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SCZone, Dutch Alliance Pen Cooperation Protocol to Boost Green Fuel Investments

(Zawya/Arab Finance) Under the protocol, the Dutch firms will establish green hydrogen production plants to directly supply various types of vehicles

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The Biggest Thing Anywhere Ever? The Story behind the Global Biofuels Alliance

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ... What’s missing?  The financial industry and investors in general. An actual scope of work. A leadership

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Swiss Firm to Allocate 1$ Bln for Green Hydrogen Production in Egypt

(Asharq Al Awsat)  Smartenergy intends to expand in Egypt by producing green hydrogen in a project of initial value worth one

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Lighting the SAFterburners: Virent, Air bp, Virgin, Gevo, Axens, ECARU, Others Accelerating on SAF

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ... Virent, Air bp, Virgin, Gevo, Axens,  ECARU, and Qalaa Holdings are accelerating  on SAF. Multiple angles

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ECARU, Qalaa Holdings and Axens to Carry Out Technical and Economic Studies for a Project of Second-Generation Biofuel (Advanced Bioethanol) and Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) Production

(Axens)  Within the framework of their strategy to provide practical solutions for cleaner energy, ECARU (Egyptian Company for Solid Waste Recycling),

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EgyptAir Plans to Boost Biofuel Use by 2% in 2025

(Zawya/Arab Finance) This is part of the airline’s ambitious plan to boost annual dependency on biofuel to reduce carbon emissions

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European Commission to Support SAF Development around the World

(International Civil Air Organization/Biobased Diesel Daily)  The European Commission announced May 24 support for the development of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF)

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Egypt to Pen 8 MoUs on Green Hydrogen Production Soon

(Zawya/Arab Finance Brokerage Company) ... The Egyptian government is set to sign eight new memoranda of understanding (MoUs) in the

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Breaking Ground: Maersk Reveals Design Details of Its Methanol-Powered Feeder

by Jasmina Ovcina Mandra (Offshore Energy) Maersk, the Danish container shipping major, has announced the design details of its first

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Producing Fertilizer without Carbon Emissions

by Fabio Bergamin (ETH Zurich/Science Daily) Researchers have shown how nitrogen fertilizer could be produced more sustainably. This is necessary not

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Watch Farmers Speak at COP27: International Climate Change Conversations

(Solutions from the Land) ... Solutions from the Land was especially pleased to have been selected by the UN Food and

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Farmers at the Center of Climate Action --- November 12, 2022 --- COP27 and ONLINE

(Solutions from the Land) Farmers will be at the center of the 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP27) on

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COP27: European Union Concludes a Strategic Partnership with Namibia on Sustainable Raw Materials and Renewable Hydrogen (Also Kazakhstan and Egypt)

(European Commission/EE Online) Today (Nov 8), Commission President Ursula von der Leyen and President of Namibia Hage Geingob signed a Memorandum

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EgyptAir’s 1st Sustainable Flight Carries COP27 Attendees from Paris Saturday

(ZAWYA/Arab Finance) Minister of Civil Aviation’s climate change strategy aims to transform the aviation sector to become eco-friendly --EgyptAir launched

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Praj & ESIIC Partner to Accelerate Bioeconomy in Egypt

(Praj)  On the eve of 27th Climate Change Conference in Egypt, Praj Industries Limited (Praj) has announced that they have

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Farmer Delegates to Share Perspectives on Carbon Sequestration, Renewable Fuels at UN Meeting in Livestreamed Event

(Solutions from the Land) Farmers with Solutions from the Land will share their experiences with reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions

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COP27: Fertiglobe Commissions Phase One of Egypt Green 100-MW Hydrogen Plant for Ammonia Production

by James Burgess (S&P Global)  Electrolyzers powered by 260 MW of solar, wind; 15,000 mt/year hydrogen for 90,000 mt ammonia; FID expected 2023,

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Aston University Researchers ‘Feed’ Leftover Coffee Grounds to Microalgae to Produce Low Emission bBiodiesel

(Aston University) High quality biodiesel produced from microalgae ‘fed’ on leftover coffee grounds; Breakthrough in the microalgal cultivation system; Could

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Scientists Propose the Optimal Way to Produce Biofuels

(South Ural State University/TechXplore) Scientists from Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Egypt have proposed the most effective mathematical

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Africa Faces Rising Energy Demands

by Colin Ley (Biofuels International) Assessing the state on biofuels development across Africa with any degree of accuracy or fairness

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Egyptian Scholar at Assam University Develops Biodiesel from Food Waste

