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Full Throttle: The Aviation Industry Has Been Working on Bio-Aviation Fuels Since the Late 2000s.

 by Dhanisha Juleemun, Lucky Nurafiatin, Daria Kochetkova, and Jorge Sierra (SGS INSPIRE/Biofuels International) The first flight using bio-aviation fuel took off in 2008 - it was flown by Virgin Atlantic from London to Amsterdam. Since then, many more airlines have carried out

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to DG Fuels’ St. James SAF project

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) DG Fuels is an emerging leader in renewable hydrogen and biogenic based, synthetic low emissions aviation and diesel fuel, and this deck looks at their second-generation cellulosic biofuel and their market expansion plans, whose hydrogen content

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DG Fuels, Johnson Matthey & bp Partner for Largest Fischer-Tropsch SAF Plant

(DG Fuels)  DG Fuels, a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) company proposing construction of a $4 billion clean energy complex in St. James Parish, is proud to announce its collaboration with Johnson Matthey (JM) and bp in deploying Fischer Tropsch (FT) CANS™

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to Sequestering CO2 in Plastics

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) There are a number of possible routes to convert emissions into polymers. Plastics contain carbon for the entire duration of their useful life and during the time which they are not degrading in a landfill. Since

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Using Solid Waste to Decarbonise Aviation

(Topsoe/Biofuels International)  ... There is an increasing interest in co-processing as a production method to provide the required short-term ramp up in SAF production. Co-processing allows refineries to convert renewable feedstocks into drop-in, biojet fuel at economically competitive prices, meaning it can

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Fueling the Future: Biofuels Driving Progress on Net Zero

(S&P Global) The role of biofuels in energy transition is growing, as they can help decarbonize hard-to-abate transport sectors, but more supply is needed to keep the world on track with net-zero goals. S&P Global Commodity Insights explores how regional policies

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TUHH Study Compares F-T and Methanol Pathways for SAF Production

(Green Car Congress)  A team at Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) has compared the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and methanol pathways for the production of Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) derived from renewable energy sources. The results, published in an open-access paper in the

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to Pathways to eFuels: CO2 Capture and Conversion to Liquid Products

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) CO2, the final frontier. We have, famously, too much of it, and can do too little with us for too high a cost. Yet, researchers are teasing out exciting new applications, such as a pathway to

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Velocys Secures US$40MM of Growth Capital and Begins New Chapter as a Private Sustainable Aviation Fuel Technology Company

(Velocys) Velocys, a leading sustainable aviation fuel (“SAF”) technology company, announces that it has begun a new chapter following the completion of its take-private on 18 January 2024. As part of the transaction, a new consortium of growth investors, including Carbon

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Bio-SynDiesel and Bio-SynJet from EBTL and BETL Processes

by David J. Patterson and Gord Crawford (Expander Energy Inc./Biofuels Digest)  Expander’s Enhanced Biomass to Liquids (EBTL™) and Biomass Electrolysis to Liquids (BETL™) processes produce and combine hydrogen and carbon monoxide into paraffin carbon chains in the diesel boiling range to produce

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to Trends within Sustainable Aviation Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Balance your risks and rewards,” advises Topsoe’s Henrik Guldberg Petersen at ABLC Next 2023 in San Francisco, addressing the challenges of feedstock as a very scarce resource, making every carbon atom count for lower CI; the

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to Low Carbon Fuels 2040

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Emerging Markets Online is focused on market trends and futures in biodiesel, renewable diesel, sustainable aviation fuels, low carbon fuels, integrated biorefining, and feedstock business development industries, and is the publisher of Low Carbon Fuels 2040.

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Joint Venture with CompactGTL towards New Business in Renewable Synthetic Fuels, Including Sustainable Aviation Fuel

(EQTEC/Polaris.Brighterir.com/RNS)  EQTEC plc (AIM: EQT), a global technology innovator powering distributed, decarbonised, new energy infrastructure through its waste-to-value solutions for hydrogen, biofuels, and energy generation, is pleased to announce that it has set up a new joint venture company (the "JV") with CompactGTL Limited ("CompactGTL")

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to the State of Sustainable Aviation Fuel 2024

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  This week on ABLC CONNECT, we networked and exchanged information about the world of Sustainable Aviation Fuel, and as part of the proceedings, we had the State of Sustainable Aviation Fuel presentation. The slides are here.

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to SAF, the ICF Perspective

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Mike McCurdy, Managing Director of Fuels & Power at ICF presented these slides at ABLC Next on how sustainable aviation fuels are taking off in the near term with the latest projected figures for the 2020s,

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Electrofuel Developed from Green Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Tested in Practice for First Time in Finland

((VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland/TechXplore) The E-fuel project of VTT and partners has developed a concept for producing electrofuel from green hydrogen and carbon dioxide using a combination of different methods. On Nov. 21, this paraffinic E-fuel was tested for

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Harvesting Hydrogen

by Susanne Retka Schill  (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The largest ethanol producer in Brazil has teamed up with a hydrogen technology company, along with others, to build what is believed to be the world’s first ethanol-to-hydrogen fueling station. Located on Brazil’s University of

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DG Fuels’ SAF Projects

(REenergize! the Gulf Coast)  This week, our special guests were two popular veterans of the ABLC stage....  Later in the hour, Mike Darcy, CEO of DG Fuels was with us, we’ll look at their outstanding upcoming $4.2B SAF project in Saint James

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Low Carbon Fuels 2040: The Emerging Markets

(Biofuels Digest/Nuu Media) Low Carbon Fuels 2040: The Emerging Markets provides detailed case studies, updates and analysis of the key producers and developers participating in Renewable Diesel projects and Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) projects in the USA, Canada, Europe, Asia, and in South

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Nick Andrews Takes His Hat Off: The Making of the Historic Southwest Airlines/USA BioEnergy SAF Pact

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ... Historic not just for the large volume, but for the 20-year length of the agreement, something called by the financial industry the “tenor of the loan”. As tenors go, this one is right up there with

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Sustainable Aviation Fuels: Parts 1-4: What Is SAF? Why Use SAF? Economics of SAF. Politics of SAF.

