How to De-Fossilize Your Fleet: Suggestions for Fleet Managers Working on Sustainability Programs

BusinessBusiness News/AnalysisEnergy (DOE)Environmental Protection AgencyFederal Agency/Executive BranchOpinionsOriginal Writing, Opinions Advanced Biofuels USAPolicyResourcesSustainabilityWhat You Can DoWhite Papers by ABUSA
August 15, 2019

by Joanne Ivancic* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  Cities, companies, universities, organizations pledge to be 100% renewable (or 50%) by a certain date.  But how often does that pledge include renewable transportation energy?  Occasionally.  But it could be better.  At conferences, sustainability events, by phone and email, I’ve discussed with fleet managers practical ways they can contribute to their company’s/university’s/municipality’s/state’s/organization’s/family’s sustainability goals.  Here are some of the ideas we’ve developed with suggested practice statements in italics. (Also available, regularly updated, in PDF)

Dance with the One Who Brung You[1]

You got to dance with who brung you, swing with who swung you,
Life ain't no forty-yard dash, be in it for the long run …

That is:  Start with what you have and lower your life cycle carbon emissions as much as possible with what is available to you immediately.  There are three key strategies:

  1. Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled
  2. Decrease Fossil-Based Fuel Use
  3. Increase Engine Efficiency

This article will focus on the second strategy with some overlap with the third.

Internal combustion engine vehicles including spark ignition engines, compression ignition/diesel engines and engines that use compressed natural gas likely dominate your fleet. They provide opportunities under your control to maximize emissions reductions immediately.

We’ve come up with these policy suggestions and examples of how to achieve them.


  1. Spark Ignition Engines:

    Fuel with the greatest proportion of renewable fuel available


-Flex Fuel Vehicles: Any flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) in your fleet or that staff use as they travel must be filled up with E85 if there’s a station reasonably available; second choice is E15 or other blends if available.

How do you know it’s an FFV and can use high ethanol blends?  You can look in the owners’ manual or on the driver’s side door.  It might also have a decal or insignia near the vehicle name.  If you can’t find it that way, for model years 2018 and older, the Renewable Fuels Association has published a list. The Fuel Freedom Foundation has the Check Your Car tool. You can enter in your vehicle’s make, model, year and engine size, and it’ll tell you if it is an FFV.

What’s a reasonably available station?  Federal regulations described in the Federal Fleet Management Handbook[2] (see appendix) provide an example of what might be reasonable.

“… within a 15-minute drive or within 5 miles (one way) from the vehicle’s garaged location. Waivers will be granted for vehicles that have a drive longer than 15 minutes even if a station is within the 5-mile barrier. Dual fueled vehicles that have access to alternative fuel along the vehicle’s usual travel route are expected to use that fuel, even if that infrastructure is more than 5 miles away from the vehicle’s garaged location.

There’s an exception related to expense:

(If) alternative fuel is unreasonably expensive. Unreasonably expensive means that alternative fuel costs more per gallon than gasoline at the same station.[3]

Choose an app such as E85 Prices ( to locate fueling stations that carry E85 (technically 51-83% ethanol; but generally thought of as 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline)  and other ethanol blends in the US. Or  use the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator which also includes locations in Canada.

A word of caution.  If the FFV has been using gasoline regularly before using high ethanol blends regularly, include in your maintenance plan changing the fuel filter after about 200 miles. 

If the vehicle has been using gasoline for many years, as was true for the 2002 Ford Focus we converted to use E85[4], we found another fuel filter change after 1000 miles is a good idea.  The ethanol serves to clean out the fuel system and dislodges hydrocarbon build up which gets filtered out and can clog the fuel filter.  After getting the fossil fuel grunge out of the system, regular use of E85 should keep the system clean.


-Model year 2001 and newer Use E15 whenever available.

If spark ignition vehicles in your fleet are 2001 model year or newer (18 years old or newer) and not Prius-type hybrids (which can’t “stomach” the higher octane very well)[5], they should use E15 when filling up.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has approved E15 use in 2001 MY and newer vehicles, although manufacturer warranties and owners’ manuals might not mention E15 as it was not available for consumers when those vehicles were manufactured and sold. The Renewable Fuels Association provides an annual analysis of vehicle warranty statements[6] available here[7]. And a list[8] of approval status of E15 for non-FFV vehicles.