(The Hindu)  Khalifa Said H. Eldeihy worked on residual food items such as soybean cooking oil waste and leaves of

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E3i to Construct an E3i BioRefinery in Egypt

(Energy3 International)  The Minister of Environment discusses with one American company the implementation of a project to convert waste to biofuel

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Angel Yeast to Ramp up Efforts in Sustainable Development Echoing Earth Day 2022

(Angel) Angel Yeast, a listed global yeast and yeast extract manufacturer, announced its plan to make more concrete moves to

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The Prime Minister Witnesses the Signing of MOU for French and Emirati Projects to Produce Green Fuel in the SCZone

(SCZone) Today (April 20, 2022), Prime Minister Dr. Mostafa Madbouly witnessed the signing ceremony for 2 Memoranda of Understanding. The first

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Shipping Giant Signs MOU to Explore Green Marine Fuel Production in Egypt

by Ron Kotrba (Biobased Diesel Daily) A.P. Moller-Maersk signed a memorandum of understanding March 28 with Egyptian authorities in a

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Call to Remove Food Crops from European Biofuels

by Aisling O'Brien (Agriland) Removing wheat from the production of biofuels in Europe would offset over 20% of the collapsed Ukrainian supplies, according

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Recent Innovations in Turning Agricultural Waste into Biofuels

by Raj Shah and Amanda Loo (altenergymag.com/Koehler Instrument Company)  Wastes from fields and wastes from processing are the two kinds

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Egypt, US Discuss Partnership to Launch Waste-to-Biofuel Project in Fayoum

(Daily News Egypt/Zawya)  Egypt is currently implementing a new system for solid waste management  -- Egypt’s Minister of Environment Yasmine

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Ministry Discloses Updated Egyptian Petrochemicals Plan 2020-2035

(Egypt Today)  ... A feasibility study was carried out to launch an ethanol production project worth $110 million. Shareholders have

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As Petrol Prices Rise, More Egyptians Convert to Duel-Fuel Vehicles

(CNBC/Reuters) ... The government also has a plan for minibuses, a common form of cheap transport across Egypt. Under the

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Delta Sugar Invests $2m in JV with Egyptian Petrochemicals Holding Company

(Mubasher/Zawya) Delta Sugar’s board of directors approved contributing 5% to the Egyptian Petrochemicals Holding Company’s (ECHEM) facility for producing bioethanol from

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EgyptAir Fuels Newest Boeing Dreamliner with Sustainable Aviation Fuel

(Biofuels International)  Egypt’s national airline EgyptAir has fuelled its newest Boeing 787 Dreamliner with biofuel on the post-delivery return flight. The 787

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Egyptian Firm to Turn Tonnes of Rubbish into Electricity, Bio-Diesel

by Jeffrey Gogo (The Herald)  Emerging energy firm Tawanda Energy Ltd has agreed a deal with Egyptian financier and project developer MAFGAIB

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Emerging Markets for Ethanol Discussed at USGC Meeting in Denver

(U.S. Grains Council/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  In a global trade environment challenged by tariffs and tensions, emerging markets for grains and ethanol

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Major Countries Agree To Develop Sustainable Biofuels Targets And Scale Up Low Carbon Bioeconomy

Countries representing half of the global population and 37% of the global economy today (November 16, 2017) agreed to scale

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POET and Al Dahra ACX Partner to Grow Distillers Grains Use in the Middle East

(POET)   Distillers grains use is growing under a new partnership that will expand availability of premium Dakota Gold feed in the

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UN Conference Closes with Renewed Urgency for Greater Ambition to Tackle Climate Change

(UN News Centre)  ...  The 19 Member countries of the 'Biofuture Platform,' including Brazil, China, Egypt, France, India, Morocco, Mozambique,

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Governments, International Agencies Affirm the Need to Massively Increase Bioenergy and Byproducts to Fight Climate Change

(BioFuture Platform)  According to projections of international energy agencies, the use of bioenergy as a share of the world’s energy usage

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Hilton Partners with Tagaddod to Generate Biodiesel in Support of Environmental Sustainability

(Albawaba Business/Hilton Worldwide)  Hilton, one of the largest hospitality companies in the world, is further demonstrating its commitment to environmental sustainability

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Is It the End or Just the Beginning for Jatropha?