by Gaulthier Blangez*  (Time to Fly and Advanced Biofuels USA)  Advanced Biofuels USA, in collaboration with Time to Fly, is proud to publish a guide to sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) for a general audience, for corporations working on ESG (environment, social and

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JM and bp Chosen by EDL to Support Production of SAF at HyKero Plant in Germany

(Johnson Matthey)  • Johnson Matthey and bp’s co-developed Fischer Tropsch (FT) CANS™ technology selected for the project. The EDL HyKero power-to-liquids SAF plant would be the first of its kind at commercial scale in Germany. The licence is the 7th sustainable technologies project contributing to JM’s milestone of

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Launch of 52,500 sq ft State-of-the-Art Technology Facility in Ohio

(Velocys) Velocys, the sustainable fuels technology company, is delighted to announce the launch of its new 52,500 sq. ft technology facility in Plain City, Ohio that will house the reactor core assembly and catalysis operations which form a critical part of

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to CO2 Utilization Markets, Resources, and Environmental and Energy Justice

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) A recent DOE project aims to quantify resource availability and costs for CO2 utilization (CO2U) in sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) production to inform industry, technology communities, and policymakers on location-specific economic and societal impacts. It will provide

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Biofuels Vs Synthetic Fuels: The Five Points that Favor Waste Biomass to Fuels

by Michael Barnard (CleanTechnica)  I am betting on collective sanity, rational behavior of governments, and funding getting into the right hands as opposed to into the hands of people working on useless frippery. Recently a post-doctoral researcher at Ghent University in Belgium

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Renewable Fuels from Green Refineries

Nicolaus Dahmen (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology/IEA Bioenergy Task 34 Newsletter Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction)  ... REF4FU starts from hydrogen, pyrolysis oil based on bio-residues, such as straw or waste wood, methanol from renewable feedstocks, as well as Fischer-Tropsch oil that corresponds to

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Carbon Dioxide Utilization Markets, Resources, and Environmental and Energy Justice

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  A new DOE project is quantifying resource availability and costs for CO2 utilization (CO2U) in sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) production to inform industry, technology communities, and policymakers on location-specific economic and societal impacts. It will provide insights

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to CO2 Reduction and Upgrading for e-Fuels Consortium

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Commercial shipping and transportation expected to be difficult to electrify/decarbonize. Projected supply of traditional biomass feedstocks may be insufficient to fully meet global demand. CO2 as a feedstock could help meet SAF Grand Challenge. The CO2RUE

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Renewable Propane: Regulatory & Refiner Perspectives

(Stillwater Associates) On August 22, 2023 Stillwater President Megan Boutwell presented about regulatory & refiner perspectives at the Renewable Propane Summit hosted by the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC). Agenda  1. Regulatory environment: Incentivizing carbon reduction a. CO2 reduction regulations for transport b. A couple

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel: Challenges of Scale

by Tony Cartolano (Lee Enterprises Consulting/Biofuels Digest) ... In January 2022, Valero Energy Corp said that tax incentives for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) in U.S. President Biden’s stalled Build Back Better legislation were not enough for the oil refiner to consider producing it instead

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The Future of Sustainable Aviation Fuels

by Owen Wagner (Rabobank) With aviation as a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, governments around the world have begun to design incentives for decarbonizing the sector – something the industry, to its credit, has been pursuing for years. Although sustainable

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E-fuels: Axens, Paul Wurth (SMS group) and IFPEN Sign an Agreement for the Co-Development of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Technology

(Axens) Axens, SMS group subsidiary Paul Wurth and IFP Energies nouvelles signed a co-development agreement for the optimization of the Reverse Water Gas Shift technology (RWGS) and its integration into e-fuel projects. The RWGS technology is indeed an essential part of the

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Velocys and the Bayou Fuels Project

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The REenergize webcast series returned to the airwaves this past week and first guest was Velocys’ Jeff McDaniel, with this lucid, comprehensive  and concise update on one of the most exciting projects anywhere in the Gulf

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Jeff McDaniel, VP of New Projects at Velocys and Will Thurmond, CEO of Emerging Markets Online Joined REenergize Last Week.

(REenergize) Jeff McDaniel shared updates to Velocys’ commercial reference project, Bayou Fuels, which will produce SAF and naphtha in Natchez, Mississippi. McDaniel said the woody biomass residues, “the parts of the pine plantation that can’t be converted into lumber, that’s what we

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On Top of SAF: ... Topsoe Believes All Possible Pathways Are Needed—but for Most, Investment Costs Remain High.

by  Susanne Retka Schill (SAF Magazine) U.S. SAF goals are lofty. New tax credits provide real incentives. Multiple technologies are ready to roll. Opportunities lie ahead.  But the challenges are complex, Henrik Rasmussen, Topsoe’s managing director for the Americas, tells SAF Magazine.

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MHI Inaugurates Operations at "Nagasaki Carbon Neutral Park,"

(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) A Development Base for Energy Decarbonization Technologies --The new facility is purposed to develop fuel production and combustion technologies, aiming for increased use of hydrogen, biomass and ammonia;  The existing development, design and production bases in Nagasaki District will

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SAF Production: Haffner Energy Launches a Game-Changing Solution

(Haffner Energy) Haffner Energy launches SAFNOCA, an integrated solution that unlocks the pathway for the massive production of competitive sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). Its patented technology of renewable synthetic gas production from diversified biomass and organic waste will play a decisive

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eJet Breakthroughs Can Double Sustainable Aviation Fuel Output to Support a 90% Green Aviation Fuel Future by 2050, says Cleantech Group

(Cleantech Group) Sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) are poised to claim 67- 88% of all jet fuel by 2050, on the strength of sustained innovation and investments and policy support, according to a report from Cleantech Group. One SAF type called eJet, with a neutral

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A Brighter Horizon for Sustainable Aviation Fuel: Sasol and Topsoe to Form a Future Business to Accelerate Global SAF Production

(Sasol)  Sasol, the global chemicals and energy company, and Topsoe, a global leader in carbon emission reduction technologies, have signed a landmark agreement to establish a 50/50 joint venture (subject to approval by relevant authorities), solidifying their commitment to produce sustainable

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The Aviation Industry’s Quest for Zero Emissions: Challenges and Opportunities