-Benefit of Ethanol Fuel

In addition to having lower carbon intensity than petroleum-based fuel, the added benefit of using higher ethanol blends is they may also save you money. E15 and E85 are usually less expensive than regular E10 gasoline.  E85Prices posts daily prices at[9].

Other benefits of ethanol: less reliance on foreign oil, cleaner air and more income in rural communities.  Specifically, ethanol as an oxygenate lowers tailpipe emissions[10], replaces benzene, a well-documented carcinogen[11],  reduces harmful volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and reduces smog-forming potential. [12]  It also lowers the wear and tear on engines and improves performance due to characteristics such as higher heat of vaporization and higher compression ratios.[13]

Increasing the volume of ethanol in the fuel supply to 30 percent (E30) has the greatest positive impact on tailpipe emissions of toxins out of any commercially available fuel. This included significant reductions in ultrafine particulates and carbon monoxide. Latest research finds that E30 did not contribute to smog formation (a mixture of nitrous oxides and carbon monoxide).[14]  

Recent research from the U.S. Department of Agriculture has found that domestically-produced corn ethanol is, on average, 43 percent less GHG intensive than gasoline. Cellulosic ethanol, sourced from crop wastes and purpose-grown crops (rather than edible plant matter), must be 60 percent less GHG intensive than gasoline. According to modeling from the U.S. Department of Energy, cellulosic ethanol can reduce GHG emissions between 90 and 115 percent, relative to gasoline, depending on the feedstock.[15] 

So, using high ethanol blends in spark ignition engines can significantly defossilize your fleet.


  1. Compression Ignition/Diesel Engines

    Any compression ignition/diesel vehicles in your fleet or that staff use as they travel must be filled up with renewable diesel or biodiesel blends if there’s a station reasonably available. Diesel equipment must use the highest blend of biodiesel or renewable/green diesel available that is compatible with the engine.

Existing vehicles and equipment that have compression ignition or diesel engines can transition to renewable fuels as well.

Renewable diesel (also known as green diesel or HVO) can be used as a drop-in ultra low sulfur replacement for petroleum diesel with no modification, additives or warranty issues. It has fewer particulates in the exhaust and lower maintenance needs. Biodiesel can be used in some proportion, depending on the engine, fuel system and weather conditions.  Other fuels such as rDME may also be an option.

Advanced Biofuels USA published a white paper[16] explaining the differences between renewable diesel/green diesel and biodiesel.   We are working on an update with a more world-wide focus that also includes renewable DME and other fuels that can be used in compression ignition engines.



Essentially, biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel for use in diesel engines defined by ASTM to be “a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats.”  Biodiesel is also referred to as FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) or RME (rape seed methyl ester) in Europe; and when the catalyst used is ethanol, the version is known as FAEE (fatty acide ethyl ester)[17]. Generally, it is produced using a transesterification process, or “reacting vegetable oils or animal fats catalytically with a short-chained aliphatic alcohol (typically methanol or ethanol).”

Biodiesel possesses properties that are dissimilar to fossil diesel.  Biodiesel users must be aware of these differences for they may affect the operation of their diesel/compression ignition engine.  For example, biodiesel is chemically different from fossil diesel because it contains oxygen atoms. This leads to different physical properties for biodiesel, some of which vary according to the biodiesel feedstock.[18] Biodiesel can be made from many things from used cooking oil or restaurant grease to algae, from seed crops to oil crops. Most of the biodiesel in the US is made from soybeans as the oil is extracted when making soy meal for animal feed.  Similarly, in the Europe, most of the biodiesel is made from canola/rapeseed as the co-product to high protein animal feed.

In the US over the past 10 years, we can count on more consistent quality characteristics from industrially-produced biodiesel.  Experience with biodiesel blends in cold weather has also lead to development of best practices that include additives, cold flow improvers, stabilizers[19] and limiting high biodiesel blend use during winter.