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ... In Botswana, jatropha’s adventures are just beginning according to the Ministry of Minerals Resources, Green Technology and

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Egypt Produces Jet Biofuel from Jatropha

(SciDev.Net) Research team produces aviation fuel from jatropha plants grown in desert with sewage water; Aim is to cut aviation emissions, but

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Accepting Applications for 2017 Borlaug Global Research Alliance Fellowships

(US Department of Agriculture)  The U.S. Department of Agriculture is now accepting applications for the 2017 Borlaug Global Research Alliance

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Where Did Biofuels Technologies Come from?

by Gerald Kutney  (Lee Consulting/Biofuels Digest)  ... From the time of the caveman until the early Industrial Revolution, biofuels – namely wood

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IEA and GBEP Launch Bioenergy and Water Paper

by Meghan Sapp (Biofuels Digest)  In Italy, IEA Bioenergy and the Global Bioenergy Partnership have published the “Examples of Positive

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Supply Ministry Receives 16 Offers for Establishment of Commercial Chains Branches in Governorates

by Shaimaa Al-Aees  (Daily News Eqypt)  ... The ministry is working on developing the production of the Egyptian Sugar and

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Big Oil to Cut Investment again in 2016

by Karolin Schaps and Ron Bousso (Reuters)  With crude prices at 11-year lows, the world's biggest oil and gas producers are

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Mathieu Flamini's No Fuel

(The Sun)  Mathieu Flamini has kept a big secret from family, friends and team-mates for SEVEN years.  But today in

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Teenager Develops Inexpensive Method to Turn Plastic Waste into Million-Dollar Biofuel

by Darwin Malicdem (International Business Times)  A new inexpensive way to turn plastic trash into fuel has been developed by

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EgyptAir Plans to Launch Its First Bio-Fuel-Run Jet in a Year

(Egypt Independent)  EgyptAir plans to launch its first plane run on biofuel, replacing traditional jet fuel, in one year, said

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Petroleum, Supply Ministries Cooperate to Transform Cooking Oil into Biodiesel

by Menna Samir (Daily News Egypt)  ...  A protocol agreement to activate the reuse of cooking oil and transform it into

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ECHEM to Use Rice Straw in Ethanol Production

by Sara Aggour (Daily News Eqypt)  Rice straw will be used to produce ethanol, which will be used to produce electricity

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Beyond Boats To China

by Tom Bryan (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  After halting distillers grains imports late last year, the world's top DDGS buyer is

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The Worldwide Push for Aviation Biofuels

by Keith Campbell  (Engineering News)  On October 19, 2004, the world’s first exclusively biofuel powered production aircraft received its certification,

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Egypt Proposes $490 Million in Ethanol Investments to UAE

(Biofuels Digest) In Egypt, the government has proposed the UAE invest $250 million in a 100,000 ton per year molasses-based ethanol

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Why Fuel Subsidies in Developing Nations Are an Economic Addiction

by Brendan Greeley (Bloomberg BusinessWeek)  ... In the developing world, it’s tempting for a country to keep the price of fossil

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Algasol Renewables Launches First Commercial Project, in Egypt

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In Egypt, Algasol Renewables announced the launch of its first commercial algae project. Led by

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Renewables Remain Critical in Meeting Long-Term U.S. Energy Needs

(25 x '25)  ...It is interesting to see the advances in renewable energy being made in, of all places, nations

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Student Finds New Way of Turning Plastic into Biofuel

by Rasha Dewedar  (SciDev.net)   A method for generating biofuel by breaking down plastics using a low-cost catalyst will be developed further in the

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JOil Announces Elite Jatropha Varieties Returns Repeatable Yields of over 2 Tons of Seeds per Hectare in First Year of India Field Trials

(JOil)  • Tamil Nadu sites achieve first-year flowering in three months and first harvest in five months • Field trials now

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Mediterranean Consortium Promotes Biodiesel Production

(Cyprus Mail)  A consortium comprising 12 organisations from Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Lebanon and Egypt has been established to study

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A Peculiar Sign of Success

by Joelle Brink (Biofuels Digest Asia)  It was quite a shock to return from the exciting and very sustainability-oriented Advanced

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Launch of Commerical Scale Seawater-Based Biofuels Project in Egypt

Energy Allied International, a Houston-based energy projects development company, and The Seawater Foundation and Global Seawater, Inc., pioneers in the

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(Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi 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Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New 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(OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm trunk sap palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peach shell peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests pet food petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites 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Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) REnova RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program Republic of Congo repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment Reverse Water-gas Shift RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron Ricardo rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass rye straw s saccharification SAF pipeline SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK sal tree Salicornia salt water salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater seaweed cultivation Seaweed/Macroalgae second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks seed-to-wheel Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shellfish shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silage silica Silphie/cup 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