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Fact Sheet: Biden Administration Advances the Future of Sustainable Fuels in American Aviation

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September 10, 2021

(White House) New Actions Aim to Produce Three Billion Gallons of Sustainable Fuel, Reduce Aviation Emissions by 20% by 2030, and Grow Good-Paying, Union Jobs  —  Today (September 9, 2021), President Biden is taking steps to coordinate leadership and innovation across the federal government, aircraft manufacturers, airlines, fuel producers, airports, and non-governmental organizations to advance the use of cleaner and more sustainable fuels in American aviation. These steps will help make progress toward our climate goals for 2030 and are essential to unlocking the potential for a fully zero-carbon aviation sector by 2050. Today’s executive actions across the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the General Services Administration, and the Environmental Protection Agency will result in the production and use of billions of gallons of sustainable fuel that will enable aviation emissions to drop 20% by 2030 when compared to business as usual. Together with President Biden’s Build Back Better Agenda, these new agency steps and industry partnerships will transform the aviation sector, create good-paying jobs, support American agriculture and manufacturing, and help us tackle the climate crisis.

Today, aviation (including all non-military flights within and departing from the United States) represents 11% of United States transportation-related emissions. Without increased action, aviation’s share of emissions is likely to increase as more people and goods fly. That is why leadership and innovation in this sector is so essential if we hope to put the aviation industry, and the economy, on track to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Achieving a sustainable aviation industry requires energy efficiency improvements in aircraft technology and better operations. In the future, electric and hydrogen-powered aviation may unlock affordable and convenient local and regional travel. But for today’s long-distance travel, we need bold partnerships to spur the deployment of billions of gallons of sustainable aviation fuels quickly.

That is why President Biden proposed a Sustainable Aviation Fuel tax credit as part of the Build Back Better Agenda. This credit will help cut costs and rapidly scale domestic production of sustainable fuels for aviation. The proposed tax credit requires at least a 50% reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions and offers increased incentive for greater reductions. Today’s announcements build upon this proposal through a whole-of-government effort to advance cleaner aviation, as well as work in concert with bold actions taken by the aviation-related industries. Key federal actions include:

  • A new Sustainable Aviation Fuel Grand Challenge to inspire the dramatic increase in the production of sustainable aviation fuels to at least 3 billion gallons per year by 2030;
  • New and ongoing funding opportunities to support sustainable aviation fuel projects and fuel producers totaling up to $4.3 billion;
  • An increase in R&D activities to demonstrate new technologies that can achieve at least a 30% improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency;
  • Efforts to improve air traffic and airport efficiency to reduce fuel use, eliminate lead exposure, and ensure cleaner air in and around airports; and
  • The demonstration of U.S. leadership both internationally and through the federal example.

Building on today’s announcements, the Administration also plans to release an aviation climate action plan in the coming months, which will set forth a comprehensive plan for aviation.

The Administration is committed to transforming the aviation sector in a way that creates good-paying union jobs in manufacturing, improves the environmental quality for airport and airline workers, and unlocks rural economic opportunity for sustainable fuels from many different feedstocks and pathways. Taking these and other steps in concert with the aviation sector can drive innovation and support a growing market for cleaner fuels, while reducing and eventually eliminating aviation’s climate impact.

This transformation to a zero-carbon aviation sector will require coordinated innovation and leadership from the Federal government, aircraft manufactures, airlines, fuel producers, and airports. The new set of executive actions, federal programs, and private sector commitments described below will help set the sector on a path to net-zero emissions.

Launching New Aviation Climate Actions Across the Federal Government
Today, the Administration is launching a new Sustainable Aviation Fuel Grand Challenge to inspire the dramatic increase in the production of sustainable aviation fuels, and to complement a broad set of actions the Administration intends to take to reduce aviation emissions in line with President Biden’s commitment to achieve net-zero economy-wide emissions no later than 2050. These actions include policy measures, technological advancements, and executive actions that will reduce domestic aviation carbon dioxide emissions and create good paying jobs within the decade. These efforts include:

Scaling up sustainable aviation fuel production to at least 3 billion gallons per year by 2030 by supporting producers

