If you find this site useful, please

Advanced Biofuels USA: promoting the understanding, development and use of advanced biofuels around the world.

Advanced BioFuels USA

Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2

Agriculture/Food Processing Residues nonfield crop, Alcohol/Ethanol/Isobutanol, Algae/Other Aquatic Organisms/Seaweed, Asia, Aviation Fuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)), BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production, Biorefinery/Fuel Production Infrastructure, Bolivia, Books Web Sites etc, Brazil, Business, Business News/Analysis, California, Canada, China, Colorado, Denmark, European Union (EU), Feedstock, Feedstocks, Field/Orchard/Plantation Crops/Residues, Finland, Forestry/Wood/Residues/Waste, France, Funding/Financing/Investing, Indiana, Indonesia, Infrastructure, Iowa, Italy, Kansas, Louisiana, Marketing/Markets and Sales, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, North Dakota, Not Agriculture, Oklahoma, Opinions, Paraguay, Poland, Policy, Precursors/Biointermediates, Process, R & D Focus, Resources, Singapore, Spain, Sustainability, Texas, UK (United Kingdom)
August 26, 2021

(Emerging Markets Online)  New study! Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. (249 pages, August 2021) focuses on low-carbon feedstock availability, technology pathways for low carbon renewable diesel, and sustainable aviation production.

Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) 2030  covers four key areas:

1) renewable diesel producer case studies

2) feedstocks for renewable diesel

3) technology pathways for producing various feedstocks

4) in-depth analysis of the Sustainable Aviation Fuels producers and markets (mostly commercially made at renewable diesel facilities, currently, and at dozens of demo and pilot facilities in demonstration quantities).

 

The study, and presentation summary, highlights

a) new development opportunities for aviation fuels

b) feedstock availability and partnerships for growth

d) future options for using non-FOG based feedstocks from low-carbon low-cost waste sources (from trees, municipal solid waste, agricultural waste, food waste, farm waste)

d) advanced technologies for turning bio-crude, and syncrude into renewable diesel and SAF (sustainable aviation) fuels. READ MORE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. GLOBAL DEMAND DRIVERS FOR RENEWABLE DIESEL 
1.1 New GHG and Low-Carbon Fuels Regulations Bring New Opportunities
1.1.1. Clean Cities Transport Initiative Opportunities in U.S., Europe, Americas, Asia
1.1.2. Sustainable Aviation Initiatives for COP21 Corsia (U.N.) Program
1.1.3. Sustainable Shipping Initiatives for IMO (U.N.) 2020 Regulations
1.1.4. Feedstock Opportunities to Produce Low-Carbon Fuels for Emerging Markets like California
1.2 Low Carbon Fuel Regulations Bring Disruptive Challenges, Opportunities to Producers
1.2.1 Change and Transition from 2020 Targets to 2030 COP21 GHG Targets
1.2.2 New GHG Targets Bring Opportunities for Bio/Renewable Diesel (California, EU, Canada)
1.2.3 New GHG Targets Bring Challenges to 1st Generation Biodiesel Producers (Soy, Palm)
1.2.4 New GHG Regulations Bring Opportunities to Refiners, Blenders, Obligated Parties

 

2. SUMMARY OF GLOBAL RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCTION
2.1 Review of Renewable Diesel and SAF Demand Projections
2.2 Analysis of Global Renewable Diesel Production by Region, Location and Capacity
2.3 Top 10 Global Renewable Diesel Producers – Comparative Analysis by Production Volumes
2.4 Current Global Renewable Diesel Producers by Capacity, MT, Gallons, and Location, 2021
2.5 Planned Global Renewable Diesel Expansions by Capacity, MT, Gallons, and Location, 2021
2.6 New Renewable Diesel Plants Under Construction by Capacity, MT, Gallons, Location, 2021

 

3. EUROPE – DEMAND DRIVERS
3.1 Renewable Energy (RED2) Directives and Targets 2020 to 2030, by Country
3.2 Current EU Renewable Diesel Production Based on COP21 Targets for GHG to 2030
3.3 Market Size and Share of European Renewable Diesel Production by Project
3.4 Rapid Expansion of Europe Renewable Diesel (HVO) Production 2011-2021

 

4. EUROPE- CASE STUDIES OF RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCERS, AND REFINERIES, BY COUNTRY

Each producer site case study includes: Start Up Date, Location, Status, Production Capacity, Feedstocks, Technology Partners, Expansion Plans

