Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2

Agriculture/Food Processing Residues nonfield cropAlcohol/Ethanol/IsobutanolAlgae/Other Aquatic Organisms/SeaweedAsiaAviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel ProductionBiorefinery/Fuel Production InfrastructureBoliviaBooks Web Sites etcBrazilBusinessBusiness News/AnalysisCaliforniaCanadaChinaColoradoDenmarkEuropean Union (EU)FeedstockFeedstocksField/Orchard/Plantation Crops/ResiduesFinlandForestry/Wood/Residues/WasteFranceFunding/Financing/InvestingIndianaIndonesiaInfrastructureIowaItalyKansasLouisianaMarketing/Market Forces and SalesMinnesotaMontanaNebraskaNetherlandsNevadaNorth DakotaNot AgricultureOklahomaOpinionsParaguayPolandPolicyPrecursors/BiointermediatesProcessR & D FocusResourcesSingaporeSpainSustainabilityTexasUK (United Kingdom)
August 26, 2021

(Emerging Markets Online)  New study! Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. (249 pages, August 2021) focuses on low-carbon feedstock availability, technology pathways for low carbon renewable diesel, and sustainable aviation production.

Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) 2030  covers four key areas:

1) renewable diesel producer case studies

2) feedstocks for renewable diesel

3) technology pathways for producing various feedstocks

4) in-depth analysis of the Sustainable Aviation Fuels producers and markets (mostly commercially made at renewable diesel facilities, currently, and at dozens of demo and pilot facilities in demonstration quantities).

 

The study, and presentation summary, highlights

a) new development opportunities for aviation fuels

b) feedstock availability and partnerships for growth

d) future options for using non-FOG based feedstocks from low-carbon low-cost waste sources (from trees, municipal solid waste, agricultural waste, food waste, farm waste)

d) advanced technologies for turning bio-crude, and syncrude into renewable diesel and SAF (sustainable aviation) fuels. READ MORE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. GLOBAL DEMAND DRIVERS FOR RENEWABLE DIESEL 
1.1 New GHG and Low-Carbon Fuels Regulations Bring New Opportunities
1.1.1. Clean Cities Transport Initiative Opportunities in U.S., Europe, Americas, Asia
1.1.2. Sustainable Aviation Initiatives for COP21 Corsia (U.N.) Program
1.1.3. Sustainable Shipping Initiatives for IMO (U.N.) 2020 Regulations
1.1.4. Feedstock Opportunities to Produce Low-Carbon Fuels for Emerging Markets like California
1.2 Low Carbon Fuel Regulations Bring Disruptive Challenges, Opportunities to Producers
1.2.1 Change and Transition from 2020 Targets to 2030 COP21 GHG Targets
1.2.2 New GHG Targets Bring Opportunities for Bio/Renewable Diesel (California, EU, Canada)
1.2.3 New GHG Targets Bring Challenges to 1st Generation Biodiesel Producers (Soy, Palm)
1.2.4 New GHG Regulations Bring Opportunities to Refiners, Blenders, Obligated Parties

 

2. SUMMARY OF GLOBAL RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCTION
2.1 Review of Renewable Diesel and SAF Demand Projections
2.2 Analysis of Global Renewable Diesel Production by Region, Location and Capacity
2.3 Top 10 Global Renewable Diesel Producers – Comparative Analysis by Production Volumes
2.4 Current Global Renewable Diesel Producers by Capacity, MT, Gallons, and Location, 2021
2.5 Planned Global Renewable Diesel Expansions by Capacity, MT, Gallons, and Location, 2021
2.6 New Renewable Diesel Plants Under Construction by Capacity, MT, Gallons, Location, 2021

 

3. EUROPE – DEMAND DRIVERS
3.1 Renewable Energy (RED2) Directives and Targets 2020 to 2030, by Country
3.2 Current EU Renewable Diesel Production Based on COP21 Targets for GHG to 2030
3.3 Market Size and Share of European Renewable Diesel Production by Project
3.4 Rapid Expansion of Europe Renewable Diesel (HVO) Production 2011-2021

 

4. EUROPE- CASE STUDIES OF RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCERS, AND REFINERIES, BY COUNTRY

Each producer site case study includes: Start Up Date, Location, Status, Production Capacity, Feedstocks, Technology Partners, Expansion Plans