  • Today the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Transportation (DOT) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are launching a government-wide Sustainable Aviation Fuel Grand Challenge to meet the demand for sustainable aviation fuels by working with stakeholders to reduce costs, enhance sustainability, and expand production and use of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) that achieves a minimum of a 50% reduction in life cycle GHGs compared to conventional fuel. In addition, the challenge will adopt the goal of supplying at least 3 billion gallons of SAF per year by 2030 and, by 2050, sufficient SAF to meet 100% of aviation fuel demand, which is currently projected to be around 35 billion gallons per year.
  • USDA will support U.S. farmers with climate-smart agriculture practices and research, including biomass feedstock genetic development, sustainable crop and forest management at scale, and post-harvest supply chain logistics. USDA will also support fuel producers with carbon modeling components of aviation biofuel feedstocks.
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE will collaborate to identify data collection needs, assess technical information, and take other steps designed to expedite the regulatory approval process to support newly developed fuels and feedstocks that may be viable for inclusion as able to generate Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) under renewable fuel in the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.
  • The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will make 14 grant awards with FY21 funds to the Aviation Sustainability CENTer (ASCENT) university center of excellence totaling more than $3.6M. This will support the sustainable aviation fuel approval clearing house in conducting evaluation testing to ensure that new fuels are safe for use.
  • DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) recently announced $35 million for 11 projects developing feedstock and algae technologies for advancing the domestic bioeconomy and today announced additional selections totaling over $61M to advance biofuels and support reduced cost of SAF pathways, including 11 projects that are scaling up promising technologies to produce SAF.
  • DOE Loan Programs Office (LPO) is offering up to $3 billion in loan guarantees. Commercial-scale SAF projects that utilize innovative technology and avoid, reduce, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions and meet other program requirements may be eligible for loan guarantees under LPO’s Title 17 Innovative Energy Loan Guarantee Program.
  • DOD funding, subject to appropriations, to certify the use of up to four additional SAF pathways already approved in the commercial market, as well as additional SAF pathways in the ASTM approval pipeline for warfighters.

Increasing R&D activities to demonstrate new technologies to achieve at least a 30% improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency

  • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has launched the Sustainable Flight National Partnership to collaborate with the FAA and industry to accelerate the maturation of aircraft and engine technologies that enable a step-change reduction in fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions.
  • The FAA is launching the third phase of its Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) Program by awarding more than $100 million for aircraft and engine companies to develop and demonstrate aircraft technologies that reduce fuel use, emissions, and noise.
  • Department of Defense (DoD) is investing in a range of initiatives to improve the efficiency of legacy aircraft and develop more energy efficient new aircraft. Some examples, subject to appropriations, include almost $900M for Air Force B-52 Commercial Engine Replacement Program, Army Improved Engine Turbine Program, Adaptive Engine Transition Program and Next-Generation Adaptive Propulsion Program, and Air Force Legacy Aircraft Drag Reduction Program.
  • DOE, working collaboratively with NASA, is investing $115M to develop battery technologies that can achieve the energy density needed for both near term electric vertical take-off and landing and short-range consumer aircraft use cases, and may potentially achieve the energy density needed for long term longer range electric aircraft as well.
  • DOE ARPA-E announced $16.5 million in funding for six projects as part of the Systems for Monitoring and Analytics for Renewable Transportation Fuels from Agricultural Resources and Management (SMARTFARM) program. These projects will develop technologies that bridge the data gap in the biofuel supply chain by quantifying feedstock-related GHG emissions and soil carbon dynamics at the field-level.

Improving air traffic and airport efficiency to reduce fuel use, eliminate lead exposure, and ensure cleaner air in and around airports

  • Recently, FAA awarded $20.4 million in grants to reduce emissions and improve air quality at airports across the country. The awards will fund zero-emission airport vehicles, including their electric charging infrastructure, and will electrify the ramp equipment used to service planes at the gate.
  • FAA introduced the Aviation Climate Research (ACR) program in the FY22 Presidential Budget Request for the FAA at a proposed $50M. Subject to appropriations, the ACR program will invest in research that has transformative impact potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation in support of the U.S. climate change goals.
  • FAA is launching a new research project to develop a contrail avoidance tool to evaluate and optimize the benefits, costs, and practicality of contrail avoidance to minimize aviation climate impacts.
  • To address local environmental impacts of aviation, including lead emissions from piston-engine aircraft, the FAA and the EPA will be working together to identify ways to reduce exposure to lead emissions and to reduce or eliminate lead from aviation gasoline.

Strengthening aviation leadership internationally

  • With today’s announcements and the forthcoming aviation climate action plan, the United States is committed to asserting positive international leadership on aviation and climate change. As a country, we will re-establish U.S. credibility through ambitious domestic commitments and realistic action plans for implementing those commitments, demonstrate leadership on aviation ambition at the International Civil Aviation Organization by showing the world by implementing CORSIA transparently and effectively, and supporting adoption of a long-term aspirational goal for reducing aviation emissions. We will also engage with bilateral and regional partners to forge a diverse coalition of States committed to greater ambition and action on aviation.

