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DOE Announces $52.5 Million to Accelerate Progress in Clean Hydrogen

Biorefinery/Fuel Production Infrastructure, Business News/Analysis, California, Carbon Capture, Connecticut, Energy, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Feedstocks, Funding/Financing/Investing, Georgia, Government Resources, grants, Green Jobs, Infrastructure, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Process, R & D Focus, South Carolina, Sustainability, Texas, Utah, water, West Virginia
July 7, 2021

(U.S. Department of Energy) Projects Support DOE’s Recently Announced Hydrogen Energy Earthshot to Lower Cost, Advance Breakthroughs for Clean Hydrogen Technology — The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $52.5 million to fund 31 projects to advance next-generation clean hydrogen technologies and support DOE’s recently announced Hydrogen Energy Earthshot initiative to reduce the cost and accelerate breakthroughs in the clean hydrogen sector. Clean hydrogen is a form of renewable energy that—if made cheaper and easier to produce—can have a major role in supporting President Biden’s commitment to tackling the climate crisis.

“Part of our path to a net-zero carbon future means investing in innovation to make clean energy sources like hydrogen more affordable and widely adopted so we can reach our goal of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050,” said Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm. “These projects will put us one step closer to unlocking the scientific advancements needed to create a strong domestic supply chain and good-paying jobs in the emerging clean hydrogen industry.”

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that—when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell—produces electricity with water and heat as by-products. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option and input for transportation, electricity generation and industrial applications, such as in trucks, buildings, and manufacturing.

These 31 projects will focus on bridging technical gaps in hydrogen production, storage, distribution and utilization technologies, including fuel cells, thereby paving the way toward decarbonization of the electricity sector by 2035 and creation of good-paying jobs across in the hydrogen sector.

“West Virginia University continues to utilize our state’s vast natural gas resources to tackle some of the toughest challenges in industrial research, including by developing clean, innovative ways to produce hydrogen – a fuel that’s increasingly important to our economy and has potential to decarbonize our energy systems, industrial processes, and the transportation sector,” said U.S. Senator Joe Manchin, Chairman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. “Today’s announcement is further acknowledgement of the importance of the groundbreaking research conducted by WVU’s students and faculty and the ongoing partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory. I’m thrilled to see the National Energy Technology Laboratory continue to invest in WVU and I will continue to push for funding that supports research projects in the Mountain State.”

“It’s critical we support an all-of-the-above approach and invest in a variety of technologies, including hydrogen,” saidU.S. Senator Shelley Moore Capito. “West Virginia University’s top-notch facilities, students and faculty, and research capacity make it a perfect place to make the most of this investment to develop and accelerate breakthroughs in clean energy.”

“Next-generation hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells, will be critical to addressing the climate crisis and developing new industries here at home,” said U.S. Representative Marcy Kaptur. “This will help to create and bring back good-paying jobs, and we must continue to innovate and lead in these areas so our nation is not left behind.”

“Clean hydrogen is a flexible low-emissions fuel with countless applications across every sector of our economy. It will be vital to achieving clean energy targets, especially in some of the hardest-to-clean sectors of the American economy,” said U.S. Representative Paul D. Tonko. “These U.S. Department of Energy investments will help in that effort, sparking American innovation and helping translate that innovation into lasting, sustainable American production and jobs. My heartfelt congratulations and thanks to Plug Power for earning this award and for all the work and resources they have put into advancing the use and economic potential of clean hydrogen.”

“Advancing hydrogen technologies is critical to lowering emissions here at home and around the world,” said U.S. Representative David B. McKinley. “West Virginia University and National Energy Technology Laboratory are at the forefront of hydrogen research and development. Moving forward we must continue to empower our scientific communities through initiatives like the Hydrogen Energy Moonshot to lower the cost of hydrogen and other clean energy technologies.”

“In our fight against climate change, it is critical we invest in the development and deployment of innovative alternative energy technologies,” said U.S. Representative Scott Peters. “The research funding awarded to Solar Turbines Incorporated and The Regents of the University of California, San Diego will go a long way in advancing clean hydrogen technology as an accessible, cost-effective, and potentially game-changing fuel source to power our country while also helping to ensure we reach our climate goals.”