4.1 DENMARK
Neste (Rotterdam, RD/SAF, 345mgy or 1.15 million MT, 2021 Expansion to 2 million MT)

4.2 FINLAND
Neste (Finland, RD/SAF, 270mgy or 440k MT, 2021 Expansion)
UPM BioVerno (RD/SAF, 35mgy or 100k MT, Feedstock: tall Crude Oil, Lappeenranta, 2021: operating)
UPM (Kotka, RD/SAF. 137mgy or 300k MT, Feedstock: Tall Crude Oil, 2021: planning for 2025 production)
ST.1 Finland (RD/SAF, 55mgy or 200k MT, waste oils, 2021 :operating)

4.3 ITALY
ENI Venice (165mgy or 350k MT, RD/SAF w UOP tech, 2021 expanding to 600k MT)
ENI Sicily (Gela Plant Expansion, RD/SAF w UOP tech, 206mgy or 600k MT, 2021 operating)

4.4 FRANCE
Total LaMede (RD/SAF, 150mgy or 500k MT, waste and plant oils, La Mede, 2021 operating)
Total Grandpuits (RD/SAF/Naptha, 93mgy or 400k MT, waste and plant oils, Paris/Seine, 2021 announced)

4.5 SWEDEN
Preem Gothenburg (RD, 250mgy, FOGs, 2021 Operating)
Preem, Sunpine (Gothenburg, HTopsoe, 16,000bpd)
Preem Setra (RD, 8mgy, Woody Biomass, 2021 Construction)

4.6 NETHERLANDS
Empyro Hengelo (5mgy, RD/SAF, Upgraded Pyrolysis Oils, Hengelo, Neth, Operating 2021)
SkyNRG (28mgy, SAF, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2021 planning)

4.7 UNITED KINGDOM
Philips 66 Humber (RD/SAF, 46mgy, Humber, England, 2024 expansion to 80mgy)

4.7 SPAIN
Repsol (2021: under construction, 2023: opening at 250MT, 2030: expansion to 600MT)
Cepsa

4.9 PORTUGAL
Galp

4.10 POLAND
PKN Orlen (300k MT/yr, 2021: under construction, 2025: plans to open)

5. USA – DEMAND DRIVERS, LOW CARBON FUEL STANDARDS

5.1 U.S. National Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) Program and Targets 2005-2022
5.2 California Low Carbon Fuel Standard 2012-2030. Target = 20% by 2030
5.3. Oregon Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 10% by 2025, TBD by 2030
5.4 Washington Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 8.5% by 2030
5.5 British Columbia Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 20% by 2030
5.6 Neighboring Canada’s Expected Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 12.9% by 2030
5.7 US States with Volumetric Targets (Minnesota, Iowa, Texas, etc)


6. USA – CASE STUDIES OF RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCERS

Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. provides detailed case studies and analysis of the key producers and developers participating in the development of more than 29 renewable diesel projects in North America, 5 in Canada, 18 in Europe, 11 in Asia, and 2 in South America.

Each producer case study includes: Start Up Date, Location, Status, Production Capacity, Feedstocks, Technology Partners, Expansion Plans

6.1 Diamond Green Diesel (Valero/Darling w UOP tech, 675mgy, Norco, Louisiana, US, 2021 Expansion)

6.2 REG Geismar (75mgy operating 2021, Louisiana, US, 2021 Expansion to 340mgy)

6.3 World Energy (RD/SAF, operating, w expansion to 360mgy in 2022, Los Angeles, US)

6.4 Emerald Biofuels (w UOP Tech, 110mgy, Port Arthur, Texas, US, 2021 planning)

6.5 Kern Oil and Refining (California, USA)

6.6 BP Cherry Point (RD/SAF from waste FOG, 42mgy, Birch Bay, Washington, op in 2021)

6.7 Ryze Renewables Las Vegas (RD/SAF, 168mgy, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2021 planning)

6.8 Ryze Renewables Reno (RD/SAF, 168mgy, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2021 planning)

6.9 NEXT Renewable Fuels (RD/SAF, 765mgy, Port of Columbia, Oregon, 2021 planning)

6.10 Marathon (RD/SAF, 183 million gallons/yr, Dickinson, North Dakota, 2021 conversion)

6.11 Holly Frontier Cheyenne (RD, 200 million gallons/yr, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 2021 conversion)