Leading through Federal example

  • The government as a whole has procurement power that can be used to support the sustainable aviation industry as federal employees return to travel. The General Services Administration is publishing a Request for Information on the Options to Increase Sustainability of Future Federal Air Travel. In this RFI the agency is seeking market research information about airlines’ commercial sustainability capabilities and offerings to inform the Government’s efforts to reduce the sustainability impacts of employee travel. The RFI will be released in October with responses due in November.


Commitments from Across the Aviation Sector

Industry collaboration is necessary to achieve a sustainable, decarbonized aviation sector. The engagement of the full ecosystem of aviation stakeholders will be critical to advance technological innovation, create new job opportunities, and contribute to the Administration’s economy wide goal of net zero emissions by 2050. New and recent commitments by airlines, aircraft manufacturers, fuel providers, and airports—in concert with government investment—will significantly reduce emissions by 2030 and put us on the pathway to a zero-carbon aviation sector.

Passenger Airlines Will Accelerate Adoption of Sustainable Aviation Fuel

Today, members of Airlines for America have pledged to work with the federal government and other stakeholders toward a rapid expansion of the production and deployment of commercially viable SAF to make three billion gallons of SAF available to U.S. aircraft operators in 2030. This new commitment will ensure progress this decade towards the industry’s overall goal of carbon neutrality by 2050. Today’s announcement builds off the near-term commitment across the industry of carbon-neutral growth relative to 2019.

In support of Airlines for America’s new 2030 goal, several airlines have made specific pledges to ramp up use of SAF and advance sustainability across their operations:

  • United Airlines announced a new goal to reduce its carbon emissions intensity 50% compared to 2019 in by 2035. United Airlines and Honeywell also announced a new multi-million-dollar investment in Alder Fuels to produce carbon-negative sustainable aviation fuel at scale. Under the agreement, Honeywell and Alder Fuels will jointly commercialize the technology that could demonstrate greater than 100% lifecycle GHG emissions reductions for aviation fuel. United Airlines has committed to purchasing 1.5 billion gallons of this new SAF over the next 20 years.
  • Delta Airlines is committed to replace 10% of current jet fuel use with SAFs by 2030 and has agreements with three SAF producers, Neste, Gevo, and Northwest Advanced Bio-Fuels. Delta also recently announced a new SAF emissions pilot project with Chevron and Google to increase industry SAF transparency. 
  • American Airlines plans to procure 10 million gallons of SAF from Prometheus Fuels by 2025 through a process that produces fuels from captured CO2 and renewable electricity.
  • Alaska Airlines offers purchase of SAF to offset corporate travel on key routes and has agreements in place with SAF producers including SkyNRG Americas and Neste.
  • Southwest Airlines is partnering with the National Renewable Energy Lab to develop and commercialize SAF.
  • JetBlue is committed to electric and hydrogen aircraft development in partnership with Joby Aviation and Universal Hydrogen.

Cargo Airlines Will Invest in Innovation and Efficiency

In air freight, the Cargo Airline Association (CAA) members are advancing sustainability by purchasing new, fuel efficient aircraft, electrifying ground equipment, promoting and using SAF, and pioneering the use of electric short-haul cargo aircraft. Each company is incorporating climate considerations across their business, with specific actions including:

  • FedEx is conserving fuel and improving the efficiency of aircrafts through their FedEx Fuel Sense® program while continuing to invest in the development of SAF.
  • Atlas Air is driving operating efficiencies with their FuelWise program, which works in conjunction with flight planning software to optimize speeds, altitudes, routes, and flight path segments.
  • Amazon AIR is investing in electrofuels, hydrogen fuel cell aircraft, and electric vertical take-off and landing aircraft development. Amazon Air has purchased 6 million gallons of SAF
  • DHL Express has pledged to use 30% SAF by 2030 and is partnering with other stakeholders on a demonstration project in Northern Kentucky to produce and supply SAF to the region.
  • UPS is investing in efficient, electric vertical take-off and landing aircrafts for moving smaller loads.

