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ATTENTION OIL INDUSTRY: California Is Banning Gasoline Powered Vehicles — You have one chance to save yourselves and COME CLEAN

by Marc J. Rauch (The Auto Channel) Today, September 23, 2020, California Governor Gavin Newsom announced that the state will ban the sale of new gasoline powered passenger cars and trucks starting

September 24, 2020 Read Full Article

Solving the Low Carbon Shipping Fuel and Energy Algorithm – Quickly!

by Adrian Tolson (BLUE Insight/Biofuels Digest) BLUE Insight’s Low Carbon Shipping Fuels and Energy Guide 2020 is a market first assessment of the leading low carbon marine fuels with potential to replace fossil

September 16, 2020 Read Full Article

How Do We Move around in a Zero-Carbon World?

by Bill Gates (Gates Notes)  We want more people to be able to travel without contributing to climate change. … For some of the world’s poorest people—like smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa—the

September 8, 2020 Read Full Article

Tomorrow Arriving Today: 5 Technology Platforms to Watch for the 2020s that Are Materially Advancing Now, Despite COVID-19

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) … New research shows sustainability has moved from a fringe preference into a core imperative across American life. According to a new survey from clean manufacturing

August 11, 2020 Read Full Article

Can Airplanes Go Green? Val Miftakhov Flew Europe’s Largest Commercial-Grade All-Electric Passenger Plane Last Month

by Ilana Marcus (Washington Post)  … Silicon Valley start-up called ZeroAvia, envisions a future of passenger planes that fly on hydrogen-powered electricity, not jet fuel. … Miftakhov’s Piper was powered

August 7, 2020 Read Full Article

Lithium Ion Battery Waste Used in Biodiesel Production from Discarded Vegetable Oil

(Tech Xplore/American Institute of Physics)  …  Brazilian researchers demonstrated a new chemical approach for producing biodiesel from domestic cooking oil waste by using hydroxide lithium mixed with either sodium hydroxides or potassium hydroxides

July 22, 2020 Read Full Article

Reliance to Replace Auto Fuels with Electricity, Hydrogen; Targets Carbon-Zero co by 2035

(India Times/Economic Times) The oil-telecom-to-retail conglomerate, which has pivoted away from energy to the new economy in recent years, will use technology to convert carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and

July 17, 2020 Read Full Article

DOE Announces $139 Million in Funding for 55 Projects to Advance Innovative Vehicle Technologies

(U.S. Department of Energy)  Today, in his remarks at General Motors in Detroit, U.S. Secretary of Energy Dan Brouillette announced $139 million in federal funding for 55 projects across the country

July 16, 2020 Read Full Article

Test with Trains Running on Biodiesel

(Groningen (Google Translation))  The provinces of Groningen and Fryslân are going to conduct a test with trains running on biodiesel. Arriva will run on existing fuel with existing trains from

July 1, 2020 Read Full Article

Techno-Economic Assessment of Zero-Carbon Fuels.

(Lloyds Register and University Maritime Advisory Services) … This paper is an example of this collaboration; it examines three important elements of zero-carbon fuels when compared with traditional fossil-based fuels.

April 22, 2020 Read Full Article

OPEI: New Poll Shows Consumer Confusion around Fuel

(Boating Industry)  Consumers remain confused about the multiple fuel product offerings in the marketplace, says a new study commissioned by the Outdoor Power Equipment Institute (OPEI) and conducted online by

March 4, 2020 Read Full Article

The New Carbon Economy: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Waste Carbon Utilization and Management

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Electrification and batteries can’t remove the need for carbon,and a more sustainable economy is not a low-carbon economy as much as it will be a renewable

January 27, 2020 Read Full Article

DOE Announces $133 Million to Accelerate Advanced Vehicle Technologies Research

(U.S. Department of Energy) Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced up to $133 million in new and innovative advanced vehicle technologies research.  This funding supports research that will lead

January 23, 2020 Read Full Article

Jokowi Says EU Palm Oil Restrictions Are ‘Act of Trade War’

by Telly Nathalia (Jakarta Globe) he European Union had provoked a “trade war” by issuing discriminative restrictions on Indonesian palm oil, President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo tweeted on Saturday.  “Indonesia has 13 million

January 14, 2020 Read Full Article

U.S. Department of Energy Launches Energy Storage Grand Challenge

(U.S. Department of Energy) Today, U.S. Energy Secretary Dan Brouillette announced the launch of the Energy Storage Grand Challenge, a comprehensive program to accelerate the development, commercialization, and utilization of next-generation