6.12 Global Clean Energy – Exxon (125mgy, 7500 to 15,000 bpd, Bakersfield, California, 2021
conversion)

6.13 Philips 66 Rodeo (RD/SAF, 800mgy, Rodeo, California w Worley, 2021 planning)

6.14 Wyoming Renewable Diesel ( )

6.15 CVR Energy (Wynnewood, Oklahoma Q3 2021)

6.16 St Joseph Renewable Fuels (RD/Naptha, 90mgy, Waste Oils, Illinois. 2021 planning)

6.17 Diamond Green Diesel – Port Arthur (Valero/Darling wUOPtech, 470mgy, Texas. 2021 construction)

6.18 East Kansas Agri-Energy (RD, 5mgy, DCO oil, Nextchem/Saola tech, Garnett, Kansas, 2021 operating)

6.19 Aemetis Carbon Zero 1 Project (RD/SAF/RNG/CCS, 45mgy, Riverbank, California, 2021 construction)

6.20 Gevo: Net Zero 1 (RD/SAF/RNG/Feed, 45mgy, California, est. 4Q 2021)

6.21 Seabord Energy (former Abengoa, 6500bpd/85mgy, Hugoton, Kansas, est. Dec. 2021)

6.22 Heartwell Renewables (Love’s-Musket-Trillium/Cargill, Tallow, 80mgy, Nebraska)

6.23 Gron Fuels (w/Koch, 900 million gallons/year, Port Charles in Baton-Rouge, Louisiana, 2021 planning)

6.24 Calumet (Great Falls Refinery (10 to 12,000bpd, Great Falls, Montana est 2022)

 

6.3 CANADA

LOW CARBON FUEL STANDARDS & PROGRAMS
6.3.1 Canada’s Low Carbon Fuel Standardard Target = 12.9% by 2030
6.3.2 British Columbia Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 20% by 2030

RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCERS AND CASE STUDIES

6.3.3 Covenant Energy (RD/SAF. 6500bpd, 300mliters/yr, Canola, Saskatchewan, est 2023)

6.3.4 Tidewater (3000bpd w HTopsoe, Prince Georges refinery, British Columbia, est 2022+)

6.3.5 Cielo Alberta (RD, 30mgy, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, 2021 planning)

6.3.6 Ensyn Ontario (3mgy, Renewable Crude and Diesel from Pyrolysis, 2021 operating)

6.3.7 Ensyn Cote Du Nord Quebec (10mgy, Renewable Crude and Diesel, Pyrolysis, 2021 construction)

6.4 SOUTH AMERICA

6.4.1 PARAGUAY
Omega Green (RD/SAF, 400mgy, BSBios/Paraguay, $800million est, 2024 Startup)

6.4.3 BOLIVIA
Government/Bolivian Fiscal Oil Fields(YPFB) Partnership,
Guillermo Elder Bell refinery ($250million, 9,000bpd or 3 million barrels/yr)

 

6.4 ASIA

6.4.1 SINGAPORE
Neste (RD/SAF, 2020: 675 mgy or 1.3 million MT/yr, 2025 expansion to 2.7 million MT/yr)

6.4.2 INDONESIA
Pertamina Plaju refinery (RD/SAF w UOP, 307 mgy or 20,000bpd, plant oils, 2023 startup)
Cilacap Refinery (RD/SAF w UOP, 92mgy or 6,000bpd, 2022 announcement)

6.4.3 CHINA

Total (120k MT/yr, new project)

Eco Biochemical (120k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

Hunanyu (120k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

Changyou Bioenergy (200k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

Yangzou Jianyuan (100k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

 

7. FEEDSTOCKS USED IN RENEWABLE DIESEL & SAF PRODUCTION
Each Feedstock Includes an Introduction, Markets, Consumption, Outlook, and Examples in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1 First Generation Vegetable Oils

7.1.1 Soybean Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.2 Rapeseed Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.3 Palm Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.4 Canola Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.5 Sunflower Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2 Second Generation Waste-Based F.O.G.s, Fats, Oils and Greases

7.2.1 Used Cooking Oil / Yellow Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.2 Poultry Fat
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.3 Beef Tallow
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.4 Pork – White Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.5 Brown Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.6 Trap Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3 Third Generation Energy Crops From Non-Food Sources

7.3.1 DCO – Distiller’s Corn Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.2 Rotational Crops: Carinata, Camelina, Pennycress
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.3 Tall Oils from Forestry
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.4 Pongamia
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.5 Castor
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.6 Tobacco Oils
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.7 Hemp