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) ... However, this challenge can be met by innovation, policy support, and collaboration across the aviation value chain, as found in a new expert-led, industry-wide report Voices from the Sky, says Milica Folić, Product Line Director at

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Renewable Fuels from Green Refineries

(Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) Consortium of Science and Industry Develops Processes and Demand Scenarios for the Mass Production of Synthetic Fuels – Federal Funding of around EUR 7 Million Synthetic fuels from renewable energy sources are needed to reach the climate

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Raven SR

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Raven SR is a clean fuels company that transforms waste – municipal solid waste, organic waste, and methane – into high-quality, clean hydrogen and Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuels through its patented Steam/CO2 Reforming technology.  RavenSR CEO Matt

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Airlines Can Eliminate up to 70% of Emissions by 2050, but Many Will Miss Their Net Zero Goals if Air Traffic Continues to Grow Faster than GDP

(Bain) New research from Bain & Company shows the cost of decarbonizing airlines will start increasing ticket prices by 2026, a trend likely to trim global demand --  A new study from Bain & Company reveals airlines can cut up to

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Raven SR Bioenergy Project Receives Environmental Approval from City of Richmond, Calif.

(Raven SR/PR Newswire) Richmond City Council unanimously approved California Environmental Quality Act Permit; Project is the first waste diversion to renewable hydrogen facility permitted in California; Hydrogen to be produced from green waste and food waste with proprietary non-combustion reforming

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Advisian

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Industry leaders in biofuels project development and delivery, Advisian is Worley’s global consulting business, solving critical challenges in infrastructure, environmental, sustainability, energy, and chemicals sectors. We bring technical expertise to every stage of your biofuels

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Expander Energy to Construct Its 1st Bio-SynDiesel® Project

(Expander Energy/Biobased Diesel Daily)  Calgary, Alberta-based Expander Energy Inc. announced May 4 that it has signed an agreement with Rocky Mountain Clean Fuels Inc. to build its first biomass-to-liquids project and produce low-carbon, renewable biobased synthetic diesel by 2025. Expander said its

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Twelve and Emerging Fuels Technology Sign Master License Agreement to Scale Sustainable Aviation Fuel Production

(Emerging Fuels Technology/PR Newswire)  Twelve and EFT are collaborating to scale production of Twelve’s E-Jet® fuel from CO2 to meet growing demand from the aviation industry -- Carbon transformation company Twelve and fuel technology partner Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT) announced today they have signed a Master

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Can Large Integrated Refineries Replace All Crude Oil with Cellulosic Feedstocks for Drop-in Hydrocarbon Biofuels?

by Charles Forsberg and Bruce E. Dale (Hydrocarbon Processing)  Hydrocarbon liquid fuels are central to the U.S. economy, delivering almost half the country’s energy to the residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors. ... The U.S. Energy Information Agency’s (EIA’s) long-term projections show

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What Is the Long-Term Demand for Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels and Feedstocks?

by Charles Forsberg (Applied Energy) Liquid hydrocarbons made from crude oil serve many functions: (1) a dense, easy-to-store, easy-to-transport energy source, (2) a method for daily-to-seasonal energy storage, (3) a chemical feedstock, (4) a chemical reducing agent and (5) a

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Legislation and Regulations about SAF, the Topsoe Perspective

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Case 1, Is Jet Fuel Produced From Soybean Oil? Case 2, Is E-Jet Produced From Fossil CO2 And Green H2 SAF? These are just a couple of the topics tucked into this panoramic survey of

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Raven SR and Cap Clean Energy to Collaborate on Canadian SAF and Renewable Diesel projects

(Raven SR/PR Newswire) • Announcement marks Raven SR and Cap Clean's strategic commitment to sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) production to support aviation industry decarbonization MOU to co-develop a portfolio of bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) opportunities across Canada SAF to be

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The Hurdles of SAF

by Kenneth Agee (Emerging Fuels Technology/SAF Magazine) The Sustainable Aviation Fuel Grand Challenge Roadmap recognizes the importance of the aviation industry and its impact on the overall economy. ... The roadmap lists various renewable feedstocks that could be used to make SAF,

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Enerkem

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Enerkem is the first company in the world to produce renewable methanol and ethanol from non-recyclable, non-compostable municipal solid waste at full commercial scale. The company’s solution replaces the use of fossil sources like petroleum

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The Road to Lumberton: TerraStar Energy and Emerging Fuels Technology Strike a Deal for Biomass-to-Fuels Scaled to Feedstock

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) ...  TerraStar Energy and Emerging Fuels Technology have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to license EFT’s Fischer-Tropsch  and Maxx Jet/Maxx Diesel proprietary technology to build a fleet of FLEXplants; small-scale, modular renewable diesel facilities. Small ball Recently the Due Diligence Wolfpack has been

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to DG Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) It’s Friday and you’re ready for the weekend so here’s a short and sweet slide guide from DG Fuels on their second-generation cellulosic biofuel whose hydrogen content is derived from water electrolysis and uses a

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SAF in the IRA Era – How Do the Incentives Stack up?

by Megan Boutwell (Stillwater Associates) The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (IRA) provides for a two-phased approach to incentivize sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) production. The first phase, 2023-2024, expands the biomass-based diesel blenders tax credit (BTC) to include a separate per-gallon incentive

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Axens Acquires Stake in BioTFuel Renewable Fuels Project

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) In France, Axens has acquired a stake in the BioTJet project, which will build and operate the largest European SAF production unit using the Fischer-Tropsch process, relying on the BioTfueL technology. This unit will be built in

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KHIMOD and Elyse Energy Team up to Produce Sustainable Aviation Fuels through Collaborative Project AVEBIO

(AVEBIO) AVEBIO aims at demonstrating the production of sustainable e-fuels for air transport based on the yet-to-valorize CO2 of a biofuel production unit. The goal of this industrial pilot is to valorize biomass deposit while using competitive synthetic carbon to

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UK Government SAF Policy Update

(Velocys)  Velocys plc (VLS.L), the sustainable fuels technology company, welcomes yesterday’s consultation paper from the UK Government which contains a number of proposals aimed at supporting and financing the development of the sustainable aviation fuel (“SAF”) industry. Velocys believes this will