According to the National Biodiesel Board (NBB), some engine companies specify that biodiesel used in their engines must meet ASTM D6751 standards. Others are still in the process of adopting this standard within their company or have their own set of guidelines for biodiesel use that were developed prior to the approval of ASTM D6751.[20] The NBB anticipates that the entire industry will incorporate the ASTM biodiesel standard into their owner’s manuals over time. Here’s a list of current OEM support providers created by the NBB. [21]

In the US, any diesel fuel can contain up to 5% biodiesel (B5) without notification to customers and without special labeling. The biodiesel is considered an additive or part of the fuel “recipe.”  Users must be advised about blends over 5%.[22]   ASTM7467 designates biodiesel blends of 6-20%.

Some engine manufacturers will allow concentrations up to B20 in their engines through Tier 3/Stage IIIA models, including all non-emissions-certified engines if the biodiesel (B100) meets ASTM D6751, EN 14214 or equivalent specification.

The advanced emission controls of newer model engines designed to meet new Environmental Protection Agency Tier 4 standards may not accommodate high levels of biodiesel.

Manufacturers continue to test, study, and research the effect of biodiesel in their engines and equipment.  As a result, a manufacturer’s stance on biodiesel is continuously changing as they release new vehicles and gain more field experience.  For this reason, it is critical to check with your engine manufacturer before using biodiesel, at any blend level over 5%.


-Renewable/Green Diesel/HVO Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil

Renewable Diesel, often called green diesel, second generation diesel, or hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) refers to fossil diesel-like fuels derived from biological or renewable sources that are chemically not esters and thus distinct from biodiesel.

In the US, the term “renewable diesel” has been defined differently by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[23] In addition, the terms renewable diesel and green diesel have been further distinguished based on the processing method to create the fuel with fossil diesel-like chemical composition. For the purpose of this discussion, the term “renewable diesel” will refer to diesel fuels derived from biomass or other renewable feedstock that meet the standards of ASTM D975 and are not mono-alkyl esters.

Renewable diesel is chemically similar to fossil-based diesel. Like biodiesel, renewable diesel has near-zero aromatic content and very low sulfur content. It typically has a very high cetane number and a cloud point more like conventional fossil diesel fuels. Renewable diesel can be made from the same feedstocks as biodiesel.

Renewable diesel blends follow the same nomenclature as biodiesel.  Renewable diesel in its pure form is designated R100 while a blend comprised of 20% renewable diesel and 80% fossil diesel is called R20.  Renewable diesel can be mixed with fossil diesel in any proportion but users may need to add an additive to address lubricity issue associated with compounds with no oxygen.


-Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel Sources

You will probably find it difficult to find biodiesel or renewable diesel in many parts of the US. If you want to buy direct from the producer, there’s a list of member biodiesel and renewable diesel plants that are members of the National Biodiesel Board here.[24] 

For Biodiesel retail locations, here’s the list.[25]

You might contact these retailers or the National Biodiesel Board about what it would take to get fuel retail close to you to carry biodiesel blends or renewable diesel or for information about installing your own pumps.

Some schools have partnered with their science programs to acquire biodiesel from class production projects.[26]


  1. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Engines

    Any compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles in your fleet or that staff use as they travel and rent must be filled up with renewable natural gas (RNG) if there’s a station reasonably available. On-site CNG equipment must use RNG.

Fossil natural gas has been promoted as a bridge to renewables and over the past decade many fleets have transitioned to CNG vehicles such as CNG buses and trucks.  If these are already in your fleet, you can decrease their carbon footprints substantially by using biomethane or renewable natural gas (RNG) in place of all or part of the fossil CNG.

When RNG comes from dairy waste, Dairy Cares reports that according to the California Air Resources Control Board, dairy biomethane is by far the least carbon-intensive transportation fuel currently available in California with a negative carbon intensity score of -255, making it nearly ten times more effective at reducing carbon than even electric vehicles.[27]

Biomethane or renewable natural gas usually comes from captured landfill methane or biogas from anaerobic digesters.  The feedstock for the anaerobic digesters could be food waste, agricultural feedstock, animal manure and waste (for example, swine in North Carolina, dairy in California), connected to wastewater treatment facilities, etc.  Often biogas from anaerobic digesters is used to generate power on-site.  If it is distributed by existing natural gas pipelines or used for transportation fuel, additional clean-up is required.[28]

To locate local sources of biomethane or renewable natural gas, you might want to talk to the people at the Coalition for Renewable Natural Gas[29] or the American Biogas Council[30] to see if there’s someone who would deliver RNG to your fueling location. A map of RNG production facilities is here[31].


