HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil)

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Decarbonizing the Shipping Industry

by Wily Salim (LEC Partners/Biofuels Digest) ... Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), a more dense and more viscous liquid than diesel, is the current dominant fuel used in the marine shipping industry. This is because HFO is relatively affordable, has high energy density,

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VPS Publishes Paper on Importance of Testing for Accurate Energy Content of Marine Biofuels

(VPS/Biobased Diesel Daily) VPS announced Jan. 15 that it has carried out significant research across numerous test parameters that enables potentially problematic characteristics of marine biofuels to be measured and controlled. VPS research has shown that by using these test methods, biofuels

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Green Ammonia Could Decarbonize 60% of Global Shipping When Offered at Just 10 Regional Fuel Ports

(IOP Publishing) A study published today in IOP Publishing’s journal Environmental Research: Infrastructure and Sustainability has found that green ammonia could be used to fulfil the fuel demands of over 60% of global shipping by targeting just the top 10 regional fuel ports. Researchers

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South Korea to Set SAF, Bio-Bunker Standards from 2024 Based on Biofuel Trials

by Samyak Pandey (S&P Global) Country commits to adopt marine biofuel by 2025, SAF by 2026; Six SAF demonstrations completed between Seoul, Los Angeles; GS Caltex agrees in June to supply Korean Air with SAF South Korea will set quality standards for sustainable aviation

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Making the Case for Marine Biofuels

by Michael Kass (Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Biodiesel Magazine)  The maritime industry is one of the most important transportation sectors, with more than 80% of all goods shipped via large container or cargo vessels that are powered using residual heavy fuel oil

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Global: Virgin Voyages Completes First Marine Biofuel Trial

by Rhys Berry (Bunkerspot)  Virgin Voyages has announced the successful completion of its first marine biofuel bunker trial. The brand’s Barcelona-based vessel, Valiant Lady, bunkered the fuel – a combination of 20% used cooking oil and 80% conventional heavy fuel oil - on

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Japan's 1st: Coastal Vessel Successfully Operated Using Biofuel Mixed Waste Cooking Oil Directly with Fuel Oil

(Mitsui O.S.K. Lines and MOL Coastal Shipping)  Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. (MOL; President & CEO: Takeshi Hashimoto) and its group company MOL Coastal Shipping, Ltd. (President: Hiroshi Kobayashi) today announced that an MOL Coastal Shipping-operated 499 GT coastal vessel, the "Tetsuun

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Without Green Hydrogen Policy, Shipping and Aviation Will Never Get to Zero Emissions

(Sasha Coalition) All pathways to truly sustainable fuels for the shipping and aviation sectors require green hydrogen (produced from renewables), with some of them requiring carbon dioxide from sustainable sources like direct air capture (DAC), according to a report released today

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MWA 2023: Biofuels Are Now 'All about the Feedstocks' as Shipowners and Suppliers Demonstrate the Operational Benefits

by Ian Taylor (Bunkerspot)  Summarising the current state of the marine biofuels market, Dirk Kronemeijer, Founder and Board Member of GoodFuels, told Maritime Week Americas (MWA) delegates: ‘Five years ago, it was all about finding the clients. Today, it is about

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ABS Analyses Potential of Biofuel Glending on Improvement to CII Ratings

by Panos Koutsourakis (ABS/Hellenic Shipping) With reporting of data in compliance with the IMO’s Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) regulation well underway, shipowners and operators are focussed on how to optimise their operations and gain improvement in CII ratings. The options

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Sener Completes the Design of a New Sustainable Biofuel Tanker Capable of Capturing CO2 from Other Vessels

(Sener) The aim of this new type of vessel is not only to provide a solution for supplying biofuels, but also to help decarbonize the naval industry by mitigating and reducing the emissions from its fleets. The design is set

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Successful First Phase of Engine Testing Confirms Material Improvements in Efficiency and Emissions Reductions with bioMSAR™

(RNS/Investegate/Quadrise/Vertoro) Quadrise Plc (AIM:QED), the supplier of innovative energy solutions for a cleaner planet, and biorefinery specialists, Vertoro BV ("Vertoro") have been collaborating to develop a cost-effective supplement or alternative to glycerine in Quadrise's bioMSAR™ fuel. The trials follow the Joint Development Agreement ("JDA")