4.1 DENMARK
Neste (Rotterdam, RD/SAF, 345mgy or 1.15 million MT, 2021 Expansion to 2 million MT)

4.2 FINLAND
Neste (Finland, RD/SAF, 270mgy or 440k MT, 2021 Expansion)
UPM BioVerno (RD/SAF, 35mgy or 100k MT, Feedstock: tall Crude Oil, Lappeenranta, 2021: operating)
UPM (Kotka, RD/SAF. 137mgy or 300k MT, Feedstock: Tall Crude Oil, 2021: planning for 2025 production)
ST.1 Finland (RD/SAF, 55mgy or 200k MT, waste oils, 2021 :operating)

4.3 ITALY
ENI Venice (165mgy or 350k MT, RD/SAF w UOP tech, 2021 expanding to 600k MT)
ENI Sicily (Gela Plant Expansion, RD/SAF w UOP tech, 206mgy or 600k MT, 2021 operating)

4.4 FRANCE
Total LaMede (RD/SAF, 150mgy or 500k MT, waste and plant oils, La Mede, 2021 operating)
Total Grandpuits (RD/SAF/Naptha, 93mgy or 400k MT, waste and plant oils, Paris/Seine, 2021 announced)

4.5 SWEDEN
Preem Gothenburg (RD, 250mgy, FOGs, 2021 Operating)
Preem, Sunpine (Gothenburg, HTopsoe, 16,000bpd)
Preem Setra (RD, 8mgy, Woody Biomass, 2021 Construction)

4.6 NETHERLANDS
Empyro Hengelo (5mgy, RD/SAF, Upgraded Pyrolysis Oils, Hengelo, Neth, Operating 2021)
SkyNRG (28mgy, SAF, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2021 planning)

4.7 UNITED KINGDOM
Philips 66 Humber (RD/SAF, 46mgy, Humber, England, 2024 expansion to 80mgy)

4.7 SPAIN
Repsol (2021: under construction, 2023: opening at 250MT, 2030: expansion to 600MT)
Cepsa

4.9 PORTUGAL
Galp

4.10 POLAND
PKN Orlen (300k MT/yr, 2021: under construction, 2025: plans to open)

5. USA – DEMAND DRIVERS, LOW CARBON FUEL STANDARDS

5.1 U.S. National Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) Program and Targets 2005-2022
5.2 California Low Carbon Fuel Standard 2012-2030. Target = 20% by 2030
5.3. Oregon Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 10% by 2025, TBD by 2030
5.4 Washington Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 8.5% by 2030
5.5 British Columbia Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 20% by 2030
5.6 Neighboring Canada’s Expected Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 12.9% by 2030
5.7 US States with Volumetric Targets (Minnesota, Iowa, Texas, etc)


6. USA – CASE STUDIES OF RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCERS

Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. provides detailed case studies and analysis of the key producers and developers participating in the development of more than 29 renewable diesel projects in North America, 5 in Canada, 18 in Europe, 11 in Asia, and 2 in South America.

Each producer case study includes: Start Up Date, Location, Status, Production Capacity, Feedstocks, Technology Partners, Expansion Plans

6.1 Diamond Green Diesel (Valero/Darling w UOP tech, 675mgy, Norco, Louisiana, US, 2021 Expansion)

6.2 REG Geismar (75mgy operating 2021, Louisiana, US, 2021 Expansion to 340mgy)

6.3 World Energy (RD/SAF, operating, w expansion to 360mgy in 2022, Los Angeles, US)

6.4 Emerald Biofuels (w UOP Tech, 110mgy, Port Arthur, Texas, US, 2021 planning)

6.5 Kern Oil and Refining (California, USA)

6.6 BP Cherry Point (RD/SAF from waste FOG, 42mgy, Birch Bay, Washington, op in 2021)

6.7 Ryze Renewables Las Vegas (RD/SAF, 168mgy, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2021 planning)

6.8 Ryze Renewables Reno (RD/SAF, 168mgy, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2021 planning)

6.9 NEXT Renewable Fuels (RD/SAF, 765mgy, Port of Columbia, Oregon, 2021 planning)

6.10 Marathon (RD/SAF, 183 million gallons/yr, Dickinson, North Dakota, 2021 conversion)

6.11 Holly Frontier Cheyenne (RD, 200 million gallons/yr, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 2021 conversion)