7.3.8 Winter Oilseeds

7.3.9 Jatropha

7.3.10 Aquatic Oils: Algae, Seaweed, Halophytes, Salicornia

7.4 Circular Feedstocks from Waste Based Forestry and Agricultural Residues

7.4.1 Wood and Forestry Residues
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.4.2 Sawmill Residues and Sawdust
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.4.3 Municipal Solid Waste
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.4.4 Bagasse

7.4.5 Corn Stover

7.4.6 Rice Husks

7.4.7 Almond and Nut Shells

 

8 TECHNOLOGY PATHWAYS FOR RENEWABLE DIESEL AND SAF

8.1 Up-Grading Next Gen Feedstocks (Wood, Ag Residues, Waste)

8.2 Fischer-Tropsch Commercial Level Producers of Bio-Crude/Syncrude Intermediates for Processing

8.3 Pyrolysis Commercial Level Producers of Bio-Crude/Syncrude Intermediates for Processing

8.4 Hydro-Thermal Liquefication Demonstration Level Producers

8.5 Technology Providers and Producers of Intermediates (Biocrude, ATJ) for Up-Grading into
Renewable Diesel & Jet Fuel via Fischer-Tropsch, Pyrolysis, ATJ, and other TRL Level 5+ Players

 

8.6 Examples of Biocrude & Syncrude Intermediate Up-Grading to Renewable Diesel and SAF

8.6.1 Fischer-Tropsch Gasification (FT) examples from Velocys, Fulcrum, RedRock

8.6.2 Hydro-Thermal Liquefication (HTL) examples from ReadiFuels/ARA

8.6.3 ATJ Alcohol To Jet (ATJ) process examples via Dehydration, Hydrotreating, Isomerization,          Refining from Lanzatech, Gevo, Byogy, Vertimass

 

9. SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUELS

The Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. study also focuses on Sustainable Aviation Fuels in detail, providing case studies of producers and the low-carbon feedstocks, technology pathways, partnerships, investors, and off-takers.

 

9.1 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION – MARKETS
9.1.1 Global Policies and Targets – U.N. and C.O.R.S.I.A
9.1.2 Regional Aviation Policies and Targets – EU RED2
9.1.3 National Aviation Policies and Targets -US RFS, Canada CFS, C.O.R.S.I.A’s member countries & targets
9.1.4 Key Organizations in Sustainable Aviation

 

9.2 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION PRODUCERS, PROJECTS & VOLUMES TO 2025

9.2.1 World Energy, Paramount, 25 Million Gallons/Year in 2020

9.2.2 Neste, Porvoo, 34 Million Gallons/Year in 2020

9.2.3 Gevo, Silsbee, Texas, Demonstration Project in 2020

9.2.4 Total, La Mede, France, SAF Demonstration & Production in 2020

9.2.5 Fulcrum, Sierra, Nevada, 7 Million Gallons/Year in 2021

9.2.6 RedRock, Lakeview, Colorado, 6 Million Gallons/Year in 2021

9.2.7 Neste, Singapore & Rotterdam, 481 Million Gallons/Year in 2022-23

9.2.8 SkyNRG, Delfzijl, 33 Million Gallons/Year in 2022

9.2.9 GoSunshine, New Orleans, 29 Million Gallons/Year in 2022

9.2.10 Fulcrum, Gary, Indiana, 21 Million Gallons/Year in 2023

9.2.11 ReadiFuels, 2 Locations, 24 Million Gallons/Year in 2023

9.2.12 Preem, Gothenburg, Sweden 70 Million Gallons/Year in 2024

9.2.13 Lanzatech, Four Locations in Production, 100 Million Gallons/Year in 2024

9.2.14 Velocycs, Immingham, England, 20 Million Gallons/Year in 2025

 

9.3 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION OUTLOOK AND FORECASTS
9.3.1 Sustainable Aviation Goals and Targets by Country, Organization, Timeline
9.3.2 Sustainable Aviation Fuel Demand Forecast From 2015 to 2055 based on IEA, ICAO
9.3.3 Estimated EU Bio-Based Aviation Fuel Production 2017-2025 at 15% Blend Rates
9.3.4 Investment Risk Outlook & Volume of Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2015 to 2030 to 2050
9.3.5 De-Risking Start Up CAPEX & OPEX Costs With Low Cost Feedstocks & Long-Term Partnerships