“I am excited that Tallgrass Energy has been selected as one of 31 companies to receive federal funding for their next-generation clean energy project. The Kansas Third District is an engine of innovation, and these funds will improve access to carbon-neutral fuel, create good-paying jobs, and help tackle climate change,” said U.S. Representative Sharice Davids. “Congratulations again to Tallgrass Energy for their selection by the Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Energy Earthshot initiative, and I look forward to seeing their progress.”

“We need to invest in clean energy technologies now to be a net zero emissions country by 2050,” said U.S. Representative Nikema Williams. “Today’s announcement from the Department of Energy shows that Georgia Tech and the Fifth District are leading the way to achieve that goal. This federal funding will bolster the Georgia Institute of Technology’s project to reduce the commercial costs of renewable hydrogen fuel and make clean energy more accessible for ALL. The Fifth District will continue innovating and creating new technologies to create good-paying jobs while addressing the climate crisis head-on.”

DOE funding includes $36 million from the Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)  and $16.5 million from the Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management (FECM).

EERE-supported efforts under this announcement include 19 projects on the following topics:

  • Electrolysis, a process to produce hydrogen using electricity and water, with improved manufacturing methods and streamlined assembly to reduce cost.
  • Clean hydrogen production, including biological and electrochemical approaches.
  • Fuel cell subsystems and components that are more efficient, durable, and designed for heavy-duty applications.
  • Domestic hydrogen supply chain components and refueling technologies.
  • Analyses to assess the cost and performance of fuel cell systems, hydrogen production pathways, and hydrogen storage technologies.

FECM-supported efforts under this announcement include 12 projects on the following topics: 

  • Degradation mechanisms and pathways in high temperature reversible solid oxide cells (SOC) materials that helps assess metrics about cost, performance, durability.
  • Performance, reliability, and durability for hydrogen production using reversible solid oxide cells (R-SOC) systems.
  • Cost reductions via improvements in materials, manufacturing and microstructure improvements in R-SOC technologies for hydrogen production.
  • Initial engineering design of a commercial-scale advanced carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) system from steam methane reforming plants.
  • Initial engineering design of a commercial-scale advanced CCUS system from autothermal methane reforming plants
  • Development of a gas turbine combustion system for 100 percent hydrogen fired and mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas.

Learn more about specific selections supported by EERE and by FECM, and how the DOE Hydrogen Program is working to support DOE’s mission to address the climate crisis and deliver a clean and equitable energy future for all.  READ MORE

U.S. Department of Energy Selects 12 Projects to Improve Fossil-Based Hydrogen Production, Transport, Storage and Utilization (U.S. Department of Energy)

DOE funds 2 biomass-to-hydrogen projects (Biomass Magazine)

 

Excerpt from U.S. Department of Energy:  

AOI 5: Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) Technology Development for Hydrogen Production

Durable and High-Performance SOECs Based on Proton Conductors for Hydrogen Production — Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta, GA) will assess the degradation mechanisms of the electrolyte, electrode and catalyst materials under electrolysis conditions to gain insights for rational design of better electrode and catalyst materials. The project’s main objective is to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of a low-cost, highly efficient reversible solid oxide cell (RSOC) system based on proton conductors for hydrogen (H2) and electricity generation.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000; Non-DOE Funding: $250,000; Total Value: $1,250,000

 

Durable and High-Performance SOECs Based on Proton Conductors for Hydrogen Production — Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA) will research the degradation pathway that couples surface chemistry to impurity poisoning on perovskite oxygen electrodes, taking (La0.6Sr0.4)0.95Co0.2Fe0.8O3- (LSCF) as a model, state-of-the-art oxygen electrode. Project goals are to 1) improve the chemical and electrochemical stability of LSCF as a state-of-the-art oxygen-electrode, against dopant (Sr) segregation and the consequent poisoning by chromium (Cr) and sulfur (S); 2) develop infiltration chemistries to enable the surface modifications in the most effective, efficient and economical way, to suppress the Sr segregation and the Cr- and S-poisoning processes; and 3) advance understanding of the role of operational parameters on oxygen electrode performance.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000; Non-DOE Funding: $250,000; Total Value: $1,250,000

