stuck to its commitment to improving petrol engines on Monday with new powertrain units,

March 7, 2018 Read Full Article

EV Bash: Moving Emissions from Tailpipes to Smokestacks

by Kelsey Tamborrino  (Politico’s Morning Energy)  ME never thought global oil companies would be huge fans of electric vehicles, but the regularity

March 7, 2018 Read Full Article

The Hidden Costs of Cobalt Mining

by Todd C. Frankel and Lena Mucha (photos) (The Washington Post)  In Congo’s sun-scorched and dusty south, thousands of miners scour

March 7, 2018 Read Full Article

Scania India Bets Big on Biodiesel, Not Evs – Mr Palskog

(Steele Guru/Auto News)  ETAuto reported that when the auto industry is going gung hu about electric vehicles, Swedish commercial vehicle (CV)

March 6, 2018 Read Full Article

Opinions: Why Fossil Fuels Survive

by Robert J. Samuelson (The Washington Post)  … It’s true that the Trump administration has withdrawn from the Paris climate agreement, making

March 1, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Position Paper: The European Commission’s Action Plan on Alternative Fuels Infrastructure

(European Automobile Manufacturers Association)  The European Commission presented its Clean Mobility Package on 8 November 2017. Besides a number of legislative

February 27, 2018 Read Full Article

BP Forecast: Shared, Autonomous EVs Will Help Drive to Peak Oil Before 2040

by Julia Pyper (GreenTechMedia)  BP’s latest Energy Outlook forecasts a peak in oil demand for the first time—while renewables will grow

February 23, 2018 Read Full Article

Mines Linked to Child Labor Are Thriving in Rush for Car Batteries

by Thomas Wilson and Jack Farchy (Bloomberg)  Output at Congo’s artisanal mines probably rose at least half; Metal vital to many

February 21, 2018 Read Full Article

Biofuels and Electric Vehicles Key to EU Decarbonisation, Report Claims

(Biofuels International)  A new report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) says the EU could double the renewable share in its energy

February 21, 2018 Read Full Article

Don’t Overlook Ethanol In Clean Car Future

by John Herath (Ag Pro)  As the United States looks to craft a clean fuel future for transportation, biofuels should not be

February 19, 2018 Read Full Article

Electric Vehicles Have the Attention of the Ethanol Industry

by Ken Anderson (Brownfield Ag News)  Renewable Fuels Association president and CEO Bob Dinneen says while electric cars are probably ten years

February 19, 2018 Read Full Article

QUOTE OF THE WEEK

In his article suggesting scrapping Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards in favor of a Clean Air Act life cycle analysis-based

February 16, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Let’s Regulate CO2 Emissions, and Forget the 55.4 MPG 2025 Corporate Annual Fuel Economy Standard: The Inexpensive Way to Quickly Reduce Green House Gases

by Robert Kozak* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  The 2025 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard of 54.5 miles/gallon has become a significant

February 15, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

De-Coding the West’s Addiction to Fossil Fuels: Fostering a Sustainable Transportation Fuel Market in the US & EU

by Michael Eggleston* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  “If we do not break the lock-in effect of our dominant fuel sources, we

February 15, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

What If Car Buyers Aren’t Ready for Electric Cars, Even in California?

by John Voelcker (Green Car Reports)  It’s accepted wisdom among electric-car fans and advocates that within a few years, mass-market car

February 12, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

On Value, and Values: Fairness, the Disadvantaged, and California’s Renewables Policy

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  …  The particulars are the subject of a white paper from a team at Propel Fuels

February 6, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to the Future of the Internal Combustion Engine

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  When it comes to the future of the combustion engine, what are the future developments from

February 6, 2018 Read Full Article

Europe’s Polarized Transport Future: A Shift in Biofuel Quality

by Michael Eggleston* (Advanced Biofuels USA) On January 22, 2018, the 15th International Conference on Renewable Mobility titled “Fuels of

January 29, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Big Oil, Biodiesel Join Forces to Combat Electrification

by Ron Kotrba (Biodiesel Magazine)  Even though the petroleum and biodiesel industries rarely see eye to eye on U.S. energy policy,

January 24, 2018 Read Full Article

C-Stores Meeting New Fuel Demands

by David Bennett   (Convenience Store Decisions)  Whether it’s teaming with Tesla to install charging stations or integrating alternative fuel solutions, retailers are