6.12 Global Clean Energy – Exxon (125mgy, 7500 to 15,000 bpd, Bakersfield, California, 2021
conversion)

6.13 Philips 66 Rodeo (RD/SAF, 800mgy, Rodeo, California w Worley, 2021 planning)

6.14 Wyoming Renewable Diesel ( )

6.15 CVR Energy (Wynnewood, Oklahoma Q3 2021)

6.16 St Joseph Renewable Fuels (RD/Naptha, 90mgy, Waste Oils, Illinois. 2021 planning)

6.17 Diamond Green Diesel – Port Arthur (Valero/Darling wUOPtech, 470mgy, Texas. 2021 construction)

6.18 East Kansas Agri-Energy (RD, 5mgy, DCO oil, Nextchem/Saola tech, Garnett, Kansas, 2021 operating)

6.19 Aemetis Carbon Zero 1 Project (RD/SAF/RNG/CCS, 45mgy, Riverbank, California, 2021 construction)

6.20 Gevo: Net Zero 1 (RD/SAF/RNG/Feed, 45mgy, California, est. 4Q 2021)

6.21 Seabord Energy (former Abengoa, 6500bpd/85mgy, Hugoton, Kansas, est. Dec. 2021)

6.22 Heartwell Renewables (Love’s-Musket-Trillium/Cargill, Tallow, 80mgy, Nebraska)

6.23 Gron Fuels (w/Koch, 900 million gallons/year, Port Charles in Baton-Rouge, Louisiana, 2021 planning)

6.24 Calumet (Great Falls Refinery (10 to 12,000bpd, Great Falls, Montana est 2022)

 

6.3 CANADA

LOW CARBON FUEL STANDARDS & PROGRAMS
6.3.1 Canada’s Low Carbon Fuel Standardard Target = 12.9% by 2030
6.3.2 British Columbia Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Target = 20% by 2030

RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCERS AND CASE STUDIES

6.3.3 Covenant Energy (RD/SAF. 6500bpd, 300mliters/yr, Canola, Saskatchewan, est 2023)

6.3.4 Tidewater (3000bpd w HTopsoe, Prince Georges refinery, British Columbia, est 2022+)

6.3.5 Cielo Alberta (RD, 30mgy, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, 2021 planning)

6.3.6 Ensyn Ontario (3mgy, Renewable Crude and Diesel from Pyrolysis, 2021 operating)

6.3.7 Ensyn Cote Du Nord Quebec (10mgy, Renewable Crude and Diesel, Pyrolysis, 2021 construction)

6.4 SOUTH AMERICA

6.4.1 PARAGUAY
Omega Green (RD/SAF, 400mgy, BSBios/Paraguay, $800million est, 2024 Startup)

6.4.3 BOLIVIA
Government/Bolivian Fiscal Oil Fields(YPFB) Partnership,
Guillermo Elder Bell refinery ($250million, 9,000bpd or 3 million barrels/yr)

 

6.4 ASIA

6.4.1 SINGAPORE
Neste (RD/SAF, 2020: 675 mgy or 1.3 million MT/yr, 2025 expansion to 2.7 million MT/yr)

6.4.2 INDONESIA
Pertamina Plaju refinery (RD/SAF w UOP, 307 mgy or 20,000bpd, plant oils, 2023 startup)
Cilacap Refinery (RD/SAF w UOP, 92mgy or 6,000bpd, 2022 announcement)

6.4.3 CHINA

Total (120k MT/yr, new project)

Eco Biochemical (120k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

Hunanyu (120k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

Changyou Bioenergy (200k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

Yangzou Jianyuan (100k MT/yr, 2021: operating)

 

7. FEEDSTOCKS USED IN RENEWABLE DIESEL & SAF PRODUCTION
Each Feedstock Includes an Introduction, Markets, Consumption, Outlook, and Examples in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1 First Generation Vegetable Oils

7.1.1 Soybean Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.2 Rapeseed Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.3 Palm Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.4 Canola Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.1.5 Sunflower Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2 Second Generation Waste-Based F.O.G.s, Fats, Oils and Greases

7.2.1 Used Cooking Oil / Yellow Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.2 Poultry Fat
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.3 Beef Tallow
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.4 Pork – White Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.5 Brown Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.2.6 Trap Grease
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3 Third Generation Energy Crops From Non-Food Sources

7.3.1 DCO – Distiller’s Corn Oil
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.2 Rotational Crops: Carinata, Camelina, Pennycress
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.3 Tall Oils from Forestry
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.4 Pongamia
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.5 Castor
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.6 Tobacco Oils
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.3.7 Hemp