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Toyota Tshusho Begins Japan's 1st Continuous Biofuel Supply to Ships

(Renewables Now) Toyota Tsusho Corp (TYO:8015) announced on Wednesday (May 10, 2023) that, alongside group company Toyotsu Energy Corp, launched Japan's first continuous supply of biodiesel blended fuel to ships on a commercial basis. Since April, the biofuel is being delivered to

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MAN ES’ 175D Engine Gets Approval for Operation on Biofuels

by Fatima Bahtić (Offshore Energy)  German engine manufacturer MAN Energy Solutions (MAN ES) has revealed that its MAN 175D engine is formally approved for operation on biofuels. As informed, the approval applies to all standard biofuels such as hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)

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Lignin: A Way towards the Sustainable Biorefinery

Siddhartha Pal (Praj Industries/Biofuels Digest) Various sources of lignocellulosic biomass, such as forestry waste and agricultural feedstocks, are available all over the world. The Lignocellulosic biomass consists of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose form a network

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ArcelorMittal Wins EnviroLys Award for Integrating Biofuel at Port-Cartier Pellet Plant

(ArcelorMittal Exploitation minière Canada s.e.n.c. /CISION) ArcelorMittal Mining Canada G.P. ("ArcelorMittal") has won an EnviroLys Award in the ICI+ Green Project category for introducing the use of pyrolytic oil at its Port-Cartier plant. The EnviroLys Awards recognize private expertise in the green economy,

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MSC and Eastern Pacific Are Launching New Biofuel Trials

(The Maritime Executive) MSC and Eastern Pacific are both embarking on new tests for biofuels as the shipping industry continues to look for near-term alternatives to help with their efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Biofuels continue to draw the attention of

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MSC Presses ahead with Glycerine-Based Biofuel Trials

by Adis Ajdin (Splash 247) Cyprus-based MSC Shipmanagement a subsidiary of Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC) has signed a framework agreement with London-listed alternative-fuels company Quadrise Fuels International to trial its emulsion fuel and glycerine-based marine biofuel. The deal will see MSC Shipmanagement

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South Korea's Dansuk Exports SMF to Europe

by Ryan Ang (Argus Media)  South Korean biodiesel producer Dansuk Industrial exported this month 3,000t of sustainable marine fuel (SMF) to the Netherlands, marking the company's first export to Europe. Dansuk produces 50,000 t/yr of SMF at its Pyeongtaek and Siheung factories

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World’s First Containership that Uses Synthetic LNG Drives Great GHG Drop

(MAN Energy Solutions) MAN Energy Solutions reported that the 1,036-TEU container ship, ‘ElbBLUE’ – the former ‘Wes Amelie’ – has reduced its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 27% by operating on a blend of climate-neutral, synthetic LNG and conventional LNG,

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The Shipping Industry Looks for Green Fuels

by Mitch Jacoby (Chemical & Engineering News) Transporting goods by sea contributes significantly to global carbon emissions. Switching from traditional petroleum-based marine fuels to low-carbon alternatives could drastically shrink shipping’s climate impact -- ... Maersk and other shippers are working

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Sucros Oy to Switch to LNG and Liquefied Biogas with Gasum

(Bioenergy Insightl) Finnish sugar company Sucros Oy will switch from using heavy fuel oil and coal to LNG and liquefied biogas (LBG) at its sugar beet factory in Säkylä. Supplied by Gasum, the fuel will help Sucros, part of Nordzucker,

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Mitsui OSK Lines Operates Bunkering Vessel on Biodiesel Blend above 30%

by Ron Kotrba (Biobased Diesel Daily) Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd. announced Feb. 9 that the bunkering vessel Techno Star, owned and operated by its group company MOL Techno-Trade Ltd., has been successfully operated using biodiesel fuel supplied by Aburatou Shoji K.K. The

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BioLNG, Renewable Synthetic LNG: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to SEA-LNG

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest)  2021 brought significant progress on increasing production of bioLNG and renewable synthetic LNG and leading the move to a cleaner future for the deep-sea maritime industry. BioLNG from sustainable biomass resources is increasingly available

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Trials Using Biofuels on Spliethoff Group Vessels