Travel Practices

Although the use of transportation for travel may be beyond the control of a fleet manager, the organization might want to incorporate attention to the fuel used when traveling. In addition to the suggestions provided above, you might want to give priority to airlines that use renewable fuel and let them know that is a factor in making travel arrangements.  Some airlines are providing options for customers, instead of buying off sets, they can pay into a fund that supports research, development and deployment of renewable aviation fuels. For example the Nordic countries’ Fly Green Fund[32] and KLM’s Corporate BioFuel Programme[33] or use Lufthansa’s calculator.

If planes are part of the fleet for freight or business, SkyNRG’s Board Now program provides an opportunity reduce business air travel emissions and at the same time contribute to the development of a new production facility for sustainable aviation fuel. Board Now enables companies to contribute directly to the development of the sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) industry. Organizations that join Board Now, commit themselves for a period of 5 years to the purchase of SAF. With this commitment, they reduce their own business air travel CO2 emissions, contribute to the development of a new production facility and have their investments used to cover the price difference between sustainable aviation fuel and conventional jet fuel.

Future Fuels

In addition to bio-based fuels, researchers are working on making fuel from flue gas, recycling plastics to chemicals that can be fuels or building blocks of other products like plastics, fibers, etc.  And other fuels like renewable DME that can be used in compression ignition engines are under development.


Policy Considerations

A number of states or municipalities have policies that promote the sale and use of biofuels.  Some states follow or are planning to follow some of California’s policies, incorporating a version of that state’s model low carbon fuel standard.

Without strong policy, other than transitioning to increased use of lower cost higher ethanol blends, transitioning to renewable fuels may incur additional costs.  Unless the prices of fossil natural gas and petroleum/oil go up or a price is put on carbon or a policy like California’s low carbon fuel standard is implemented, fossil fuels will have a price advantage.

This graph from the California Air Resources Board regarding the progress of the state’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard illustrates the benefit of transitioning to renewable transportation fuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, renewable diesel and renewable natural gas (biomethane) to achieve the greatest near-term progress to climate change mitigation goals.


The Advanced Biofuels USA website has gathered articles that describe others experiences defossilizing fleets.  We encourage you to learn from others, to avoid “reinventing the wheel.”[34]



Vehicle Acquisition and Fuel Use Requirements for Federal Fleets

Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, 75% of new light-duty vehicles acquired by covered federal fleets must be alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). As amended in January 2008, Section 301 of EPAct 1992 defines AFVs to include hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and advanced lean burn vehicles. Fleets that use fuel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel (B20) may earn credits toward their annual requirements. Federal fleets are also required to use alternative fuels in dual-fuel vehicles unless the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determines an agency's vehicle requests qualify for waivers; grounds for a waiver include lack of alternative fuel availability and cost restrictions (per EPAct 2007, section 701).

Additional requirements for federal fleets were included in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, including fleet management plan requirements (Section 142), low greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting vehicle acquisition requirements (Section 141), and renewable fuel infrastructure installation requirements (Section 246). For more information, see the Federal Fleet Management website.

Executive Order 13834, issued in May 2018, requires the Secretary of Energy (Secretary), in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, the Administrator of General Services, and the heads of other agencies as appropriate, to review the existing federal vehicle fleet requirements. In April 2019, the Secretary provided a report(PDF) to the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget detailing opportunities to optimize federal fleet performance, reduce associated costs, and streamline reporting and compliance requirements. Specifically, the report recommends that federal agencies identify and implement strategies to:

  • Right-size the fleet
  • Reduce vehicle miles traveled
  • Implement more fuel efficient vehicles
  • Align the implementation of AFVs and associated fueling infrastructure

To track progress toward meeting AFV acquisition and fuel use requirements, federal fleets must report on their percent alternative fuel increase compared to the fiscal year 2005 baseline, alternative fuel use as a percentage of total fuel consumption, AFV acquisitions as a percentage of vehicle acquisitions, and fleet-wide miles per gasoline gallon equivalent of petroleum fuels.