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DG Fuels Proposes 120 mgy Sustainable Aviation Fuel Project in St. James Parish, Louisiana

by Dan Brown (DG Fuels) Company’s first SAF facility would create more than 6,000 jobs in the Southeast Region --  DG Fuels, an emerging leader in cellulosic drop-in sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), announced it is evaluating a 3,000-acre site in St. James

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NREL: Regional Analysis Can Help Accelerate Deployment of SAF

(National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Ethanol Producer Magazine) Made from nonpetroleum sources like waste and biomass, sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) has the potential to reduce aviation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 50 percent or more compared to fossil-derived jet fuel. The aviation industry

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Ready for Take-off and Take-up

by John McGarrity (Fastmarkets/Biofuels International) Sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) is at a turning point. Aviation has long been considered one of the hardest industries to decarbonise and unlike the automotive industry, we are still years away from being able to use

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Axens Announces the Launch of the Jetanol™ Brand for its Alcohol-to-Jet Technology, with a Project Pipeline Already Approaching 3 Million Tons (1 billion Gallons) Per Year of Sustainable

(Axens) Committed to offer mature and reliable Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) technologies, Axens is pleased to announce the launch of the Jetanol™ brand for its Alcohol-to-Jet technology. Evidenced by its competitive selection this solution is being deployed for five industrial-scale

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Strategic Biofuels Licenses FT CANS™ Technology for Louisiana Green Fuels Project

(Johnson Matthey) Johnson Matthey and BP announced Feb. 20 that their codeveloped, award-winning Fischer Tropsch (FT) CANS™ technology has been selected by Strategic Biofuels for its Louisiana Green Fuels project. The technology has been licensed to Strategic Biofuels for its renewable diesel

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Topsoe Enters SAF JV with Sasol and Signs Agreement with Steeper Energy on Waste-to-Fuel Technology

by Christopher Surgenor  (GreenAir Online)  Danish decarbonisation technology solutions company Topsoe has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with South Africa-based global energy and chemicals company Sasol with the intent to establish a 50/50 joint venture to develop sustainable aviation fuel

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Sasol, Topsoe to Accelerate Growth in SAF

(Topsoe/SAF Magazine) Sasol, the global chemicals and energy company, and Topsoe, a global leader in carbon emission reduction technologies, have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the intent to establish a 50/50 joint venture (JV) in 2023 to produce sustainable

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#86. Creating Sustainable Transport Energy Options for Everyone

by Tammy Klein (Transportation Energy Strategies)  Dr. Amer Amer, Chief Technologist at Aramco, is leading the charge on R&D to improve the sustainability of transport fuels. Hear more about Aramco’s work in this area, what he thinks is the most

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Velocys and Bechtel Collaborate on SAF Project Delivery Solution for Global Markets

(Velocys) Developing the plans for innovative sustainable fuel production facilities in the UK and the US -- Velocys plc (VLS.L), the sustainable fuels technology company, is pleased to announce the execution of a master relationship agreement (“MRA”) with Bechtel Limited (“Bechtel”),

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Raven SR Agrees to Supply Sustainable Aviation Fuel to Japan Airlines

(Raven SR/PR Newswire) Announcement marks one of Raven SR's first agreements in aviation industry for SAF; Agreement to support 10-year supply deal; SAF to be produced from non-combustion conversion of waste to synthetic fuel -- Raven SR Inc. (Raven SR), a

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H2: The Hydrogen Hooks ups Are Forming Fast and Global

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The bioeconomy is rocking as the week begins with news from the US and Europe and major moves in hydrogen. Today, we’ll look at the Topsoe/Fidelis New Energy and Raven SR/Chart Industries partnerships. Topsoe / Fidelis New

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Raven SR, Chevron and Hyzon Motors Commercialize Waste-to-Hydrogen Production

by Ariana Fine (NGT News) Raven SR Inc., a renewable fuels company, Chevron New Energies, a division of Chevron Corp.’s Chevron U.S.A. Inc., and Hyzon Motors Inc. are collaborating to commercialize operations of a green waste-to-hydrogen production facility in Richmond intended to supply hydrogen

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SWEN Capital Partners Announces Investment in Arcadia eFuels, International Developer of E-fuel for Aviation

(SWEN Capital Partners/Business Wire)  Arcadia eFuels Receives Investment from Swen Infrastructure Fund for Transition 2 (“Swift 2”), a fund managed by SWEN Capital Partners, to provide necessary development capital to accelerate reaching Final Investment Decision stage for the world’s first commercial

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel Offers Flight Path to Net-Zero Air Travel

by Marc Hamy & Nancy Gillis (Green Biz/First Movers Coalition)  It will take long-term, coordinated action from airlines, aircraft manufacturers, fuel producers, airports and governments for zero-emissions flight to really take off. -- ... On Nov. 27, a small piece of

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The Pursuit of Green Hydrogen Liquefaction: Raven, Chart, GenH2 in the Hunt for Solutions Large and Small

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) From the wilds of western Wyoming comes the welcome news for the hydrogen fanbase that Raven SR and Chart Industries inked a global collab for the liquefaction, storage, and transportation of hydrogen as well as pure

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A Visit from St. Nicholas: The UK Grants $99M to Five Commercial-Scale SAF Projects, Just in Time for Christmas

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) ... The UK took a giant leap towards net zero carbon emissions and helping its sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) industry to take flight as government awarded 5 projects a share of the $198M Advanced Fuels Fund.

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Geo Announces BRL 15 Million for Pilot Production of Aviation Biokerosene

(Millena Brazil/EPBR) Biotechnology company receives approval from Finep to finance part of the project; initial production will be 660 liters per day in biogas plants --  The biotechnology company Geo Biogás & Tech will invest BRL 15 million in a pilot

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel Market Estimated to Reach Value of US$ 402.0Bn by 2050: TMR Study

(Transparency Market Reserach/PR Newswire) Key advantage for reduced CO2 emissions to promote environment conservation stimulates demand for sustainable aviation fuel; Increasing demand for biofuels assisting in expansion of overall market; Europe emerged as the leader in global market in 2021

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Can the Aviation Industry Reach 10% SAF Uptake by 2030? The Sky’s the Limit.

