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Jose Cuervo, Dole, Crocs Bump up Biobased Products and More: The Digest’s Top 8 Innovations for the Week of July 29th

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest) It’s summertime for some around the globe right now, and what better way to relax on National Tequila Day than with agave straws from tequila

July 29, 2021 Read Full Article

Bio-Batteries

(Advanced Biofuels USA)  We are seeing a number of articles about bio-based batteries and biodegradable batteries.  Wondering if we should be covering this bio-based mobility development.  Here are some examples:

July 26, 2021 Read Full Article

Report: US Army Should Incorporate Diesel, Biodiesel as Primary Battlefield Energies

(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine/Biobased Diesel Daily)  In addition to jet propellant 8 (JP8), the U.S. Army should incorporate the use of diesel and renewable biodiesel as the

June 29, 2021 Read Full Article

Auto Alliance Underlines Importance of High Octane Low Carbon Fuels

by Doug Durante (Clean Fuels Development Coalition/Governors’ Biofuels Coalition) Commends Daschle HOLC Alliance Fight for National Higher Octane Gasoline Standard in SAFE-2 Rule —  The Clean Fuels Development Coalition (CFDC) called

June 25, 2021 Read Full Article

Commentary: The Double Standard for Plant-Based Products

(Hoosier Ag News/MNC)  … Today’s plant-based meats are far more complicated. Two of the most popular brands, Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods, utilize pea protein or soy protein concentrate in their

June 1, 2021 Read Full Article

Why Latin America is the Middle East of Biofuel

(Lat Am Investor)  … However, as mining experts reveal elsewhere in this report, copper supply will be unable to replace every existing internal combustion engine with an EV by 2050. …

May 24, 2021 Read Full Article

Winning the Future: Analyzing the CLEAN Future Act and Its Implications for Biofuels

by Jenna Bloxom* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  The May 5th, 2021 Congressional hearing of the CLEAN Future Act: Driving Decarbonization of the Transportation Sector was a veritable marathon of legislative discourse

May 18, 2021 Read Full Article

How Green Are Electric Vehicles? In Short: Very Green. But Plug-in Cars Still Have Environmental Effects.

by Hiroko Tabuchi and Brad Plumer (New York Times) Here’s a guide to the main issues and how they might be addressed. — … But a lot depends on how

April 5, 2021 Read Full Article

Meriaura Group Heads towards 100% Carbon Neutral Shipping

by Meghan Sapp (Biofuels Digest) In Finland, Meriaura Group has started the preparation and design of a transport concept that targets to 100% carbon neutrality. The concept is based on hybrid propulsion that

April 2, 2021 Read Full Article

Auto Industry Urges Biden to Back ‘Comprehensive’ EV Plan

by David Shephardson (Reuters) … “Neither the current trajectory of consumer adoption of EVs, nor existing levels of federal support for supply- and demand-side policies, is sufficient to meet our goal

March 30, 2021 Read Full Article

Green Nanochem for Biofuels and Batteries: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Sylvatex

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Energy and transportation sectors need renewable solutions, and Sylvatex is using green nanochemistry to turn renewable feedstocks into sustainable solutions for the $2+ trillion market. What

March 29, 2021 Read Full Article

The Geopolitics of Critical Minerals Supply Chains

by Jane Nakano (Center for Strategic & International Studies) As clean energy technology becomes the latest frontier for geoeconomic rivalry, the security of supply chains for rare earths and critical

March 17, 2021 Read Full Article

Electric Cars Are Coming. How Long until They Rule the Road?

by Brad Plumer, Nadja Popovich and Blacki Migliozzi (New York Times)  These vehicles represent the 250 million cars, S.U.V.s, vans and pickup trucks on America’s roads today. The vast majority run

March 15, 2021 Read Full Article

Auto Industry Peers into an Electric Future and Sees Bumps ahead

by Steven Mufson (Washington Post)  …  (T)he question is not, ‘Can we sell to the wealthy?’ It is, ‘Can we get the everyday household in mainstream America to buy an