(Reference 42 U.S. Code 13212 and Executive Order 13834(PDF))

Point of Contact
Federal Energy Management Program
U.S. Department of Energy

Vehicle Acquisition and Fuel Use Requirements for Private and Local Government Fleets

Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was directed to determine whether private and local government fleets should be mandated to acquire alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In January 2004, DOE published a final rule announcing its decision not to implement an AFV acquisition mandate for private and local government fleets. In response to a March 2006 ruling by a U.S. District Court, DOE issued a subsequent final rulemaking on the new Replacement Fuel Goal in March 2007, which extended the EPAct 1992 goal to 2030. The goal is to achieve a domestic production capacity for replacement fuels sufficient to replace 30% of the U.S. motor fuel consumption. In March 2008, DOE issued its determination not to implement a fleet compliance mandate for private and local government fleets, concluding that such a mandate is not necessary to achieve the Replacement Fuel Goal. For more information on the Private and Local Government Fleet Rule compliance, visit the EPAct Private and Local Government Fleet Determination website. (Reference 42 U.S. Code 13257)

Vehicle Acquisition and Fuel Use Requirements for State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets

Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, as amended, certain state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) as a portion of their annual light-duty vehicle acquisitions. Compliance is required by fleets that operate, lease, or control 50 or more light-duty vehicles within the United States. Of those 50 vehicles, at least 20 must be used primarily within a single Metropolitan Statistical Area/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area, and those same 20 vehicles must also be capable of being centrally fueled for the fleet to be subject to the regulatory requirements.

Under Standard Compliance, the AFVs that covered fleets acquire help them achieve compliance, with each AFV acquired earning the fleet one AFV-acquisition credit. Covered fleets may earn additional credits for AFVs earned in excess of their requirements, and these credits may be banked for future use toward compliance or traded with other fleets. Additionally, fleets that use fuel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel (B20) in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles may earn credits toward their annual AFV-acquisition requirements. A fleet may also earn credits that may be used toward compliance or banked once the fleet achieves compliance for investments in alternative fuel infrastructure, mobile non-road equipment, and emerging technologies associated with certain electric drive vehicle technologies.

Fleets may also opt into Alternative Compliance, which allows fleets the option to choose a petroleum reduction path in lieu of acquiring AFVs under Standard Compliance. Interested fleets must obtain from DOE a waiver from Standard Compliance by submitting a plan that demonstrates a path by which they will achieve a certain level of petroleum reduction specific to their fleet composition.

For more information, visit the EPAct State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets website.

(Reference 42 U.S. Code 13251 and 13263a, and 10 CFR 490)

Point of Contact
EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities
U.S. Department of Energy

Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation

The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) must allocate the incremental cost of purchasing alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) across the entire fleet of vehicles distributed by GSA. This mandate also applies to other federal agencies that procure vehicles for federal fleets. For more information, see the GSA's AFV website. (Reference 42 U.S. Code 13212 (c))

Point of Contact
U.S. General Services Administration
Phone: (703) 605-5630


[1] Songwriters: R. Benson; Dance With Who Brung You lyrics © Bob-a-lew Songs

[2] U.S. Department of Energy, Executive Order 13514 Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook,

[3] U.S. Department of Energy, Executive Order 13514 Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook 

[4] Kozak, Bob, Advanced Biofuels USA, Walking the Walk in Advanced Biofuels USA’s “E30 and Beyond Retrofitted” Focus

[5]Kozak, Robert, New Engine Technologies Could Produce Similar Mileage for All Ethanol Fuel Mixtures, Advanced Biofuels USA






[11] What’s in Our Gasoline Is Killing Us:  Mobile Source Air Toxics and The Threat to Public Health

[12] EESI ; The Consumer and Fuel Retailer Choice Act: Environmental, Health & Consumer Considerations, EESI; New Studies Show Ethanol Reduces Emissions And Improves Air Quality, Fix Our Fuel

[13]  New Engine Technologies Could Produce Similar Mileage for All Ethanol Fuel Mixtures


Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance  Ratcliff, M.A., Burton, J., Sindler, P., Christensen, E. et al., “Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0218, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0218.