(Topsoe/Biofuels Digest) To achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, the Clean Skies for Tomorrow Coalition has set a target of 10% SAF adoption by 2030. For fuel producers, that means creating enough supply to meet future demand, and for the aviation industry,

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CARBIOW Project Will Help Europe Lead in Energy and Transport Sector Decarbonization

(Renewable Energy Magazine/Spanish Technology and Innovation Platform “Biomass for the Bioeconomy” – BIOPLAT) CARBIOW (Carbon Negative Biofuels from Organic Waste) is a Research and Innovation Action funded by the European Union under the Horizon Europe Program that addresses green transition

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As SAF Rules, DG Fuels Rocks with Huge Air France/KLM Fuels Deal

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  News arrived on the ABLC floor that DG Fuels signed a multi-year SAF offtake agreement with Air France KLM for up to 60,408 metric tons (21 million gallons) per year from DGF’s initial plant to be

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Refining Your Renewable Fuels Approach for Success

(Benchmark) Producing renewable fuels is a potentially rewarding opportunity for refiners to enhance their services for profitable and lasting portfolios. From feedstock and technology selection to project delivery methods and complementary projects, several considerations can affect the feasibility of such

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40-Million-Euro Sustainable Kerosene Research Project CARE-O-SENE Receives Funding

(CARE-O-SENE (Catalyst Research for Sustainable Kerosene)/Sasol/Business Wire) The international research project CARE-O-SENE (Catalyst Research for Sustainable Kerosene) was granted 30 million euros in funding by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Additionally, the industrial consortium partners contribute 10

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Getting Shipshape with Biofuels

by Eliseo Curcio and Michele Miceli (Biofuels International) ... Currently, fossil-based fuels such as VLSFO and MGO and other bunkers are used in the shipping industry as main fuels. The amount of carbon monoxide emitted every year is growing, with the

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Raven SR and Emerging Fuels Technology to Collaborate on Syngas Upgrading for SAF and Renewable Diesel

(Raven SR/PR Newswire)  • Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT) to provide technology and engineering support for at least 10 Raven SR liquid fuels production projects Collaboration to pursue higher quality, higher volume output of Fischer-Tropsch fuels, including sustainable aviation fuels (SAF),

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Air Company Fuels First Ever Test Flight with Jet Fuel Made from CO2, Beginning the Next-Generation of the World’s Fuel Industry

(Air Company/North American Clean Energy)  Air Company, the world's leading carbon technology company that creates carbon-negative alcohols and fuels from Carbon Dioxide (CO2), announced the launch of its Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) made from captured CO2. The importance of this novel

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Delta, DG Fuels Partner in Pivotal Expansion of Sustainable Fuel Market

(Delta News Hub) Under a new agreement, DG Fuels, LLC plans to establish a new SAF supply stream that could provide Delta with 385 million gallons of unblended sustainable aviation fuel, while helping to expand availability of SAF in the

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Heliogen and Dimensional Energy Announce First-of-its-Kind Collaboration to Produce Carbon-Free Sustainable Aviation Fuel from Concentrated Sunlight and Green Hydrogen

(Heliogen)  Initiative to demonstrate technology and produce jet fuel reserves for commercially viable carbon neutral flight -- Heliogen, Inc. (NYSE: HLGN), a leading provider of AI-enabled concentrated solar energy technology, today announced it has entered into a letter of intent (“LOI”)

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Quest for Feedstock: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to the State of SAF

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) This week on ABLC CONNECT, we networked and exchanged information about the world of Sustainable Aviation Fuel, and as part of the proceedings, we had the State of Sustainable Aviation Fuel presentation. The slides are

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel from Solar Energy: Not a Dream Any More

by Tina Casey (Clean Technica) This “solar tower” deploys solar energy to convert water and carbon dioxide to produce non-fossil kerosene for sustainable jet fuel. ... (T)he Swiss institution ETH Zurich has just unveiled a new pilot-scale, all-in-one, solar powered process for

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SAF, RD via Cellulosic Feedstocks: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to BioTFueL technology

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Last week we took a Deep Dive into the BioTfuel technology in a special webinar on SAF, RD via Cellulosic Feedstocks. The BioTfueL project launched by Axens, TotalEnergies and a number of partners is designed

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Sasol ecoFT, Deutsche Aircraft Join Forces to Accelerate PtL Sustainable Aviation Fuel

(Sasol ecoFT/Biobased Diesel Daily)  German aircraft manufacturer Deutsche Aircraft and South African chemicals and energy company Sasol have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on advancing technology for green hydrogen-based power-to-liquid (PtL) SAF in aviation. Sasol ecoFT and Deutsche Aircraft have

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VTT and Neste Agreed on Building an Integrated Power-to-Liquids Demonstration for CO2 Capture, Green Hydrogen and E-Fuels Production

(VTT) Power-to-liquids technologies are on their way to commercialisation in scale and production of synthetic e-fuels is no longer science fiction. E-fuels offer a way to expand the carbon-neutral transport fuel pool beyond biomass-based renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels

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Transforming Yesterday's Emissions into Tomorrow's Sustainable Aviation Fuel: United Announces Agreement with CO2 Utilization Company Dimensional Energy

(United Airlines/PR Newswire) Dimensional Energy combines revolutionary carbon utilization technology with a century-old process, repurposing it to make sustainable aviation fuel; United has invested more in sustainable aviation fuel production than any other airline in the world United and United Airlines Ventures (UAV)

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EWABA Welcomes Broadening of Sustainable Feedstock Base

(Biofuels International)  EWABA has welcomed the broadening of the sustainable feedstock base in today’s Council General Approach on the ReFuelEU aviation proposal. The EWABA association, representing the EU waste-based and advanced biodiesel industry, strongly backed the broadening of the feedstock base

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Examining the Role of SAF in a Net-Zero Aviation Industry

(Biofuels International)  ... Sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) has the potential to cut lifecycle emissions from aviation by up to 80%, making it the largest contributing factor to decarbonising air travel. Biofuels International asks Angela Robledo, business development director, lowcarbon fuels

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SAF with Feedstock Flexibility: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to Velocys