(Spliethoff) Spliethoff Group’s constant striving to reduce its CO2 emissions has led to two trials using biofuel on its vessels. The first trial took place between June and November last year on BigLift Shipping’s HTV BigLift Baffin. The vessel was supplied with

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Energies' Special Issue "Hydrothermal Liquefaction for Aviation and Maritime Sustainable Fuels"

(Energies) ... Aviation and maritime, key components of the transport fuel area, will thus be pillars of future sustainable energy scenarios and thus prioritized in policymaking, being the most difficult sectors to electrify. These applications, however, present very peculiar and different technological

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Charting a Course toward Cleaner Shipping

by Christina Nunez  (Industry Today) Research suggests that swapping heavy fuel with fuel made from wood waste, waste fats, oils and greases could cut planet-warming emissions. ... Using batteries instead of heavy fuel oil to propel gigantic cargo ships, which annually

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Progress towards Biofuels for Marine Shipping

by Tor I. Simonsen, Noah D. Weiss, Susan van Dyk, Elke van Thuijl, Sune Tjalfe Thomsen (IEA Bioenergy Task 39) Status and identification of barriers for utilization of advanced biofuels in the marine sector -- Biomass has the potential to fully

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Chevron Lummus Global Introduces ISOTERRA Renewable Fuel Technology

(Chevron Lummus Global)  Chevron Lummus Global LLC (CLG) today announced the expansion of its technology portfolio with the addition of its new ISOTERRA process for renewable diesel and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) from biomass sources. The two-step process involves hydrodeoxygenation

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How Feasible Are Biofuels in Marine Applications?: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Marine Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Do biofuels have potential for the maritime sector? Should BETO implement a biofuels program for large ocean-going vessels to meet the International Maritime Organization’s carbon reduction goals (a 40% reduction relative to 2008 levels by

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Biofuels Offer a Cost-Effective Way to Lower Shipping Emissions

by Christina Nunez (Argonne National Laboratory) Swapping heavy fuel oil with fuel made from wood waste, waste fats, oils and greases could drastically cut planet-warming emissions from the shipping industry by 40 to 93%. -- Marine shipping traffic has grown steadily

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Quadrise Says MSAR Clean Fuels Comparable to Conventional Liquid Fuels

(Hellenic Shipping News) Quadrise, the supplier of MSAR® and bioMSAR™ emulsion technology and fuels, which are low-cost, cleaner alternatives to heavy fuel oil and biofuels, is pleased to report that test results of bioMSAR™ on a medium speed 4-stroke Wärtsilä diesel

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Biofuels Offer a Cost-Effective Way to Lower Shipping Emissions

(Argonne National Laboratory/Tech Xplore)  Marine shipping traffic has grown steadily over the past decade—and so have the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon emissions from ships grew almost 10% between 2012 and 2018, and the industry is a large consumer of

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Anchors Aweigh: Examining Biofuels for Maritime Shipping

by Tim Theiss (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) A multi-laboratory team of scientists led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is studying the feasibility of using energy-dense biofuels such as biocrude and bio-oil to meet new emissions regulations for cargo ships. Cargo vessels

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Giving up on Climate Change? EU Says No Way – Invests $140M in Decarbonizing Projects

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest)  ... The good news is for the first time since the creation of the Innovation Fund, the EU’s latest investment of €118 million (about $140 million) into 32 small innovative projects located in 14 EU Member

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How Viable Is Bio-Oil for Marine Transport?: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Biofuels for Marine Engines

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Determining the technical feasibility of using biofuels, especially bio-oils, for marine engine use, understanding the efficacy of biofuels in marine transport, looking at the impact on fuel handling systems and impact of bio-oils blended with

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Maersk Carbon Tax Proposal May Provide Advantage

by Stefka Wechsler  (Argus Media)  Danish shipping company Maersk's proposal for a $450/t tax on carbon could give it a competitive advantage over others in the industry given its size and financial stability. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) requires that vessels cut their

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Understanding Energy Density of Future Fuels Could Be Key to Clearer Decarbonization Decision-Making

(SEA-LNG) Just as like for like full lifecycle GHG comparisons of future fuels are essential, accurate comparisons of energy density are also vital --  Greater understanding around the comparative pricing, vessel performance and procurement of marine fuels is required to avoid