7.3.8 Winter Oilseeds

7.3.9 Jatropha

7.3.10 Aquatic Oils: Algae, Seaweed, Halophytes, Salicornia

7.4 Circular Feedstocks from Waste Based Forestry and Agricultural Residues

7.4.1 Wood and Forestry Residues
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.4.2 Sawmill Residues and Sawdust
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.4.3 Municipal Solid Waste
Introduction, Markets, Consumption and Outlook
Examples of Use in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production

7.4.4 Bagasse

7.4.5 Corn Stover

7.4.6 Rice Husks

7.4.7 Almond and Nut Shells

 

8 TECHNOLOGY PATHWAYS FOR RENEWABLE DIESEL AND SAF

8.1 Up-Grading Next Gen Feedstocks (Wood, Ag Residues, Waste)

8.2 Fischer-Tropsch Commercial Level Producers of Bio-Crude/Syncrude Intermediates for Processing

8.3 Pyrolysis Commercial Level Producers of Bio-Crude/Syncrude Intermediates for Processing

8.4 Hydro-Thermal Liquefication Demonstration Level Producers

8.5 Technology Providers and Producers of Intermediates (Biocrude, ATJ) for Up-Grading into
Renewable Diesel & Jet Fuel via Fischer-Tropsch, Pyrolysis, ATJ, and other TRL Level 5+ Players

 

8.6 Examples of Biocrude & Syncrude Intermediate Up-Grading to Renewable Diesel and SAF

8.6.1 Fischer-Tropsch Gasification (FT) examples from Velocys, Fulcrum, RedRock

8.6.2 Hydro-Thermal Liquefication (HTL) examples from ReadiFuels/ARA

8.6.3 ATJ Alcohol To Jet (ATJ) process examples via Dehydration, Hydrotreating, Isomerization,          Refining from Lanzatech, Gevo, Byogy, Vertimass

 

9. SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUELS

The Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. study also focuses on Sustainable Aviation Fuels in detail, providing case studies of producers and the low-carbon feedstocks, technology pathways, partnerships, investors, and off-takers.

 

9.1 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION – MARKETS
9.1.1 Global Policies and Targets – U.N. and C.O.R.S.I.A
9.1.2 Regional Aviation Policies and Targets – EU RED2
9.1.3 National Aviation Policies and Targets -US RFS, Canada CFS, C.O.R.S.I.A’s member countries & targets
9.1.4 Key Organizations in Sustainable Aviation

 

9.2 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION PRODUCERS, PROJECTS & VOLUMES TO 2025

9.2.1 World Energy, Paramount, 25 Million Gallons/Year in 2020

9.2.2 Neste, Porvoo, 34 Million Gallons/Year in 2020

9.2.3 Gevo, Silsbee, Texas, Demonstration Project in 2020

9.2.4 Total, La Mede, France, SAF Demonstration & Production in 2020

9.2.5 Fulcrum, Sierra, Nevada, 7 Million Gallons/Year in 2021

9.2.6 RedRock, Lakeview, Colorado, 6 Million Gallons/Year in 2021

9.2.7 Neste, Singapore & Rotterdam, 481 Million Gallons/Year in 2022-23

9.2.8 SkyNRG, Delfzijl, 33 Million Gallons/Year in 2022

9.2.9 GoSunshine, New Orleans, 29 Million Gallons/Year in 2022

9.2.10 Fulcrum, Gary, Indiana, 21 Million Gallons/Year in 2023

9.2.11 ReadiFuels, 2 Locations, 24 Million Gallons/Year in 2023

9.2.12 Preem, Gothenburg, Sweden 70 Million Gallons/Year in 2024

9.2.13 Lanzatech, Four Locations in Production, 100 Million Gallons/Year in 2024

9.2.14 Velocycs, Immingham, England, 20 Million Gallons/Year in 2025

 

9.3 SUSTAINABLE AVIATION OUTLOOK AND FORECASTS
9.3.1 Sustainable Aviation Goals and Targets by Country, Organization, Timeline
9.3.2 Sustainable Aviation Fuel Demand Forecast From 2015 to 2055 based on IEA, ICAO
9.3.3 Estimated EU Bio-Based Aviation Fuel Production 2017-2025 at 15% Blend Rates
9.3.4 Investment Risk Outlook & Volume of Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2015 to 2030 to 2050
9.3.5 De-Risking Start Up CAPEX & OPEX Costs With Low Cost Feedstocks & Long-Term Partnerships

10. RENEWABLE DIESEL OUTLOOK AND FORECASTS TO 2030

10.1 Short Term Forecasts to 2022, Reviews and Outlook

10.2 Medium Term Forecasts to 2025, Reviews and Outlook

10.3 Long term Forecasts to 2030, Reviews and Outlook  READ MORE

This center in Dubai is growing 'future-proof' food in the desert (Salicornia)(CNN; includes VIDEO)