January 10, 2020 Read Full Article

Mazda Claims Big-Battery EVs Have Worse Carbon Impact than Diesels

by James Gilboy (The Drive) When Mazda revealed its first mass-market electric vehicle, the MX-30, the world glossed over its avant-garde design details like suicide doors and sustainably sourced interior

January 2, 2020 Read Full Article

Why Electric Cars Still Don’t Live up to the Hype

by Charles Lane (Washington Post) …  For the past 10 years, I’ve waged a quixotic counteroffensive against electric-car boosterism, raining skepticism on the vehicles’ potential to cure climate change, much less to be the

December 31, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Could Be a ‘Bridge’ toward Transport Electrification, US Farmers Say

by Sarantis Michalopoulos (EURACTIV.com) This article is part of our special report COP25: Is transport decarbonisation pragmatic enough?.  Until electrification of transport is fully in place, ethanol could be used as a

December 3, 2019 Read Full Article

3-year Study Raises Doubts about EVs’ Future

by David Iaconangelo (E&E News/Governors’ Biofuels Coalition) … The future of transportation may be less electric and less shared than some think, and millennials won’t change that, according to a study

November 21, 2019 Read Full Article

How Lithium Could Be Calif.’s Next ‘Gold Rush’

by David Ferris and David Iaconangelo (E&E News)  …  EnergySource, based in San Diego, is making an expensive gamble that it can be the first to tap a vast reserve

October 31, 2019 Read Full Article

Alcohol, Biomethane and Ammonia Are the Best-Positioned Fuels to Reach Zero Net Emissions

(Maersk) A study by A.P. Moller – Maersk and Lloyds Register confirms that the best opportunities for decarbonizing shipping lie in finding new sustainable energy sources. Based on market projections, the

October 25, 2019 Read Full Article

Tyre Recycler Signs Deal to Turn Their Carbon into High Value Graphite

(Green Distillation Technologies) Tyre recycler Green Distillation Technologies, has signed a deal with New Zealand’s CarbonScape to enhance the value of the carbon produced by its process, turning it into high value

October 21, 2019 Read Full Article

Who Willed the Electric Car? China, and Here’s Why

by Lauren Silva Laughlin (Wall Street Journal) Electric vehicles that derive their power from dirty energy aren’t necessarily better for the environment, but they are better for Beijing — Exxon

October 11, 2019 Read Full Article

Alternative Fuel Technologies Can Bridge the Gap

(Energy Transition Outlook 2019/DNV-GL)  …  It is important to find technically feasible and cost-effective solutions for the deep-sea segment, accounting for more than 80% of world fleet CO2 emissions. Currently, the

September 12, 2019 Read Full Article

Finland Makes Batteries from Trees. Can Maine?

(Biobased Maine)  …   Stora Enso just announced an investment of $11.2 million to build a pilot facility to produce lignin-based battery materials at their Sunila Mill in Finland. The facility, anticipated

August 31, 2019 Read Full Article

DOE Announces $59 Million and 43 Projects to Accelerate Advanced Vehicle Technologies Research

(U.S. Department of Energy) U.S. Department of Energy Under Secretary of Energy Mark W. Menezes announced $59 million for 43 projects for new and innovative advanced vehicle technologies research. Funded through

August 21, 2019 Read Full Article

SoCalGas and Electrochaea Announce Commissioning of New Biomethanation Reactor System Pilot Project

(Southern California Gas Co./PR Newswire)  Innovative project with U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory converts renewable electricity into renewable methane for storage in existing natural gas pipelines  —  Southern

August 15, 2019 Read Full Article

Batteries from Trees, 3D Printing Developments, Canola Straw Cling Wrap, Biochar, and More: The Digest’s Top 10 Innovations for the Week of August 2nd

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Can you really produce anode materials from trees? Stora Enso says absolutely yes! And they are investing a nice chunk of change to build a pilot

August 2, 2019 Read Full Article

Arizona Fire Highlights Challenges for Energy Storage

by Jonathan J. Cooper (Associated Press)  Arizona’s largest electric company installed massive batteries near neighborhoods with a large number of solar panels, hoping to capture some of the energy from the

June 24, 2019 Read Full Article

Mining Lithium for Electric Cars Is Hurting This Desert’s Local Environment

(Bloomberg/Washington Post)  The Atacama Desert in northern Chile allowed humans and animals to survive for thousands of years in the world’s driest climate. That was before the mining started. Atacama has