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DOE Researchers Examine Biofuels for Maritime Shipping

(U.S. Department of Energy/Biomass Magazine) A multi-laboratory team of scientists led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory is studying the feasibility of using energy-dense biofuels such as biocrude and bio-oil to meet new emissions regulations for cargo ships. Cargo vessels ferrying commodities around

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Environmental Concerns Propel Research Into Marine Biofuels

(CaymanMamaNews/Globe Newswire/National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  A global effort to reduce sulfur and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships has researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other Department of Energy facilities investigating the potential use of marine biofuels. “Biofuels

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Biodiesel, Ethanol, Sustainable Aviation & Maritime Fuels: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to IEA Renewables

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The International Energy Agency published “Renewables 2020”, an analysis and forecast through 2025 of the impact of Covid-19 on renewables in the electricity, heat and transport sectors. We pulled the transport and biofuels pieces so

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Exxon Mulls Closure of Norway's Slagen Refinery as Region's Clean Fuel Shift Continues

by Robert Perkins and Elsa Turner (S&P Global)  Cites refining overcapacity, falling demand for fuels; Slagen processes North Sea crude, major fuel exporter; European refiners looking to biofuels, hydrogen projects ExxonMobil is considering closing its 116,000 b/d Slagen refinery in Norway

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5 Key Tech Takeaways: Highlights from Tech Presented at ABLC 2020

by Iacovos Vasalos (Center for Research and Technology-Hellas/Biofuels Digest) This report summarizes highlights from the ABLC 2020 Biofuels Digest Virtual Conference, which took place in July 7-10, 2020. (And if you haven’t already registered for this year’s ABLC Digital on May 3-7,

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Every 10% of Bio-LNG Drop-In Gives Another Two Years ‘Runway Extension’ for GHG Reduction Compliance

(SEA_LNG) New analysis from SEA-LNG, the coalition for accelerating LNG as a marine fuel, has determined that for every 10% of bio-LNG dropped in and blended with LNG as a marine fuel, a vessel can achieve two extra years’ compliance with

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Biofuel Opportunities for Marine Sector: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to ORNL

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Mike Kass shared this illuminating slide guide at ABLC 2020 as part of the marine and heavy duty biofuel opportunities panel. Dive into marine cargo vessel fuels, the advantages of using

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Competitive Edge: GoodFuels, GoodShipping

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Dirk Kronemeijer, CEO of GoodFuels / GoodShipping – GoodNRG Group told The Digest that GoodFuels focuses on marine biofuels and “currently we are a world market leader in this fast-growing segment with the top 50

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Netherlands Examines Biofuels’ Law Changes to Meet RED II Targets

(Biofuels International)  The Dutch government is looking to make alterations to its biofuels legislation in order to hit EU RED II targets. Companies that deliver fuels to the transport sector in the Netherlands are obliged to deliver an annually increasing

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MOL and euglena Co. Conduct Sea Trial of MOL Group Tugboat Using euglena Biodiesel Fuel for the First time in Port of Nagoya

(Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd.) Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. (MOL; President & CEO: Junichiro Ikeda) and euglena Co., Ltd. (Euglena; President: Mitsuru Izumo; Headquarters: Minato-ku, Tokyo) today announced a successful sea trial in the Port of Nagoya of the MOL Group-operated

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Brazil Eyes Sustainable Shipping Fuel Market

(Argus Media) Brazil is looking to ride a wave of sustainable marine fuel as part of the shipping industry's effort to halve maritime carbon emissions by 2050. Talks are still underway on which new fuels will dominate the international shipping industry in

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Titan LNG Receives EU Funding for Biogas Bunkering Project

(Bioenergy Insight) Dutch gas supplier Titan LNG has signed a deal to receive European Union funding for its Bio2Bunker biogas project.  Titan LNG, a major supplier of liquefied natural gas to the marine and industrial markets in Europe has been

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Preem Withdraws Expansion Plans for Lysekil Refinery

by Nicholas Woodroof  (Hydrocarbon Engineering) Preem’s Board has announced that, in the light of new economic circumstances, the Residue Oil Conversion Complex (ROCC) project will be cancelled and the 2016 Environmental Permit Application at Lysekil Refinery, Sweden, will be withdrawn in favour