US soy: Soaring renewable diesel not a food-versus-fuel issue (Agri-Pulse)

Big Changes in Renewable Diesel & SAF Feedstock Partnerships (Biofuels Digest)

Global Castor Oil Market to be Driven by the Increasing Demand in Various Industrial Applications Such as Paints, Soaps, Lubricants, Biofuels, and Other Sectors in the Forecast Period of 2021-2026 (Expert Market Research/MENAFN)

Tags
Aviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel Production aviation fuel (SAF) production conversion technology pathways markets/sales market forces Feedstocks FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) woody biomass forest residue/waste MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) Agricultural waste/residue food waste Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude environmental policy Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Policy European Union (EU) Asia CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) International Maritime Organization (IMO) California LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) Canada soybeans palm oil blender Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) Denmark Finland Italy France tall oil waste-to-fuel used cooking oil (UCO) vegetable oils Sweden bio-oil/pyrolysis oil Netherlands UK (United Kingdom) Spain Portugal Poland Oregon Washington British Columbia Minnesota Iowa Texas Louisiana Nevada North Dakota Wyoming repurpose Oklahoma Kansas Nebraska Montana Canola/Rapeseed Alberta Saskatchewan Ontario Quebec Paraguay Bolivia Singapore Indonesia China sunflower yellow grease animal fat tallow white grease brown grease corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) carinata/brassica carinata Camelina pennycress/stinkweed cover crops rotation crops pongamia castor bean tobacco Hemp oil seed crops Jatropha algae Seaweed/Macroalgae Halophytes Salicornia circular economy sawdust bagasse corn stover rice husks nut shells almond hulls shells Fischer-Tropsch/FT pyrolysis precursors/biointermediates hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) alcohol-to-jet (ATJ)/ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) Colorado Indiana BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Investing food vs fuel food and fuel
Share

Comments are closed.