January 19, 2018 Read Full Article

WEBINAR Review: Preparing the Energy Grid for Electrified and Autonomous Vehicles

by Michael Eggleston* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  On December 13th, SAE International moderated a webinar clarifying how the energy grid prepares

January 14, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Disconnect Between Consumers’ Stated Interest in Alternative Fuel Vehicles & Actual Purchases

(Convenience Store News)  … Consumers and Alternative Fuels 2017, the latest installment of the Fuels Institute’s annual measure of American consumers’

January 4, 2018 Read Full Article

California Bill Seeks Ban on Fossil-Fueled Vehicles by 2040

by Ryan Beene (Bloomberg)  California would ban the sale of new cars and trucks powered by fossil fuels in 2040 under

January 4, 2018 Read Full Article

China, Moving to Cut Emissions, Halts Production of 500 Car Models

by Hiroko Tabuchi (New York Times)The suspensions pointed to Beijing’s growing willingness to test forceful antipollution measures and assume a leading role

January 3, 2018 Read Full Article

VW Settlement Should Fund Clean Air Today — Not Years Down the Road

by Allen Schaeffer (Diesel Technology Forum/The Hill)  … The Sierra Club’s has offered a one size, all-electrification-fits-all recommendation — that would just be

January 3, 2018 Read Full Article

At Last, the Age of the Electric Car Really Arrives

by Jack Stewart (Wired)  For all the hype, electric cars still make up a tiny percentage of global vehicle sales. Like, less

December 27, 2017 Read Full Article

Defining Decarbonisation Pathway for Shipping – Zero Emission Vessels 2030 Study Released

(Lloyd’s Register)  LR and University Maritime Advisory Services (UMAS) have today (December 11, 2o17) released ‘Zero Emission Vessels 2030’, a new

December 22, 2017 Read Full Article

‘Greenwashed Oil’ Set to Win from Renewable Transport Targets, Biofuel Industry Claims

by Paola Tamma (EurActiv) Biofuel producers in the Visegrad countries plus Lithuania and Bulgaria have warned that a phase-out of biofuels

December 14, 2017 Read Full Article

Federal Government Plan Aims to Reduce Carbon Content in Fossil Fuels

by Shawn McCarthy  (Globe and Mail)  The federal government is moving to implement regulations to require all providers of fossil-fuel energy

December 14, 2017 Read Full Article

Fuels Institute Report: Strong Disconnect Between Car Buyers’ Stated Interest and Actual Behavior on Alternative Vehicle Purchases

(Fuels Institute)  A report released today (December 12, 2017) by the Fuels Institute finds a strong disconnect between what potential

December 13, 2017 Read Full Article

The 12: The Advanced Bioeconomy’s 12 Biggest Talking, Fretting, Praying and Action Points Right Now

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … What are the top trends? Here are the 11 we see dominating the debate on

December 13, 2017 Read Full Article

California Readies $398-Million Green Truck Incentive Package

(Diesel Technology Forum) There are about 950,000 commercial trucks registered in California, and the vast majority are powered by diesel

December 12, 2017 Read Full Article

California’s LCFS: Unlocking Value in Low-Carbon Liquid Fuels

(Propel)  New study outlines how to make America’s most important low carbon policy more equitable. —  According to new research, low carbon

December 11, 2017 Read Full Article

Vehicles (Still) Bigger Emissions Source Than Power Plants in United States

by Alyssa Danigelis (Environmental Leader)  The amount of carbon dioxide emissions from the transportation sector continues to exceed the amount from

December 8, 2017 Read Full Article

California Bill in the Works to Banish Gasoline Cars by 2040

by Ryan Beene and Dana Hull (Bloomberg)  Assemblymember Ting says he will introduce proposal next month; Only ‘clean’ cars could be registered

December 6, 2017 Read Full Article

ACEA Conference: What Will Power Our Trucks, Vans and Buses in the Future?

(Automotive World/European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association)   In line with the objectives of the European Commission’s Mobility Package, the European Automobile Manufacturers’

December 5, 2017 0 comment Read Full Article

EU Needs Advanced Biofuels Boost to Reach Climate Goals, Transport Decarbonisation

by  Marko Janhunen (EurActiv/Leaders of Sustainable Biofuels)  The International Energy Agency confirms that sustainable biofuels are needed to secure transport decarbonisation.