[14] EESI

[15] EESI Fact Sheet - The Consumer and Fuel Retailer Choice Act  -- Environmental, Health & Consumer Considerations

[16] Here’s more information:

[17] Ron Cascone and Steven Slome, FAME Is Fleeting: FAEE as a More Sustainable Option for Biodiesel in the US: Filling the Tank on the Road to the Future,  Nexant/Biofuels Digest

[18] Rapier, Robert, R-Squared Energy, Renewable Diesel Primer,




[22] U.S. Department of Energy, Biodiesel Codes, Standards and Safety,

[23] Lane, Jim.  “Bioenergy PROFITS Princicples: How the Government Defines Renewable Diesel and Biodiesel for Tax Credits and Engine Acceptance.” Biofuels Digest 8 Jan. 2010. Web-page.



[26]For example, Villanova: and others: Lane, Jim,  March Madness: These Colleges are Mad for Biodiesel,Biofuels Digest; Sims, Bryan, Fueling Education Loud and Clear,  AIDB’s biodiesel program provides unparalleled work experience for its students Biodiesel Magazine; High School Students from Arizona Charter Academy are Taking Part in Innovative Biodiesel Project,;


[28] Eggleston, Michael, What Happened to Anaerobic Digestion in Rhode Island? Advanced Biofuels USA,








*Joanne Ivancic serves as the executive director of Advanced Biofuels USA.

This article, updated, is available in PDF. How to defossilize your fleet: Suggestions for Fleet Managers Fleets article v6 AdvancedBiofuelsUSA

Note updates to article as of 8/23/19 include changing "lower heat of vaporization" for ethanol to "higher heat of vaporization."  Update 10/4/19 added information in the travel section.  See updated PDF for latest changes.


The Renewable Fuels Guide: Helping fleet operators cut carbon emissions (Zemo Partnership)

Austrian Airlines Enables Choice of Sustainable Aviation Fuel (Austrian Airlines/Biobased Diesel Daily)

WEF’s Clean Skies initiative unveils new SAF certificate system for corporate travellers (GreenAir Online)

Singapore Airlines Group launches voluntary carbon offset programme for travellers and cargo customers (GreenAir Online)

Leading SAF Provider SkyNRG Partners with Climate-Tech Company CHOOOSE to Launch SAF Solution for Airlines and Travel Companies (SkyNRG)

Carney-Led Climate Group Asks Investors to ‘Make Good’ on Net Zero: GFANZ says it provides template for how financial firms can help the global economy pivot to clean energy from fossil fuels. (Bloomberg)

Management: What Will It Take to Become More Sustainable? (Business Aviation Insider)

City of Fort Wayne - Better For Fleets. Cleaner For Communities. (B20 Club of Indiana; WATCH VIDEO)

Planning electrification could take fleets years, report finds:A new guidance report from NACFE --  Some operations could take up to 15 years to set up (Fleet Owner)


Comments are closed.