February 12, 2021 Read Full Article

WEBINAR: To Discuss Key Findings of DOE’s Request for Information in Support of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck R&D — December 15, 2020

    WEBINAR: To Discuss Key Findings of DOE’s Request for Information in Support of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck R&D   —   December 15, 2020

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is announcing a webinar on Tuesday, December 15, 2020 from 1–4 PM (EST) to discuss key

November 25, 2020 Read Full Article

Humber’s Renewable Ambitions Make Grand Entrance

(Biobased Diesel Daily) The Phillips 66 Humber Refinery in the U.K. recently welcomed the latest addition to its growing renewable fuels infrastructure―a massive processing unit that will convert used cooking oil

November 24, 2020 Read Full Article

UK 10-Point Plan Addresses SAF, Move to Zero-Emissions Vehicles

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) The U.K. government on Nov. 18 issued its 10-point plan for a green industrial revolution, which addresses sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) and an accelerated phase-out

November 19, 2020 Read Full Article

UK Refiners Push Back over 2030 Ban on New Fossil Fuel Cars

by Robert Perkins  (S&P Global Platts) Refiners call for more biofuels support; Move seen displacing 60,000 b/d of oil demand; Hybrids get reprieve until 2035, EV sales booming — The UK’s refining sector

November 19, 2020 Read Full Article

How to Build a Green Hydrogen Economy for the US West

by Jeff St. John (GreenTechMedia)  The Intermountain and ACES projects may be the start of a regionwide green hydrogen generation and transmission network.  — Out in Utah, a coal-fired power plant

November 19, 2020 Read Full Article

Commentary: Electrify A Lot … But Not Everything — Decarbonization Will Require a Judicious Mix of Electrification, RNG, Hydrogen, and Other Emerging Solutions if We Want to Get to a Truly Sustainable Future.

by Matt Tomich and Joanna Underwood (BioCycle Magazine/Energy Vision) … Some environmental advocates are looking to “electrify everything” to generate power and fuel our transportation systems, because electric motors are

November 18, 2020 Read Full Article

Bioo Launches Biological Battery that Feeds on Soil and Uses Plants to Produce Electricity

by Helena Tavares Kennedy) In Spain, Bioo, a biotech startup that generates electricity from nature, has developed Bioo Panel, which collects the electrons liberated in soil from the breakdown of organic substances by

November 17, 2020 Read Full Article

Senator Chuck Grassley Says That Buying an Electric Car Should Not Be a Mandate

(RFD TV)  A prominent Republican Senator says that he is in favor of gas-free cars, but Senator Chuck Grassley says that buying one should not be a mandate.  … Last

November 2, 2020 Read Full Article

Promise and Peril: California’s EV-Only Policy

by Leticia Phillips (Brazilian Sugarcane Industry Association, UNICA /Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Any EV solution should consider a combined approach of the available alternatives and technologies. It is important to remember

October 30, 2020 Read Full Article

ATTENTION OIL INDUSTRY: California Is Banning Gasoline Powered Vehicles — You have one chance to save yourselves and COME CLEAN

by Marc J. Rauch (The Auto Channel) Today, September 23, 2020, California Governor Gavin Newsom announced that the state will ban the sale of new gasoline powered passenger cars and trucks starting

September 24, 2020 Read Full Article

Solving the Low Carbon Shipping Fuel and Energy Algorithm – Quickly!

by Adrian Tolson (BLUE Insight/Biofuels Digest) BLUE Insight’s Low Carbon Shipping Fuels and Energy Guide 2020 is a market first assessment of the leading low carbon marine fuels with potential to replace fossil

September 16, 2020 Read Full Article

How Do We Move around in a Zero-Carbon World?

by Bill Gates (Gates Notes)  We want more people to be able to travel without contributing to climate change. … For some of the world’s poorest people—like smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa—the

September 8, 2020 Read Full Article

Tomorrow Arriving Today: 5 Technology Platforms to Watch for the 2020s that Are Materially Advancing Now, Despite COVID-19