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Woodchips, municipal waste, hydrogen, biomethane – it’s all about feedstock flexibility for Velocys’ conversion pathway to sustainable aviation fuel. What is their IP protected 5 step conversion process? What’s the latest on their Bayou Fuels

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Flying the Low-Carbon Skies on Sustainable Aviation Fuel

by Craig Bettenhausen (Chemical & Engineering News)  Airlines are eager to switch to renewable, low-carbon fuel—as soon as there’s enough to go around  --  On June 6, Malaysia Airlines flew its first passenger flight using jet fuel made in part

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Sustainable Aviation Fuels: Part 1: What is SAF?

by Gaulthier Blangez*  (Time to Fly and Advanced Biofuels USA)  Advanced Biofuels USA, in collaboration with Time to Fly, is proud to publish a guide to sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) for a general audience, for corporations working on ESG (environment,

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Meeting 2030 SAF Targets in the US and Europe Needs Rapid Action on Capacity and Feedstocks, Says Report

by Tony Harrington (GreenAir Online) A new market report by SkyNRG, the Amsterdam-based global provider of sustainable aviation fuels, predicts that both the US and Europe will fall short of their 2030 SAF targets unless production capacity is increased and fuel feedstock

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Green Chemicals of Today and the Future: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to NexantECA

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) What’s happened in the last 20 years in biobased chemicals? What is NexantECA’s new approach to the building blocks of more green chemicals and existing markets for them? From naphtha, ethanol, methanol, green hydrogen, aromatics,

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Waste-to-Fuels Demo Plant, Research Facility Opens in Vienna

by Ron Kotrba (Biobased Diesel Daily) A demonstration facility has opened in Vienna, Austria, at the site of a waste-incineration plant where syngas from wood waste, sewage sludge and paper-industry residues is cleaned and, using a gas-to-liquid process such as Fischer-Tropsch,

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International Consortium to Advance Decarbonization of Aviation Sector

(Sasol/Biobased Diesel Daily) Sasol and Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin will lead a consortium to develop and optimize next-generation catalysts that will play a key role in decarbonizing the aviation sector through sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). At a ceremony at Sasol’s global headquarters in Johannesburg

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Repsol, Aramco License Johnson Matthey, BP Technologies for eFuels Plant in Spain

(Johnson Matthey/Biobased Diesel Daily)  Johnson Matthey and BP announced May 25 that their codeveloped, groundbreaking Fischer Tropsch CANS™ technology and Johnson Matthey’s innovative reverse water gas shift technology, HyCOgen™, have been selected for use by Aramco and Repsol at a new

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SAF Production Expands for a Low-Carbon Future

by Scott Jenkins (Chemical Engineering Magazine)  ... The current environmental and geopolitical situation is prompting petroleum refiners across the globe to evaluate their assets and explore how to adapt to a carbon-constrained future, and one in which the negative climate effects

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Fulcrum BioEnergy Successfully Starts Operations of Its Sierra BioFuels Plant

(Fulcrum BioEnergy) World's first waste to fuels plant achieves major milestone with the production of syngas from landfill waste   --  Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc., a pioneer in the creation of net-zero carbon, drop-in transportation fuels from landfill waste, today announced the completion

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Competitive Edge: USA BioEnergy and Texas Renewable Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) 12 advanced biorefineries specializing in the conversion of sustainably sourced wood waste into sustainable aviation fuel and naphtha are what USA BioEnergy is working on right now. Carbon capture tech is involved too. What’s the tech

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Sasol ecoFT, Uniper Partner to Produce SAF through SkyFuelH2 Joint Venture

(Sasol ecoFT/Biobased Diesel Daily) Sasol ecoFT has signed a letter of intent with Sollefteå municipality in collaboration with Sweden’s energy company Uniper to investigate the possibility of establishing an industry-scale production facility for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). Taking place under the joint

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Top 5: Transport Energy & the GHG Marginal Cost Abatement Curve

by Tammy Klein (Transport Energy Strategies) • Marginal Cost Abatement: EVs and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are no surprise, but how about pyrolysis with carbon capture? Biogas Moves Up the Priority List in the EU: The war in Ukraine

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21 Sites at 10K Barrels per Day Each: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to DG Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  It’s Friday and you’re ready for the weekend so here’s a short and sweet slide guide from DG Fuels on their second-generation cellulosic biofuel whose hydrogen content is derived from water electrolysis and uses a

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INERATEC Joins Forces with Synhelion: Climate Pioneers Cooperate to Produce Solar Fuels

(INERATEC) Climate tech companies Synhelion and INERATEC have joined forces to decarbonize the transportation sector and help it achieve its ambitious net-zero target. By combining their complementing technologies, the climate pioneers can scale their respective clean technologies, paving the way for

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Renewable Fuels, Monomers, Carbon Sourcing: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to Axens

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) There’s a difference between renewable carbon and circular carbon, as noted in this illuminating ABLC slide guide from Axens. How does their circular carbon tech work? Who are they partnering with? How are they accelerating

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Increasing Sustainable Aviation Fuel Production with Feedstocks

by Marine Bessoles (ICF) There is pressure on the aviation industry to decarbonize coming from a myriad of sources including investors, passengers, government, and society at large. Popular protests such as the Swedish flygskam (translated in English as “flight shame”) movement

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The Comment that Silenced the Crowd: Heard on the Floor at ABLC 2022

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ...  Topsoe’s Mikala Grubb stepped in. “What we have is a solids to liquids conversion problem.” The room went quiet, quiet like a church. “750 delegates negotiating in a small hotel but you can hear a watch

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GreenBiz 350 Podcast Episode 308: LanzaTech CEO Reflects

(GreenBiz)  A visit with 'badass' LanzaTech CEO Jennifer Holmgren (29:10) Jennifer Holmgren was thinking about retirement when she was recruited to lead the carbon recycling company LanzaTech. Under her leadership, the company has forged high-profile relationships to turn captured CO2

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Saudi Energy Group Alfanar Confirms £1 Billion Investment in Teesside Aviation FuelPlant

by Steve Robson (iNews) The plant could create up to 180 million litres of fuel per year – a single airline can use 150 million litres; Construction of the plant in Billingham will bring 700 jobs and a further 240