More than 40,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 40,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors
FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters
Advanced Clean Fleets Rule 100 octane 100% SAF (Sustainable Aviation Fuel) 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election 2022 Election 2022 US Senate and House Campaign 2024 Election 2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 40B 45Q 45V 45Z 48C 4th generation fuels 7% solution 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) abu Abu Dhabi acacia acetate acetic acid acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act adsorption Advanced Biofuel Payment Program advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production Advanced Clean Cars II Rule (ACC and ACCII) Advanced Clean Trucks Rule advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerobic digestion aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agrivoltaic/agrovoltaic agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy air quality Aircraft engine emissions airports Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alcohol-to-diesel alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkaline exchange membrane (AEM) alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) ammonia terminal amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion and Energy Use in Transportation Model Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust apple Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentiina Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-C ARPA-E ARPA-Terra arrandi artificial intelligence Aruba Asia asphalt/bitumen ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D396 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM D975 ASTM E3050 Denatured Ethanol for Cooking ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada atmosphere Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation aviation fuel (SAF) benefits aviation fuel (SAF) price aviation fuel (SAF) production aviation fuel (SAF) pumps/delivery aviation fuel (SAF) tax credit aviation fuel (SAF) terminal Aviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) Aviation Gasoline/AvGas avocado award awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B10 B100 B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B16 B19 B2 B20 B24 B25 B3 B30 B30RD10 B33 B35 B4 B40 B49 B5 B50 B6 B7 B70 B75 B8 B80 B98 B99 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors BIGoil billion ton study bio Bio LPG (Bio Liquid Petroleum Gas) bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy Bio-CNG pumps Bio-CNG/RNG terminal bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG terminal bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals biociiesel bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodies biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel pipeline biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioelectrochemical conversion bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) biofoundry Biofuel biofuel cells biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuel production biofuel tax credit Biofuels Directive biofuels education Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline pumps biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons biohydrogen BioIsoprene biomanufacturing biomass Biomass Carbon Removal and Storage (BiCRS) Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene bioprospecting bioref BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) old 9003 Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance 9003 Program BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch bitter orange black carbon black grease black liquor black locust black soldier fly Blend wall blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock blockchain blue carbon boat fuel boiler fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 Brachiaria bracken brackish water brash Brassica Brazil breweries brine British Columbia broker brown grease brownfields Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses Business and Industry Program (B&I) business law business resources Business/General Aviation butadiene butandeiol (bio-BDO) Butane butanediol butanol emissions butanol/biobutanol butyl acetate butylene butyric acid by c C1 C2 C21 C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cactus pear cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canad Canada Canary Islands canary reed grass canarygrass candle nut cannabis canola canola straw canola/rapeseed cap-and-invest cap-and-trade capybara capybras carbohydrates carbon carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber carbon insets Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon pipeline carbon price carbon recycling carbon removal carbon sink carbon standard carbon tax Carbon tax border adjustments carbon tax-and-dividend carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carbon-14 testing carbon-efficient fuels carbon/CO2 sequestration carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata carinata/brassica carinata carob CAS Registry cashew cashew apple CASI Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattails cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) CBG (compressed biogas) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program Certificates of Origin (COs) certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 chemical-looping hydrogen method Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chp chromium chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel clean fuel production tax credit Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart/conservation agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover cmelina CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location Co-op Extension co-operative co-processing co-products CO2 neutral fuels coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Coast Guard coastal habitat conservation coastal hay cobalt cock's foot coco cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold flow cold-tolerance college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning commo Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression ratios compression-ignition engine computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology Cook Islands cook stoves cooking fuel cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 COP28 copper coppice cordgrass corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup corn-based products corn/maize Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D20 (20%DME) D5 (5%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) doe Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandate mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) methanol-to-jetfuel Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm trunk sap palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peach shell peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests pet food petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pine beetle pine needles pine nut pineapple pinion Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin (PHMSA) pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poand podcasts Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propane/renewable propane pumps propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R Factor R33 R5 R99/RD99 rabbits race radiata pine radish leaves Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rain tree rainforest ranchers RAND rare earth metal/critical minerals RD10 RD100 RD20 RD3 RD30 RD50 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable diesel pipelines Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/RED III) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) REnova RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program Republic of Congo repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment Reverse Water-gas Shift RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron Ricardo rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass rye straw s saccharification SAF pipeline SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK sal tree Salicornia salt water salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater seaweed cultivation Seaweed/Macroalgae second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks seed-to-wheel Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shellfish shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silage silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration Small Business Innovatin Research (SBIR) small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Southeast Asia Southern Africa Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soy meal soybean prices soybeans Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar Sugar Beets/Energy Beets Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugar standards sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw sugars sugars-to-fats sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Surface Transportation Board Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum sweetgum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas (synthesis gas) syngas/gas fermentation SYNHH synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung Tamarix tank cars tank-to-wheel tanker trucks tankers Tanzania tar sands tariffs taro Tasmania tax benefit tax credit tax incentives tax parity tax policy taxes tea teach teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training tech transfer technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tugboats tung tunicate Tunisia Tunsia Turkey U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) UK Emission Trade Scheme (UK ETS) Ukraine Ukriane UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO UNIDO (United National Industrial Development Organization) United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations (UN) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urban sprawl urbanization Uruguay US Agency for International Development (USAID) US Army US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission USAC USAID usda USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties ustain Utah utilities utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont vetiver Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virgin Islands. virgin oils Virginia viruses vlsfo VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth water policy water pollution water quality water treatment watermeal watermelon wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa West Java West Virginia Western Australia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheat prices wheat straw wheatgrass whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin Wisdonsin women Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yield yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc zoning

© 2008-2023 Copyright Advanced BioFuels USA. All Rights reserved.