10. RENEWABLE DIESEL OUTLOOK AND FORECASTS TO 2030

10.1 Short Term Forecasts to 2022, Reviews and Outlook

10.2 Medium Term Forecasts to 2025, Reviews and Outlook

10.3 Long term Forecasts to 2030, Reviews and Outlook  READ MORE

This center in Dubai is growing ‘future-proof’ food in the desert (Salicornia)(CNN; includes VIDEO)

US soy: Soaring renewable diesel not a food-versus-fuel issue (Agri-Pulse)

Big Changes in Renewable Diesel & SAF Feedstock Partnerships (Biofuels Digest)

Tags
Agricultural waste/residueAlbertaalcohol-to-jet (ATJ)algaealmond hulls shellsanimal fatAsiaaviation fuel (SAF) productionAviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)bagassebio-oil/pyrolysis oilBiocrude/Green Crude/SynCrudeBioRefineries/Renewable Fuel ProductionblenderBoliviaBritish Columbiabrown greaseCaliforniaCamelinaCanadacanola/rapeseedcarinata/brassica carinatacastor beanChinacircular economyColoradoconversion technologycorn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO)corn stoverCORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation)cover cropsDenmarkenvironmental policyEuropean Union (EU)FeedstocksFinlandFischer-Tropsch/FTFOG (Fats/Oils/Grease)food and fuelfood vs fuelfood wasteforest residue/wasteFranceGHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions)HalophytesHemphydrothermal liquefaction (HTL)IndianaIndonesiaInternational Maritime Organization (IMO)InvestingIowaItalyJatrophaKansasLCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard)Louisianamarket forcesmarkets/salesMinnesotaMontanaMSW (Municipal Solid Waste)NebraskaNetherlandsNevadaNorth Dakotanut shellsObligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO)oil seed cropsOklahomaOntarioOregonpalm oilParaguaypathwayspennycress/stinkweedPolandpongamiaPortugalprecursors/biointermediatespyrolysisQuebecRenewable Diesel ProductionRenewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Dieselrepurposerice husksrotation cropsSalicorniaSaskatchewansawdustSeaweed/MacroalgaeSingaporesoybeansSpainsunflowerSwedentall oiltallowTexastobaccoTransportation Fuels PolicyTransportation PolicyUK (United Kingdom)used cooking oil (UCO)vegetable oilsWashingtonwaste-to-fuelwhite greasewoody biomassWyomingyellow grease
Share

Comments are closed.

More than 30,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 30,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors

FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters

Donate



Archives

Categories

Tags

2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 4th generation fuels 7% solution 45Q 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane 100 octane 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election 2022 2022 US Senate and House Campaign 9003 Program a A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) Abu Dhabi acacia acetate acetic acid acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act advanced advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerobic digestion aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation agr Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Aircraft engine emissions Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy airports air quality Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-C ARPA-E ARPA-Terra artificial intelligence Aruba Asia asphalt/bitumen ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D396 ASTM D975 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada atmosphere Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation aviation fuel (SAF) benefits aviation fuel (SAF) price aviation fuel (SAF) production aviation fuel (SAF) pumps/delivery aviation fuel (SAF) terminal Aviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) Aviation Gasoline/AvGas avocado awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B10 B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B20 B25 B30 B33 B35 B40 B50 B70 B75 B80 B98 B99 B100 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors billion ton study bio bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG terminal bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) biofoundry Biofuel biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuel production Biofuels Directive biofuels education biofuel tax credit Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline pumps biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons biohydrogen BioIsoprene Bio LPG biomass Biomass Carbon Removal and Storage (BiCRS) Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene bioprospecting BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance 9003 BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch bitter orange black carbon black grease black liquor black locust blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain blue carbon boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 Brachiaria bracken brackish water Brassica Brazil breweries British Columbia broker brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses Business/General Aviation Business and Industry Program (B&I) business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butanol emissions butyl acetate c C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass Canary Islands canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap-and-invest cap-and-trade carbohydrates carbon carbon-14 testing carbon-efficient fuels carbon/CO2 sequestration carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon cred carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon pipeline carbon price carbon recycling carbon removal carbon sink carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend Carbon tax border adjustments carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose Cellulosic/Biomass Hydrogen cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot coco cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel Cook Islands cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diesel with renewables diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferr ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio- Renewable Fuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New York Michigan New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD80 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Fuels Policy; carbon removal Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsi Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

Notice

donate nowWe are not accepting donations from people or companies in Florida due to unfair reporting requirements and fees not imposed by any other state.