More than 50,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the nearly 50,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors
FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters
Donate
ARCHIVES
CATEGORIES
tags
Advanced Clean Fleets Rule 100 octane 100% SAF (Sustainable Aviation Fuel) 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election 2022 Election 2022 US Senate and House Campaign 2024 Election 2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 40A 40B 45Q 45V 45X 48C 4th generation fuels 7% solution 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) abu Abu Dhabi acacia acetate acetic acid acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act adsorption Advanced Biofuel Payment Program advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production Advanced Clean Cars II Rule (ACC and ACCII) Advanced Clean Trucks Rule advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerobic digestion aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agrivoltaic/agrovoltaic agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy air quality Aircraft engine emissions airports Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alcohol-to-diesel alcohol-to-jet (ATJ)/ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkaline exchange membrane (AEM) alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) ammonia terminal amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion and Energy Use in Transportation Model Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust apple Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentiina Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-C ARPA-E ARPA-Terra arrandi artificial intelligence Aruba Asia Asia Pacific asphalt/bitumen ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D396 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM D975 ASTM E3050 Denatured Ethanol for Cooking ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada atmosphere Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation aviation fuel (SAF) benefits aviation fuel (SAF) mandates aviation fuel (SAF) price aviation fuel (SAF) production aviation fuel (SAF) pumps/delivery aviation fuel (SAF) tax credit aviation fuel (SAF) terminal Aviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) Aviation Gasoline/AvGas avocado award awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B10 B100 B100 pumps B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B16 B17 B19 B2 B20 B24 B25 B3 B30 B30RD10 B33 B35 B4 B40 B49 B5 B50 B50RD50 B6 B7 B70 B75 B8 B80 B98 B99 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors BIGoil billion ton study bio Bio LPG (Bio Liquid Petroleum Gas) bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy Bio-CNG pumps Bio-CNG/RNG terminal bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG terminal bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals biociiesel bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel pipeline biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioelectrochemical conversion bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) biofoundry Biofuel biofuel cells biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuel production biofuel tax credit Biofuels Directive biofuels education Biogas Biogas pipeline Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline pumps biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons biohydrogen BioIsoprene BioMADE biomanufacturing biomass Biomass Carbon Removal and Storage (BiCRS) Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene bioprospecting BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) old 9003 Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance 9003 Program BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch bitter orange black carbon black grease black liquor black locust black soldier fly Blend wall blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock blockchain blue carbon boat fuel boiler/furnace fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 Brachiaria bracken brackish water brash Brassica Brazil breweries brine British Columbia broker brown grease brownfields Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses Business and Industry Program (B&I) business law business resources Business/General Aviation butadiene butandeiol (bio-BDO) Butane butanediol butanol emissions butanol/biobutanol butyl acetate butylene butyric acid by c C1 C2 C21 C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cactus pear cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canad Canada Canary Islands canary reed grass canarygrass candle nut cannabis canola straw Canola/Rapeseed cap-and-invest cap-and-trade capybara capybras carbohydrates carbon carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber carbon insets Carbon Intensity (CI)/Carbon Footprint carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon pipeline carbon price carbon recycling carbon removal carbon sink carbon standard carbon tax Carbon tax border adjustments carbon tax-and-dividend carbon terminal carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carbon-14 testing carbon-efficient fuels carbon/CO2 sequestration carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata carinata/brassica carinata carob CAS Registry cashew cashew apple CASI Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattails cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) CBG (compressed biogas) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program Certificates of Origin (COs) certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 chemical-looping hydrogen method Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chp chromium chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Fuel Production Tax Credit (45Z) Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Heat Standards Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart/conservation agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover cmelina CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location Co-op Extension co-operative co-processing co-products CO2 neutral fuels CO2Removal Certificates (CORCs) coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Coast Guard coastal habitat conservation coastal hay cobalt cock's foot coco coco methyl ester (CME) cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold flow cold-tolerance college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning commo Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement/engagement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression ratios compression-ignition engine computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology Cook Islands cook stoves cooking fuel cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 COP28 COP30 copper coppice cordgrass corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup corn-based products corn/maize Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality county cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D20 (20%DME) D5 (5%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Dehydration Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency egg shell Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrofuels (e-fuels) prices electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts Formate fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect Global South global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ HDO-SAK (hydro deoxygenated synthetic aromatic kerosene) health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 HVO30 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrid ships hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps/fueling stations hydrogen tax credit hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning machinery macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol benefits methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm trunk sap palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peach shell peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests pet food petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pine beetle pine needles pine nut pineapple pinion Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin (PHMSA) pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet platinum Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poand podcasts Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propane/renewable propane pumps propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis pyrolytic liquefaction Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R Factor R100/RD100 R33 R5 R95B5/RD95B5 R99/RD99 rabbits race radiata pine radish leaves Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rain tree rainforest ranchers RAND rare earth metal/critical minerals RD10 RD100 RD20 RD3 RD30 RD50 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable diesel pipelines Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/RED III) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) REnova RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program Republic of Congo repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment Reverse Water-gas Shift RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron Ricardo rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rubber seeds rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass rye straw s saccharification SAF pipeline SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC sal tree Salicornia salt water salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar Samoa Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater seaweed cultivation Seaweed/Macroalgae second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks seed-to-wheel Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shellfish shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silage silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration Small Business Innovatin Research (SBIR) small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solaris Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell (SOEC) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Southeast Asia Southern Africa Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soy meal soybean prices soybeans Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar Sugar Beets/Energy Beets Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugar standards sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw sugars sugars-to-fats sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Surface Transportation Board Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum sweetgum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas (synthesis gas) syngas/gas fermentation SYNHH synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung Tamarix tank cars tank-to-wheel tanker trucks tankers Tanzania tar sands tariffs taro Tasmania tax benefit tax credits tax incentives tax parity tax policy taxes tea teach teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training tech transfer technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tugboats tung tunicate Tunisia Tunsia Turkey U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) UK Emission Trade Scheme (UK ETS) Ukraine Ukriane UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) Ultra-low-carbon bioethanol underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO UNIDO (United National Industrial Development Organization) United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations (UN) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urban sprawl urbanization Uruguay US Agency for International Development (USAID) US Army US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission USAC USAID USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties ustain Utah utilities utility model Uzbekistan value chain Value Stack vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont vetiver Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virgin Islands. virgin oils Virginia viruses vlsfo VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers VTOL (vertical take-off and landing aircraft) Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth water policy water pollution water quality water treatment water vapor watermeal watermelon wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa West Coast West Java West Virginia Western Australia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheat prices wheat straw wheatgrass whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin Wisdonsin women Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen Yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites zero-carbon bioethanol Zimbabwe zinc zoning

© 2008-2023 Copyright Advanced BioFuels USA. All Rights reserved.