June 14, 2019 Read Full Article

Solar Fuel Turns to Plants for Inspiration

(European Commission)  An ‘artificial leaf’ being developed by EU-funded researchers to produce fuel from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, could tackle soaring global energy demands, the growing impact of climate change,

April 30, 2019 Read Full Article

The Driven Podcast: Biofuels, Batteries, or Hydrogen

by Giles Parkinson (Renew Economy)  Two years ago, Stephanie Moroz was named one of Australia’s most innovative engineers by Engineers Australia, and her experience working across lithium-ion batteries, internal combustion engines, fuel

April 17, 2019 Read Full Article

DOE Offers $59 Million for Advanced Vehicle Technologies Research DEADLINE: May 1, 2019

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The U.S. Department of Energy has opened a $59 million funding opportunity that aims to accelerate advanced vehicle technologies research. Clean Cities coalition-led alternative fuels

April 9, 2019 Read Full Article

Energy Department Announces Opening of Battery Recycling Center at Argonne National Lab

(U.S. Department of Energy)  In celebration of National Battery Day on February 18th, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Daniel Simmons announced the opening of a Battery Recycling

February 20, 2019 Read Full Article

With Rise of Electric Vehicles, a New Foreign Energy Dependence Looms

by James Osborne (Houston Chronicle) Forecasts say that electric vehicle sales are about to take off worldwide and increase demand for the raw materials that go into batteries. — Energy Secretary Rick

January 28, 2019 Read Full Article

Before the Electric Car Takes Over, Someone Needs to Reinvent the Battery

by David Stringer and Kevin Buckland (Bloomberg)  Solid-state technology promises to be cheaper and charge faster than anything on the road today. But no one is close to figuring it out. 

January 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Batteries Could Worsen CO2 Emissions — Study

by Christa Marshall (E&E News)  Home batteries like the Tesla Powerwall could spike greenhouse gas emissions significantly unless current policies governing the electrical grid change around the country, according to a

December 14, 2018 Read Full Article

ELECTRIC VEHICLES: Big Oil Looks to Stop Utilities’ Charging Investments

by Jeffrey Tomich (E&E News Energywire)  State utility regulators across the Midwest are revving up their interest in electric vehicle charging infrastructure. And the petroleum industry and its allies are urging them

October 25, 2018 Read Full Article

Despite Cleanup Vows, Smartphones and Electric Cars Still Keep Miners Digging by Hand in Congo

by Scott Patterson and Alexandra Wexler (Wall Street Journal)  Apple Inc., Volkswagen AG and about 20 other global manufacturers found themselves on the defense when Amnesty International reported two years ago that

September 14, 2018 Read Full Article

Strategic Intent: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to BASF

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  What are the strategic plans, progress and future milestones of BASF, a major stakeholder in the Advanced Bioeconomy? In this slide deck, BASF gets into technologies, results, horizons,

June 11, 2018 0 comment Read Full Article

Metals Shortfall to Crimp Electric-Car Battery Supply, Moody’s Says

by Claudia Assis (Market Watch)  A shortfall in supplies of metals such as cobalt, copper, lithium and nickel is likely to slow down the production of batteries for electric vehicles, Moody’s

May 3, 2018 Read Full Article

“Brexit Is the Impetus to Reinvigorate”: The Advanced Bioeconomy, Resilience, and a New Role for the Commonwealth?

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) delegates will hear quite a bit about blockchain, gene editing and about proteins for the food chain and as

April 12, 2018 Read Full Article

Compound Could Transform Energy Storage for Large Grids

(Phys.Org/University of Rochester)   In order to power entire communities with clean energy, such as solar and wind power, a reliable backup storage system is needed to provide energy when the

February 7, 2018 Read Full Article

Big Oil, Biodiesel Join Forces to Combat Electrification

by Ron Kotrba (Biodiesel Magazine)  Even though the petroleum and biodiesel industries rarely see eye to eye on U.S. energy policy, the two factions find common ground in a new threat

January 24, 2018 Read Full Article

Why Gasoline and Diesel Will Be Around for a Long Time to Come

by Norris McDonald (MSN.com/Wheels.ca)  … So, I’ve been reading about how Big Oil will react when everybody starts running out to buy electric cars. And how the end of internal-combustion will be

August 22, 2017 Read Full Article

It’s Hard to Keep Up With All That Lithium Demand

by Laura Millan Lombrana and Jonathan Gilbert (Bloomberg)  As established players expand, some newcomers seen struggling; New mine teething problems tightening credit for projects  —  … Producers everywhere have struggled to

August 22, 2017 Read Full Article

Indian Scientists Turn Sugar Industry Waste Into Next-Gen Battery Material

(Sugar News)   Indian scientists have demonstrated that waste water from some of the dirtiest industrial processes can be turned into a carbon source for preparation of energy storage materials.