Partnerships Will Promote Transparent Airline Targets and Progress

Today, United and Delta Airlines are announcing their participation in the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi), joining American Airlines, international airlines, and a wide range of companies across other sectors. SBTi works with companies to set rigorous, science-based emissions reduction targets and empower suppliers and customers to follow suit on climate action. Participating airlines have committed to make meaningful and measurable progress on ambitious targets. American Airlines became the first U.S. airline to commit to develop a science-based target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2035, supporting its existing commitment to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.  
To support increased market demand for SAFs, RMI and Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), launched the Sustainable Aviation Buyers Alliance (SABA) in April 2021 with founding companies Bank of America, Boston Consulting Group, Boeing, Deloitte, JPMorgan Chase, Microsoft, Netflix and Salesforce.

Fuel Providers Will Scale Up SAF Production

Current levels of domestic SAF production are approximately 4.5 million gallons per year, with the industry poised to grow rapidly. To meet the challenge of scaling up to billions of gallons over a decade, both policy support and producer commitments will be critical to driving domestic innovation and deployment. Scaling up domestic SAF production will involve a wide variety of different feedstocks and pathways, and the industry will continue to explore a diverse set of options, including the potential to convert biofuels such as ethanol into jet fuel. To help achieve our 2030 goals, several fuel providers have announced domestic SAF production targets:

  • LanzaJet plans to produce 1 billion gallons of SAF per year 2030 from ethanol derived from waste sources by Alcohol-to-Jet processing.
  • World Energy plans to produce 150 million gallons of SAF per year by 2024 from fats, oils, and greases by hydroprocessing.
  • Gevo plans to produce over 150 million gallons of SAF per year by 2025 from crop residue to ethanol by Alcohol-to-jet processing.
  • Fulcrum plans to produce more than 33 million gallons of SAF per year by 2022 from MSW processed by Fischer-Tropsch processing.
  • Velocys plans to produce 300 million gallons of blended SAF per year from waste woody biomass and MSW processed by Fischer-Tropsch processing.
  • Additional recent and new announcements of potential SAF production scale-up include those from BP, Virent, Honeywell, Shell, Neste, Marquis, Green Plains Inc., ADM, Prometheus, Aemetis, and members of the Renewable Fuels Association and members of Growth Energy.

Airports Will Improve Operational Efficiency and Support SAF Fueling

Many airports have committed to sustainable operations. The members of Airports Council International- North America (ACI-NA) have joined in the commitment to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050, an industry-wide goal announced in May. Progress toward this goal will not only mitigate the aviation sector’s climate impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but also improve the local environment for airport workers, nearby residents, and the broader region that utilizes air transport for passenger and cargo travel.

SAF is already commercially available and regularly used on passenger flights at Los Angeles, CA (LAX) and San Francisco, CA (SFO); and several airports are pursuing the infrastructure required to enable SAF deliveries in the future. Many airports are pursuing operational efficiency and emissions reduction efforts. Industry-leading examples include: 

  • Indianapolis, IN (IND) has one of the largest solar farms on any airport property in the world, in addition to being a leader in electric airport shuttle bus fleets.
  • Philadelphia, PA (PHL) has established comprehensive air quality initiatives and launched a series of energy efficiency and benchmarking initiatives that include terminal facilities and ground support equipment.
  • Salt Lake City, UT (SLC) generates 7 percent of its energy from renewable sources, including on-site solar.
  • San Diego, CA (SAN) is the first U.S. airport to establish a regular sustainability report in order to measure progress on a range of environmental goals.
  • Dallas-Fort Worth, TX (DFW) has set a goal of achieving Net Zero Carbon by 2030.
  • A number of U.S. airports have individual road maps to achieve net zero emissions and are actively participating in the Airport Carbon Accreditation certification program.  READ MORE

Action This Day: Biden Administration Advances Sustainable Fuels in American Aviation (Biofuels Digest)

In potential boost for Iowa ethanol, Biden administration plans to power airplanes with sustainable fuel (Des Moines Register)

Airlines boost biofuel pledge as White House announces development plan (Agri-Pulse)

Sustainable aviation fuels roundtable held at White House (Farm Progress)

White House proposes SAF tax credit to cut US aviation emissions 20% by 2030 (S&P Global Platts)

White House Holds Roundtable on Sustainable Aviation Fuels (Energy.AgWired.com)

Biden administration sets goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050 — The administration says boosting the use of fuels made from waste or plants could cut emissions from flying 20 percent by the end of the decade (Washington Post)

White House announces target of 20 percent aviation emissions reduction by 2030 (The Hill)

Biden, airlines strike deal to slash carbon emissions  (E&E News)

Biden administration takes action to expand SAF production, use (Biomass Magazine)

FLYING CLEAN: The White House revealed a spate of cross-agency initiatives to boost sustainable aviation fuels (Politico’s Morning Energy)