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) … New research shows sustainability has moved from a fringe preference into a core imperative across American life. According to a new survey from clean manufacturing

August 11, 2020 Read Full Article

Can Airplanes Go Green? Val Miftakhov Flew Europe’s Largest Commercial-Grade All-Electric Passenger Plane Last Month

by Ilana Marcus (Washington Post)  … Silicon Valley start-up called ZeroAvia, envisions a future of passenger planes that fly on hydrogen-powered electricity, not jet fuel. … Miftakhov’s Piper was powered

August 7, 2020 Read Full Article

Lithium Ion Battery Waste Used in Biodiesel Production from Discarded Vegetable Oil

(Tech Xplore/American Institute of Physics)  …  Brazilian researchers demonstrated a new chemical approach for producing biodiesel from domestic cooking oil waste by using hydroxide lithium mixed with either sodium hydroxides or potassium hydroxides

July 22, 2020 Read Full Article

Reliance to Replace Auto Fuels with Electricity, Hydrogen; Targets Carbon-Zero co by 2035

(India Times/Economic Times) The oil-telecom-to-retail conglomerate, which has pivoted away from energy to the new economy in recent years, will use technology to convert carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and

July 17, 2020 Read Full Article

DOE Announces $139 Million in Funding for 55 Projects to Advance Innovative Vehicle Technologies

(U.S. Department of Energy)  Today, in his remarks at General Motors in Detroit, U.S. Secretary of Energy Dan Brouillette announced $139 million in federal funding for 55 projects across the country

July 16, 2020 Read Full Article

Test with Trains Running on Biodiesel

(Groningen (Google Translation))  The provinces of Groningen and Fryslân are going to conduct a test with trains running on biodiesel. Arriva will run on existing fuel with existing trains from

July 1, 2020 Read Full Article

Techno-Economic Assessment of Zero-Carbon Fuels.

(Lloyds Register and University Maritime Advisory Services) … This paper is an example of this collaboration; it examines three important elements of zero-carbon fuels when compared with traditional fossil-based fuels.

April 22, 2020 Read Full Article

OPEI: New Poll Shows Consumer Confusion around Fuel

(Boating Industry)  Consumers remain confused about the multiple fuel product offerings in the marketplace, says a new study commissioned by the Outdoor Power Equipment Institute (OPEI) and conducted online by

March 4, 2020 Read Full Article

The New Carbon Economy: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Waste Carbon Utilization and Management

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Electrification and batteries can’t remove the need for carbon,and a more sustainable economy is not a low-carbon economy as much as it will be a renewable

January 27, 2020 Read Full Article

DOE Announces $133 Million to Accelerate Advanced Vehicle Technologies Research

(U.S. Department of Energy) Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced up to $133 million in new and innovative advanced vehicle technologies research.  This funding supports research that will lead

January 23, 2020 Read Full Article

Jokowi Says EU Palm Oil Restrictions Are ‘Act of Trade War’

by Telly Nathalia (Jakarta Globe) he European Union had provoked a “trade war” by issuing discriminative restrictions on Indonesian palm oil, President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo tweeted on Saturday.  “Indonesia has 13 million

January 14, 2020 Read Full Article

U.S. Department of Energy Launches Energy Storage Grand Challenge

(U.S. Department of Energy) Today, U.S. Energy Secretary Dan Brouillette announced the launch of the Energy Storage Grand Challenge, a comprehensive program to accelerate the development, commercialization, and utilization of next-generation

January 10, 2020 Read Full Article

Mazda Claims Big-Battery EVs Have Worse Carbon Impact than Diesels

by James Gilboy (The Drive) When Mazda revealed its first mass-market electric vehicle, the MX-30, the world glossed over its avant-garde design details like suicide doors and sustainably sourced interior

January 2, 2020 Read Full Article

Why Electric Cars Still Don’t Live up to the Hype

by Charles Lane (Washington Post) …  For the past 10 years, I’ve waged a quixotic counteroffensive against electric-car boosterism, raining skepticism on the vehicles’ potential to cure climate change, much less to be the