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What Is eSAF, Why the Buzz and What’s Stopping It from Being Produced at Scale Today?

by Andreea Moyes and Peter Nowobilski (AIR bp and bp/Biofuels Digest)  With the aviation industry committed to curtailing lifecycle carbon emissions, sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) has an important role to play. Air bp is already working alongside airlines and airports around

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Fueling Net Zero: Sustainable Pathways for Aviation

by Alastair Blanshard (ICF) ... Our report for ATAG Waypoint 2050 offers a potential pathway for deploying enough sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) for aviation to meet its climate ambitions. The transition to SAF represents a defining moment for the industry, as it looks

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Enerkem Project Recommended for Funding in CRIN Low Emission Fuels and Products Technology Competition

(Enerkem/Le Lezard) Funding of +CDN$ 5.5M awarded to the team to bring to market its solution to produce low-carbon fuel for the heavy transportation sector -- Enerkem, a world leader in the production of biofuels from waste materials, is proud

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USA BioEnergy Selects Bon Wier, Texas in Newton County for $1.7B Advanced Biorefinery

(USA BioEnergy)  USA BioEnergy receives over $150M in State and Local incentives to develop an advanced biorefinery in Newton County, Texas --  USA BioEnergy through its subsidiary, Texas Renewable Fuels (TRF), is pleased to announce the development of an advanced biorefinery

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Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2

by Will Thurmond (Emerging Markets) Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. (249 pages, September 2021) provides a detailed analysis and outlook for low-carbon feedstock availability, and a feasibility assessment for technology commercialization pathways in sustainable aviation fuels

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Addressing Critical Demand for Sustainable Fuels, Emerging Fuels Technology Introduces Maxx Jet™ and Maxx Diesel™

(Haldor Topsoe) EFT Improves its Ability to Produce High-Yield, High-Quality Aviation and Diesel Fuels  --  – Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT), a technology company focused on methods for producing synthetic fuels from feedstocks such as natural gas, flared gas, biogas, biomass,

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Syngas, Hydrogen, Biofuels, SAF: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to Raven

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Raven SR’s tech addresses 3 markets – waste handling, hydrogen and biofuels – by converting global pollution into clean fuels and removing carbon from the environment. Learn about their process that creates a syngas that has

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VW Looks to New Types of Fuel to Cut Emission Levels in Europe

by Irma Venter (Creamer Media's Engineering News)  ...  As a further alternative, however, the German car maker is now also approving models with the latest-generation four-cylinder diesel engines for use with paraffinic fuels, as it works to also continue developing its existing range of combustion engines.  This

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The Bioeconomy Jump to Light Speed: 10 Storylines Shaking the World: Exxon, J-M, KLM, UGI, Amyris, Tesla, Origin, More

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) In recent days, we’ve had 10 stories that shook the world. The players are so big, the technologies so ambitious, the scale so huge and the risks in some cases so high — we’ve grouped them

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Charting a Course toward Cleaner Shipping

by Christina Nunez  (Industry Today) Research suggests that swapping heavy fuel with fuel made from wood waste, waste fats, oils and greases could cut planet-warming emissions. ... Using batteries instead of heavy fuel oil to propel gigantic cargo ships, which annually

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Johnson Matthey Launches HyCOgen, an Enabling Technology to Efficiently Convert CO2 and Green Hydrogen into Sustainable Aviation Fuel

(Johnson Matthey/PR Newswire) - Launch of HyCOgen will play a key role in enabling captured CO2 and green hydrogen to be converted into sustainable aviation fuel; - In combination with FT CANSTM technology, Johnson Matthey delivers an integrated, scalable solution Johnson Matthey, a global leader in sustainable technologies, has launched

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Progress in Commercialization of Biojet /Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF): Technologies, Potential and Challenges

by Susan van Dyk and Jack Saddler (IEA Bioenergy Task 39) Biojet/ Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) must play a major role if the aviation sector is to significantly reduce its carbon footprint. To meet its carbon reduction targets, large volumes

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Enabling Sustainable Transportation with Hydrogen: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Linde

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  What does the era of clean hydrogen look like? How can we decarbonize the world with hydrogen? What does hydrogen demand look like over the next 30 years? What are the hydrogen colors of gray,

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VW Officially Approves Using Paraffinic Fuels in Latest-Generation Diesel Engines

(Volkswagen/Biobased Diesel Daily)  Volkswagen plans to reduce the carbon footprint of its fleet in Europe by 40 percent by the year 2030. The company is therefore increasingly focusing on fully and partially electric vehicles. As a further alternative, Volkswagen is

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4.25 Barrels of SAF per Biomass Ton: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to DG Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Converting 850,000 tons of dry cellulosic biomass to 3,613,000 barrels of zero CO2 life cycle emissions fuel is what DG Fuels is all about and their proposed 21 sites at 10,000 barrels per day each

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Giving Thanks for Bayou Fuels: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Velocys

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) We know you might be busy eating turkey and giving thanks today, but here’s a short and sweet slide guide from Jeff McDaniel, VP of New Projects at Velocys, as your appetizer. A bit about

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Airlines Want to Make Flight More Sustainable. How Will They Do It?

by Leigh Krietsch Boerner (Chemical & Engineering News)  Air travel produces millions of metric tons of carbon dioxide each year. New technologies could help airlines reduce their emissions and meet their sustainability goals -- ...  Airlines are trying to reduce

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The Competitive Edge: Emerging Fuels Technology

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest) Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT) was founded in late 2007 to address the need to reduce flaring worldwide by creating small Gas to Liquids (GTL) plants in the 500 to 5,000 BPD range. They needed

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Flying with 100% Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF)

by Susan Van Dyke (SVD Consulting)  Airbus and Rolls Royce recently announced that they were testing 100% sustainable aviation fuels in flights. These flights will test the impact of 100% SAF on operability and emissions. Current ASTM D7566 certification allows the

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SAF Offtake with IAG

(Bayou Fuels) 10-year offtake MoU for 73 million US gallons of carbon negative SAF by IAG; Alongside offtake agreement with Southwest Airlines, offtake in place for 100% of Bayou Fuels SAF -- Velocys plc (VLS. L), the sustainable fuels technology company,

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SAF Offtake with Southwest Airlines