RFA Participates in White House Roundtable on Sustainable Aviation Fuels (Renewable Fuels Association)

Airlines Join White House Effort for Cleaner Jet Fuel — Biden administration plans to put up $4.3 billion to lower jet-fuel emissions by 20% (Wall Street Journal)

3B by ’30: Big Moves by Big Players, 9 Key White House SAF Announcements and more (Biofuels Digest)

Biden’s Push To Curb Aviation GHGs Creates Opening For Biofuels In RFS (Inside EPA)

Biden administration takes action to expand SAF production, use (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

US govt. targets 35 bgy of SAF supply by 2050, creates mechanisms to achieve goal (Biobased Diesel Daily)

SAF Grand Challenge – Observations from CAAFI (Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative)

USDA Joins Government-Wide Sustainable Aviation Fuels Grand Challenge (USDA)

High and Sustainable Flights in the Future (Estadao)

Quote-Unquote: Aviation fuel in the GHG-reduction equation (Inside EPA)

Biofuel makers seeks changes to aviation fuel tax credit in Biden spending plan (Reuters)

 

Excerpt from Des Moines Register: The news comes as Iowa and U.S. farmers have questioned President Joe Biden’s commitment to renewable fuels, given his push to replace gas-powered cars and trucks with electric vehicles. Almost all gasoline sold in the country, by federal law, contains 10% ethanol.

“Focusing solely on cars and trucks doesn’t understand the enormous opportunity that exists in aviation and marine fuel,” (Agriculture Secretary Tom) Vilsack said.

Vilsack told the Des Moines Register that the initiative would roughly double the size of the nation’s existing biofuels market and help the ethanol and biodiesel industry find new uses for the renewable fuels.

Vilsack said biofuels will be around for years as the nation gradually shifts to electric cars and trucks and that new opportunities for its use will emerge as the nation moves away from fossil fuel products, which go into everything from plastics to cosmetics.

Vilsack pushed to the U.S. military’s air and marine divisions to use more biofuels when he served as agriculture secretary under President Barack Obama.    READ MORE

 

Excerpt from The Hill: In a statement, Liz Jones, an attorney at the Center for Biological Diversity’s Climate Law Institute, called President Biden‘s approach overly reliant on voluntary industry cooperation.

“Biden’s deal with the airlines largely relies on biofuels aspirations that simply aren’t based on reality. Nothing in this deal holds the airlines to their promises, and even the best-case scenario doesn’t cut climate pollution fast enough,” Jones said. “More investment in efficiency is promising, but the Biden EPA needs to set strong airplane emissions standards now, not get mired in the myth of sustainable airline fuels.” READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Biomass Magazine: The RFA was among the organizations that participated a White House roundtable discussion on SAF. “The ethanol industry sees tremendous promise and potential in the emerging market for sustainable aviation fuels, and RFA supports the goals announced today by President Biden’s administration,” said Geoff Cooper, president and CEO of the RFA. “Ethanol has a decades-long proven track record for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles, and we are confident that ethanol will play a central role in cleaning up aviation fuels as well. Today’s average corn ethanol already cuts GHG emissions in half compared to petroleum, and some readily available sources of ethanol in the market have been certified by the California Air Resources Board as providing a 70-80 percent GHG reduction. With the right policy signals and support, ethanol-to-jet technologies can quickly scale up to meet the future SAF needs of the aviation sector. RFA was honored to participate in today’s roundtable, and we look forward to working with the Biden administration, major airlines, SAF technology innovators, and other stakeholders to decarbonize the aviation fuels sector.”

Growth Energy also participated in the round table discussion. “We are energized by the potential opportunity to expand our role in reducing our nation’s carbon emissions,” said Emily Skor, CEO of Growth Energy. “With the appropriate investment in critical research and development and the right policy environment, we know our industry can continue to help decarbonize our transportation sector—from passenger vehicles to our aircraft fleet. Importantly, to deliver game-changing solutions, we must have a healthy and thriving corn ethanol industry to make the long-term investments in research and development.

“To meet this challenge, it important that new tax incentives are guided by technology-neutral life-cycle assessments by scientists who understand the U.S. biofuel sector – in this case, those at the U.S. Department of Energy,” Skor added. “U.S. tax credits must reflect U.S.-based modeling, and we will continue to press for policy that reflects the most up-to-date science available.”

Additional information is available on the White House websiteREAD MORE

 

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Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel Cook Islands cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diesel with renewables diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferr ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit 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glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 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membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New York Michigan New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid 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RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Fuels Policy; carbon removal Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsi Wisconsin Wood woody 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