December 31, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Could Be a ‘Bridge’ toward Transport Electrification, US Farmers Say

by Sarantis Michalopoulos (EURACTIV.com) This article is part of our special report COP25: Is transport decarbonisation pragmatic enough?.  Until electrification of transport is fully in place, ethanol could be used as a

December 3, 2019 Read Full Article

3-year Study Raises Doubts about EVs’ Future

by David Iaconangelo (E&E News/Governors’ Biofuels Coalition) … The future of transportation may be less electric and less shared than some think, and millennials won’t change that, according to a study

November 21, 2019 Read Full Article

How Lithium Could Be Calif.’s Next ‘Gold Rush’

by David Ferris and David Iaconangelo (E&E News)  …  EnergySource, based in San Diego, is making an expensive gamble that it can be the first to tap a vast reserve

October 31, 2019 Read Full Article

Alcohol, Biomethane and Ammonia Are the Best-Positioned Fuels to Reach Zero Net Emissions

(Maersk) A study by A.P. Moller – Maersk and Lloyds Register confirms that the best opportunities for decarbonizing shipping lie in finding new sustainable energy sources. Based on market projections, the

October 25, 2019 Read Full Article

Tyre Recycler Signs Deal to Turn Their Carbon into High Value Graphite

(Green Distillation Technologies) Tyre recycler Green Distillation Technologies, has signed a deal with New Zealand’s CarbonScape to enhance the value of the carbon produced by its process, turning it into high value

October 21, 2019 Read Full Article

Who Willed the Electric Car? China, and Here’s Why

by Lauren Silva Laughlin (Wall Street Journal) Electric vehicles that derive their power from dirty energy aren’t necessarily better for the environment, but they are better for Beijing — Exxon

October 11, 2019 Read Full Article

Alternative Fuel Technologies Can Bridge the Gap

(Energy Transition Outlook 2019/DNV-GL)  …  It is important to find technically feasible and cost-effective solutions for the deep-sea segment, accounting for more than 80% of world fleet CO2 emissions. Currently, the

September 12, 2019 Read Full Article

Finland Makes Batteries from Trees. Can Maine?

(Biobased Maine)  …   Stora Enso just announced an investment of $11.2 million to build a pilot facility to produce lignin-based battery materials at their Sunila Mill in Finland. The facility, anticipated

August 31, 2019 Read Full Article

DOE Announces $59 Million and 43 Projects to Accelerate Advanced Vehicle Technologies Research

(U.S. Department of Energy) U.S. Department of Energy Under Secretary of Energy Mark W. Menezes announced $59 million for 43 projects for new and innovative advanced vehicle technologies research. Funded through

August 21, 2019 Read Full Article

SoCalGas and Electrochaea Announce Commissioning of New Biomethanation Reactor System Pilot Project

(Southern California Gas Co./PR Newswire)  Innovative project with U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory converts renewable electricity into renewable methane for storage in existing natural gas pipelines  —  Southern

August 15, 2019 Read Full Article

Batteries from Trees, 3D Printing Developments, Canola Straw Cling Wrap, Biochar, and More: The Digest’s Top 10 Innovations for the Week of August 2nd

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Can you really produce anode materials from trees? Stora Enso says absolutely yes! And they are investing a nice chunk of change to build a pilot

August 2, 2019 Read Full Article

Arizona Fire Highlights Challenges for Energy Storage

by Jonathan J. Cooper (Associated Press)  Arizona’s largest electric company installed massive batteries near neighborhoods with a large number of solar panels, hoping to capture some of the energy from the

June 24, 2019 Read Full Article

Mining Lithium for Electric Cars Is Hurting This Desert’s Local Environment

(Bloomberg/Washington Post)  The Atacama Desert in northern Chile allowed humans and animals to survive for thousands of years in the world’s driest climate. That was before the mining started. Atacama has