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DHL Decarbonizes All 'Less-Than-Container' Load Shipments in Ocean Freight Globally

(DHL)  DHL Global Forwarding is the first logistics service provider to offer truly climate neutral ocean freight shipments without additional costs; Thanks to advanced biofuels, DHL Global Forwarding customers benefit from a reduction of their carbon footprint; Tim Scharwath, CEO

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Hopper Dredger First to Sail 2,000 Hours on 100% Sustainable Marine Biofuel

(MAN Energy Solutions/PortNews)  Jan De Nul Group recently announced that its trailing suction hopper dredger, 'Alexander von Humboldt', had completed 2,000 hours operation on 100% renewable, second-generation Biofuel Oil (BFO). The vessel is powered by 2 × MAN 12V32/40 and 1 ×

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Clean Fuel Standard a Second Carbon Tax, says Saskatchewan’s Minister of Energy and Resources

by Brian Zinchuk (MSN/The Canadian Press/Estevan Mercury) In its efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30 million tonnes per year, the federal government is working developing a new “Clean Fuel Standard,” and that is ringing alarm bells for the

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Solving the Low Carbon Shipping Fuel and Energy Algorithm – Quickly!

by Adrian Tolson (BLUE Insight/Biofuels Digest) BLUE Insight’s Low Carbon Shipping Fuels and Energy Guide 2020 is a market first assessment of the leading low carbon marine fuels with potential to replace fossil fuels as the marine fuel of the future and analyses

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TU/e-led Consortium IDEALFUEL for the Development of Renewable Maritime Fuels Kicks off

(Eindhoven University of Technology)  EU-funded project aims to develop new production methods for sustainable maritime fuels.  -- Many ships use heavy fuel oils that contain large amounts of sulphur and nitrogen leading to the emission of greenhouse gases and other damaging

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15 Newest Projects – Who’s Got What Underway?

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest) While the world may be at a standstill,there are still many projects going on and moving forward. But where are these projects? Who’s involved? How far along are they? What are they working on? From

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VTT to Assess Bio- and Waste-Based Oils Suitable for Power Plants and Ships

(VTT)  In a three-year Business Finland BioFlex project, VTT and partners are exploring how suitable fuel oils made from biomass and waste plastics are for power plants and ship diesel engines. The aim is to determine the most ecologically and

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WinGD Advances Clean Fuel Research with Flexible Injector Concept

(WinGD) WinGD (Winterthur Gas & Diesel) has bolstered its investment in fuel research with the development of a flexible injection system. In a whitepaper released today, ‘Flexible Injector to Advance Alternative Fuels Research’, the engine designers describe how the concept

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The Competitive Edge: Sweet Gazoil Inc.

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ... Sweet Gazoil (SGO) was founded with the goal of protecting the environment by providing cost-effective technologies to treat mixed waste plastics, heavy and used/waste oils, and other waste hydrocarbons. SGO has developed and patented an

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Can They? Should They?: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to DOE’s Biofuels in Marine Engines

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The fuels market and demand for jet fuels is big, but what about the marine sector? After all, over 90% of all goods are shipped via marine vessels fueled with high sulfur (3.5 wt.%) heavy residual

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Biofuels for the Marine Shipping Sector: An Overview and Analysis of Sector Infrastructure, Fuel Technologies and Regulations

by Chia-wen Carmen Hsieh and Claus Felby (University of Copenhagen/IEA Bioenergy) The merchant shipping sector is one of the mayor players in world trade. More than 80% of all goods are transported via international shipping routes. The sector consumes more

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flow cold-tolerance college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning commo Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement/engagement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression ratios compression-ignition engine computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology Cook Islands cook stoves cooking fuel cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 COP28 COP30 copper coppice cordgrass corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup corn-based products corn/maize Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality county cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D20 (20%DME) D5 (5%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Dehydration Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency egg shell Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrofuels (e-fuels) prices electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts Formate fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect Global South global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ HDO-SAK (hydro deoxygenated synthetic aromatic kerosene) health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 HVO30 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrid ships hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps/fueling stations hydrogen tax credit hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning machinery macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses 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