December 5, 2017 Read Full Article

Biofuels, Electrification, Efficiency: All Necessary in Transport Sector Decarbonization

by Jessie Stolark (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)  … Global leaders will need to decide on and implement deep decarbonization strategies

November 30, 2017 Read Full Article

DEUTZ Approves Engines for the Use of Alternative Fuels

(DEUTZ)  …   DEUTZ has now approved the engine series TCD 2.9 / 3.6 / 4.1 / 6.1 / 7.8 /

November 20, 2017 Read Full Article

Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Governors Announce New Collaboration to Reduce Transportation Emissions

(Union of Concerned Scientistst)  Statement by Ken Kimmell, Union of Concerned Scientists  —  Leading environmental, health, scientific and business organizations today applauded

November 14, 2017 0 comment Read Full Article

Can California Eliminate Gas Cars?

by Anne C. Mulkern, ClimateWire  (Scientific American)  State leaders are discussing banning the sale of cars that run on gasoline or diesel 

November 10, 2017 Read Full Article

New England Power Generators Association/Environmental NGO Letter on Regional Transportation Emissions

(New England Power Generators Association)  NEPGA letter – with the Acadia Center, Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club and Union of

November 7, 2017 0 comment Read Full Article

Are Electrics a Bridging Technology, and Hydrogen Fuel Cells the Future?

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Recently, Lexus’ Paul Williamsen told Australia’s CarAdvice team: “Both hybrid and EVs are merely bridging technologies on

November 4, 2017 Read Full Article

We’ll All Be Relying on Congo to Power Our Electric Cars

by Thomas Wilson (Bloomberg)  Congo supplies much of the cobalt needed for electric vehicles Political conflict, disputes, law changes put supply

October 29, 2017 Read Full Article

Study: Utilities Should Get in the Drivers Seat on Electric Vehicle Infrastructure

by Kari Lydersen (Midwest Energy News)  … But a recent study by the global consulting firm Deloitte argues that utilities should embrace electric vehicles

October 29, 2017 Read Full Article

Okla. Supreme Court Rules Electric Vehicle Fee Unconstitutional

by Joseph Bebon (NGT News)  On Tuesday, the Oklahoma Supreme Court struck down H.B.1449, a bill that sought to implement an annual fee

October 26, 2017 0 comment Read Full Article

More than 30,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 30,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors

FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters

Donate



Archives

Categories

Tags

2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 4th generation biofuels 7% solution 45Q 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane 100 octane 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election Activities 2022 A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) Abu Dhabi acacia acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act advanced biofuel prices advanced biofuel production Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Aircraft engine emissions Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy airports air quality Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion Angola anhydrous ethanol animal fat animal feed Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-E Aruba Asia ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D396 ASTM D975 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive Aviation biofuel aviation biofuel price aviation biofuel pumps/delivery Aviation Fuel awards/recognition Azerbaijan. B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B10 B11 B12.5 B15 B20 B25 B30 B33 B35 B40 B50 B75 B80 B99 B100 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors billion ton study bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) Biofuel biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuels Biofuels Directive biofuels education biofuel tax credit Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons BioIsoprene Bio LPG biomass Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts bioprospecting BioRefineries Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance Biotechnology birch black carbon black grease black liquor black locust blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain/blockcoin blue carbon boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brachiaria bracken brackish water Brassica Brazil breweries British Columbia brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butanol emissions butyl acetate c C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass Canary Islands canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap-and-trade carbohydrates carbon carbon-efficient fuels carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon price carbon recycling carbon sequestration carbon sink carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis CH pathway cattle cavitation cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile China chitin CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products CO2 Sequestration coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG / R-CNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmet cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cottonseed oil cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME (dimethyl ether) Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 price E12 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) Export externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green chemistry green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding Horse manure horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrofaction hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbe microbiology microorganizms microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Lab National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol off-take agreements Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-gas prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable h renewable hydrogen renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) renewable volume obligation (RVO) replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK sales Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale gas shale oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smokestack soap social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve straw students sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugar can sugar cane sugar cane prices sugar cane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils Velocys Venezuela Vermont video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste water water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

Notice

donate nowWe are not accepting donations from people or companies in Florida due to unfair reporting requirements and fees not imposed by any other state.