June 14, 2019 Read Full Article

Solar Fuel Turns to Plants for Inspiration

(European Commission)  An ‘artificial leaf’ being developed by EU-funded researchers to produce fuel from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, could tackle soaring global energy demands, the growing impact of climate change,

April 30, 2019 Read Full Article

The Driven Podcast: Biofuels, Batteries, or Hydrogen

by Giles Parkinson (Renew Economy)  Two years ago, Stephanie Moroz was named one of Australia’s most innovative engineers by Engineers Australia, and her experience working across lithium-ion batteries, internal combustion engines, fuel

April 17, 2019 Read Full Article

DOE Offers $59 Million for Advanced Vehicle Technologies Research DEADLINE: May 1, 2019

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The U.S. Department of Energy has opened a $59 million funding opportunity that aims to accelerate advanced vehicle technologies research. Clean Cities coalition-led alternative fuels

April 9, 2019 Read Full Article

Energy Department Announces Opening of Battery Recycling Center at Argonne National Lab

(U.S. Department of Energy)  In celebration of National Battery Day on February 18th, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Daniel Simmons announced the opening of a Battery Recycling

February 20, 2019 Read Full Article

With Rise of Electric Vehicles, a New Foreign Energy Dependence Looms

by James Osborne (Houston Chronicle) Forecasts say that electric vehicle sales are about to take off worldwide and increase demand for the raw materials that go into batteries. — Energy Secretary Rick

January 28, 2019 Read Full Article

Before the Electric Car Takes Over, Someone Needs to Reinvent the Battery

by David Stringer and Kevin Buckland (Bloomberg)  Solid-state technology promises to be cheaper and charge faster than anything on the road today. But no one is close to figuring it out. 

January 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Batteries Could Worsen CO2 Emissions — Study

by Christa Marshall (E&E News)  Home batteries like the Tesla Powerwall could spike greenhouse gas emissions significantly unless current policies governing the electrical grid change around the country, according to a

December 14, 2018 Read Full Article

ELECTRIC VEHICLES: Big Oil Looks to Stop Utilities’ Charging Investments

by Jeffrey Tomich (E&E News Energywire)  State utility regulators across the Midwest are revving up their interest in electric vehicle charging infrastructure.

October 25, 2018 Read Full Article

Despite Cleanup Vows, Smartphones and Electric Cars Still Keep Miners Digging by Hand in Congo

by Scott Patterson and Alexandra Wexler (Wall Street Journal)  Apple Inc., Volkswagen AG and about 20 other global manufacturers found themselves on

September 14, 2018 Read Full Article

Strategic Intent: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to BASF

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  What are the strategic plans, progress and future milestones of BASF, a major stakeholder in the Advanced

June 11, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Metals Shortfall to Crimp Electric-Car Battery Supply, Moody’s Says

by Claudia Assis (Market Watch)  A shortfall in supplies of metals such as cobalt, copper, lithium and nickel is likely to

May 3, 2018 Read Full Article

“Brexit Is the Impetus to Reinvigorate”: The Advanced Bioeconomy, Resilience, and a New Role for the Commonwealth?

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) delegates will hear quite a bit about blockchain, gene

April 12, 2018 Read Full Article

Compound Could Transform Energy Storage for Large Grids

(Phys.Org/University of Rochester)   In order to power entire communities with clean energy, such as solar and wind power, a reliable

February 7, 2018 Read Full Article

Big Oil, Biodiesel Join Forces to Combat Electrification

by Ron Kotrba (Biodiesel Magazine)  Even though the petroleum and biodiesel industries rarely see eye to eye on U.S. energy policy,

January 24, 2018 Read Full Article

Why Gasoline and Diesel Will Be Around for a Long Time to Come

by Norris McDonald (MSN.com/Wheels.ca)  … So, I’ve been reading about how Big Oil will react when everybody starts running out to buy

August 22, 2017 Read Full Article

It’s Hard to Keep Up With All That Lithium Demand

by Laura Millan Lombrana and Jonathan Gilbert (Bloomberg)  As established players expand, some newcomers seen struggling; New mine teething problems