August 10, 2017 Read Full Article

QUOTE OF THE WEEK

In commenting to Biofuels International about the UK government’s decision to ban new petroleum and diesel cars by 2040, Devin Walker, chief technical officer of Renovare Fuels based in London

August 3, 2017 Read Full Article

Electric Cars Have Higher Lifecycle Emissions than Liquid Fuels, Says Renewables Expert

(Biofuels International)  The UK government’s decision to ban petrol and diesel cars by 2040 risks “handcuffing” the country to an “unrealistic policy”, according to renewable energy expert Devin Walker. Significantly,

August 3, 2017 Read Full Article

LA Transitioning to Fully Electric Bus Fleet – But Is It Really the Answer?

(Biofuels International)  Los Angeles is to transition to a fully electric, zero-emissions bus fleet by 2030, according to recently announced plans.  The Californian city has a reputation for extreme bouts

August 3, 2017 Read Full Article

Could Clean Energy Spark A Mineral Boom?

(Energy Today/Oilprice.com) A new World Bank report released today (July 18, 2017) highlights the potential impacts that the expected continuing boom in low-carbon energy technologies will have on demand for many

July 31, 2017 Read Full Article

BMW Sees Battery Costs Causing Years of ‘Tears’ on E-Cars

by Elisabeth Behrman (Bloomberg)  With driving ranges limited by current technology, BMW expects it to take about seven years to double the amount of energy stored in a battery.  —

December 12, 2016 Read Full Article

Turning Brewery Wastewater into Battery Power

(University of Colorado Boulder)  CU Boulder engineers have developed an innovative bio-manufacturing process that uses a biological organism cultivated in brewery wastewater to create the carbon-based materials needed to make

October 12, 2016 Read Full Article

The Cobalt Pipeline: Tracing the Path from Deadly Hand-Dug Mines in Congo to Consumers’ Phones and Laptops

by Todd C. Frankel  (The Washington Post)   …  This remote landscape in southern Africa lies at the heart of the world’s mad scramble for cheap cobalt, a mineral essential to

September 30, 2016 Read Full Article

Is It the perfect Energy Solution? Where Solar, Carbon Capture and Bio Collide

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  One of these days your personal transportation system might look like this. A solar or wind energy facility generates renewable electricity, which is converted into

March 23, 2016 Read Full Article

Is The Electric Vehicle A Crude Oil Killer?

by Robert Rapier (Forbes) … Petroleum is in an entirely different category. It is used primarily for transportation, and it has held more than 90% of the transportation market for over

February 26, 2016 Read Full Article

Era of Super Batteries Will Bring New Problems

by David J. Unger (Christian Science Monitor)  Batteries will hasten the transition to the post-fossil-fuel age, but cause economic ripples around the world. Will lithium cartels replace oil cartels? —

September 2, 2015 Read Full Article

UH Researchers Discover N-Type Polymer for Fast Organic Battery

by Jeannie Kever (University of Houston) New Material Opens the Door to Low-Cost, Environmentally Friendly Energy Use — Researchers at the University of Houston have reported developing an efficient conductive electron-transporting polymer, a

April 8, 2015 Read Full Article

Biobatteries: Taking Battery Technology to the Next Level

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) There’s a good chance that the electric battery of the future will have biobased aspects to them — or may even be powered by a biofuel.

February 6, 2015 Read Full Article

China Loses Appeal of WTO Ruling on Exports of Rare Earths

(Reuters)  … China produces more than 90 percent of the world’s rare earths, which are key elements in defense industry components and modern technology from iPhones and disk drives to wind

August 8, 2014 Read Full Article

For Tesla, Graphite-Pollution Worries Ratchet up China Sales Challenge

(China Daily USA)  Electric vehicles already were a hard sell in China. Now, battery-pollution concerns have made the task even

May 9, 2014 Read Full Article

Unclean at Any Speed: Electric Cars Don’t Solve the Automobile’s Environmental Problems

by Ozzie Zehner (IEEE Spectrum)  …Some states offer additional tax incentives. California brings the total credit up to $10 000,

July 2, 2013 Read Full Article

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fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) French fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility green Jo Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana 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motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium 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Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social cost social value 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sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustai Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand 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