(Bayou Fuels) 15-year offtake agreement enables 575 million blended gallons of net zero SAF for Southwest Airlines; Alongside offtake MoU with IAG, commitment for 100% of Bayou Fuels SAF -- Velocys plc (VLS. L), the sustainable fuels technology company, is pleased

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A Digest Exclusive Q&A with Bryan Stonehouse, Head of Aviation Sustainability & Risk, Shell Aviation

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) From SAF size and scale, Shell’s plans for scaling up, fuel use and blends and more, check out this Digest exclusive Q&A with Bryan Stonehouse, Head of Aviation Sustainability & Risk at Shell Aviation. ... Shell recently

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Cool GTL to Produce Jet Fuel from Biogas: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Gas Technology Institute

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Terry Marker from the Gas Technology Institute shared this slide guide at the BETO 2021 Project Peer Review covering their goal to produce 100 gallons of Jet Fuel from Biogas using the Cool GTL Process,

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Emerging Fuels Technology Announces Regulation A+ Offering to Commercialize Breakthrough Tech that Converts Waste Sources into Fuels that Greatly Reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

(Emerging Fuels Technology/Globe Newswire)  With its small, BioGTL and FlareBuster™ plant technology, EFT is addressing the immediate need for more sustainable, cleaner fuel sources  --   Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT), a technology company focused on transforming a number of waste sources of carbon

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Sasol Announces Lead Role in Feasibility Study for the Boegoebaai Green Hydrogen Project

(Electric Energy Online) The Boegoebaai "green hydrogen" development has been designated a Strategic Integrated Project (SIP) in the South African National Development Plan and is located in the Namakwa Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The project's location and classification as a

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Velocys Launches Bayou Fuels

(Bayou Fuels)  New branding and website is announced for the Bayou Fuels reference project in the USA  -- Velocys has today launched a website for the Bayou Fuels reference project that will use Velocys FT technology to produce sustainable aviation fuel

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Major Government-Backed Ventures Launched to Progress Commercial-Scale SAF Production in Japan

by Tony Harrington (GreenAir Online)  Two major industrial collaborations have been established in Japan to progress ambitions for large-scale production of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) in the country, writes Tony Harrington. In the first project, sponsored by Japan’s Ministry of the

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DG Fuels: The Unusual Suspects Are Building Big in Louisiana, as SAFtember Continues

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) ... But, an unusual suspect became more visible earlier this month when word arrived that DG Fuels was invited to submit a Part II Application for a loan guarantee under the U.S. Department of Energy

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Advanced Biofuels, Solid to Liquid Tech, Biocrudes: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Haldor Topsoe

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  If you missed this slide guide from ABLC Digital on what it will take for advanced biofuels to take off further, here’s your chance! Haldor Topsoe leaders cover thoughts on legislation, feedstocks, biofuel production, solid

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Getting 35B SAF gallons by 2050: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to NREL’s SAF Approach

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The Digest reported a few days ago on the Biden administration’s goal of reaching 3 billion gallons of sustainable aviation fuel by 2030 and net zero emissions by 2050 but how do we get there?

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Japan’s NEDO Supports Project to Develop Woody Biomass-to-SAF Commercial-Scale Supply Chain

by Ron Kotrba (Biobased Diesel Daily) A project to develop a commercial-scale supply chain for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) from gasification of woody biomass and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis technology has been selected by Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

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Fact Sheet: Biden Administration Advances the Future of Sustainable Fuels in American Aviation

(White House) New Actions Aim to Produce Three Billion Gallons of Sustainable Fuel, Reduce Aviation Emissions by 20% by 2030, and Grow Good-Paying, Union Jobs  --  Today (September 9, 2021), President Biden is taking steps to coordinate leadership and innovation across

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Velocys Technology Selected for Japanese E-Fuels Project

(Velocys) Velocys plc (VLS.L), the sustainable fuels technology company, is pleased to announce its Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology has been selected for an e-fuels project by Toyo Engineering Corporation (TOYO) and its consortium of six leading Japanese companies. E-fuels are a

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Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2

(Emerging Markets Online)  New study! Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. (249 pages, August 2021) focuses on low-carbon feedstock availability, technology pathways for low carbon renewable diesel, and sustainable aviation production. Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) 2030  covers

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Recent Innovations in Turning Agricultural Waste into Biofuels

by Raj Shah and Amanda Loo (altenergymag.com/Koehler Instrument Company)  Wastes from fields and wastes from processing are the two kinds of agricultural wastes. Field wastes are present after harvesting crops and include stems, leaves, and stalks, and waste after processing

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condition charging stations CHCJ-5 chemical-looping hydrogen method Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chp chromium chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel clean fuel production tax credit Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart/conservation agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover cmelina CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location Co-op Extension co-operative co-processing co-products CO2 neutral fuels CO2Removal Certificates (CORCs) coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Coast Guard coastal habitat conservation coastal hay cobalt cock's foot coco cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold flow cold-tolerance college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning commo Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement/engagement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression ratios compression-ignition engine computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology Cook Islands cook stoves cooking fuel cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 COP28 COP30 copper coppice cordgrass corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup corn-based products corn/maize Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality county cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D20 (20%DME) D5 (5%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Dehydration Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrofuels (e-fuels) prices electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts Formate fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect Global South global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ HDO-SAK (hydro deoxygenated synthetic aromatic kerosene) health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 HVO30 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrid ships hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps/fueling stations hydrogen tax credit hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning machinery macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC 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power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propane/renewable propane pumps propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis pyrolytic liquefaction Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R Factor R100/RD100 R33 R5 R95B5/RD95B5 R99/RD99 rabbits race radiata pine radish leaves Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rain tree rainforest ranchers RAND rare earth metal/critical minerals RD10 RD100 RD20 RD3 RD30 RD50 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable diesel pipelines Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/RED III) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of 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rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rubber seeds rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass rye straw s saccharification SAF pipeline SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC sal tree Salicornia salt water salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar Samoa Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater seaweed cultivation Seaweed/Macroalgae second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks seed-to-wheel Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shellfish shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silage silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration Small Business Innovatin Research (SBIR) small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solaris solid oxide fuel 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