August 22, 2017 Read Full Article

Indian Scientists Turn Sugar Industry Waste Into Next-Gen Battery Material

(Sugar News)   Indian scientists have demonstrated that waste water from some of the dirtiest industrial processes can be turned

August 10, 2017 Read Full Article

QUOTE OF THE WEEK

In commenting to Biofuels International about the UK government’s decision to ban new petroleum and diesel cars by 2040, Devin

August 3, 2017 Read Full Article

Electric Cars Have Higher Lifecycle Emissions than Liquid Fuels, Says Renewables Expert

(Biofuels International)  The UK government’s decision to ban petrol and diesel cars by 2040 risks “handcuffing” the country to an

August 3, 2017 Read Full Article

LA Transitioning to Fully Electric Bus Fleet – But Is It Really the Answer?

(Biofuels International)  Los Angeles is to transition to a fully electric, zero-emissions bus fleet by 2030, according to recently announced

August 3, 2017 Read Full Article

Could Clean Energy Spark A Mineral Boom?

(Energy Today/Oilprice.com) A new World Bank report released today (July 18, 2017) highlights the potential impacts that the expected continuing boom

July 31, 2017 Read Full Article

BMW Sees Battery Costs Causing Years of ‘Tears’ on E-Cars

by Elisabeth Behrman (Bloomberg)  With driving ranges limited by current technology, BMW expects it to take about seven years to

December 12, 2016 Read Full Article

Turning Brewery Wastewater into Battery Power

(University of Colorado Boulder)  CU Boulder engineers have developed an innovative bio-manufacturing process that uses a biological organism cultivated in

October 12, 2016 Read Full Article

The Cobalt Pipeline: Tracing the Path from Deadly Hand-Dug Mines in Congo to Consumers’ Phones and Laptops

by Todd C. Frankel  (The Washington Post)   …  This remote landscape in southern Africa lies at the heart of the

September 30, 2016 Read Full Article

Is It the perfect Energy Solution? Where Solar, Carbon Capture and Bio Collide

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  One of these days your personal transportation system might look like this. A solar or

March 23, 2016 Read Full Article

Is The Electric Vehicle A Crude Oil Killer?

by Robert Rapier (Forbes) … Petroleum is in an entirely different category. It is used primarily for transportation, and it has

February 26, 2016 Read Full Article

Era of Super Batteries Will Bring New Problems

by David J. Unger (Christian Science Monitor)  Batteries will hasten the transition to the post-fossil-fuel age, but cause economic ripples

September 2, 2015 Read Full Article

UH Researchers Discover N-Type Polymer for Fast Organic Battery

by Jeannie Kever (University of Houston) New Material Opens the Door to Low-Cost, Environmentally Friendly Energy Use — Researchers at the University of

April 8, 2015 Read Full Article

Biobatteries: Taking Battery Technology to the Next Level

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) There’s a good chance that the electric battery of the future will have biobased aspects to

February 6, 2015 Read Full Article

China Loses Appeal of WTO Ruling on Exports of Rare Earths

(Reuters)  … China produces more than 90 percent of the world’s rare earths, which are key elements in defense industry components

August 8, 2014 Read Full Article

For Tesla, Graphite-Pollution Worries Ratchet up China Sales Challenge

(China Daily USA)  Electric vehicles already were a hard sell in China. Now, battery-pollution concerns have made the task even

May 9, 2014 Read Full Article

Unclean at Any Speed: Electric Cars Don’t Solve the Automobile’s Environmental Problems

by Ozzie Zehner (IEEE Spectrum)  …Some states offer additional tax incentives. California brings the total credit up to $10 000,

July 2, 2013 Read Full Article

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adjustments carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose Cellulosic/Biomass Hydrogen cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Fuel Standard/Policy Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot coco cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel Cook Islands cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diesel with renewables diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos 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mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio- Renewable Fuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 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Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD80 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar red ii Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool tools Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Fuels Policy; carbon removal Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon 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