 

Development of Stable Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell for Low-Cost Hydrogen Production — OxEon Energy LLC (North Salt Lake, UT) OxEon Energy LLC will operate a solid oxide electrolysis cell stack in a laboratory test bed showing improved performance over baseline stacks exhibiting robustness, reliability, endurance, H2 purity, and producing Hat elevated pressure of 2 to 3 bar. At the conclusion of the project, the team will operate a short stack of 6-cells under various steam conversion conditions for at least 500 hours and then an additional 300 hours in SOFC mode to verify reversible operation. A separate short stack will be tested for a period of 100 hours to produce Hat a pressure of 2 to 3 bar.

DOE Funding: $999,526; Non-DOE Funding: $250,000; Total Value: $1,249,526

 

Development of Novel 3D Cell Structure and Manufacturing Processes for Highly Efficient, Durable and Redox Resistant Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells — The Regents of the University of California, San Diego (La Jolla, CA) will evaluate and demonstrate a highly efficient, durable and reduction-oxidation (redox) resistant solid oxide electrolysis cell technology for Hproduction. This project focuses on the development of a novel cell design and its corresponding manufacturing processes and will culminate in the demonstration of a scaled-up SOEC featuring a design with improved performance, enhanced redox resistance and increased durability under conditions suitable for Hproduction from steam. The results of the project could form the basis for further development to advance the technology for practical applications and commercialization.

DOE Funding: $999,913; Non-DOE Funding: $250,956; Total Value: $1,250,869

 

Development of High-Performance Metal-Supported SOECs and Innovative Diagnostic Methodologies — University of Louisiana at Lafayette (Lafayette, LA) will develop high-performance metal-supported solid oxide electrolysis cells and innovative diagnostic methodologies to achieve net-zero or negative emissions. The team plans to fabricate metal-supported solid oxide electrolysis cells (MS-SOECs) to improve the electrolysis performance while maintaining mechanical strength for the stack assembly; develop accelerated test protocols for SOECs and apply theoretical analysis to improve its stability and suppress oxygen electrode declamation; and use machine learning to study the dependence of electrochemical performance on microstructural details of an electrode.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000; Non-DOE Funding: $250,000; Total Value: $1,250,000

 

Developing Stable Critical Materials and Microstructure for High-Flux and Efficient H2 production through Reversible Solid Oxide Cells — University of South Carolina (Columbia, SC) will advance RSOC technology for standalone or hybrid power and H2 production by addressing critical and unsolved issues through foundational materials and microstructure innovations. The impact of the project could assist the commercialization course of RSOC technology and expands it to utility markets such as distributed standalone or hybrid power and Hgeneration as a means of energy storage.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000; Non-DOE Funding: $250,301; Total Value: $1,250,301

 

Designing Internal Surfaces of Porous Electrodes in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Highly Efficient and Durable Hydrogen Production — West Virginia University Research Corporation (Morgantown, WV) will develop and implant highly active and robust nano-scale coating layers to the internal surface of a porous electrode. The coating layer will be developed using the additive manufacturing process of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and will be implanted on the internal surface of porous electrodes of the as fabricated commercial cells directly. The project will provide a simple solution to various materials challenges at the cell level and could further enable extensive and more efficient SOEC stacks and systems.

DOE Funding: $1,000,000; Non-DOE Funding: $250,000; Total Value: $1,250,000

 

Heterostructured Cr Resistant Oxygen Electrode for SOECs — Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Worcester, MA) will design, test, and validate oxygen electrode materials for SOECs that maintain high performance and low degradation rates in the operation conditions with the presence of Cr-containing gas impurities using a combined integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) and lab-scale testing approach. The recipient believes that when fully optimized, this oxygen electrode material would have an intrinsic, long-term degradation rate of less than 0.3%/1000 hours at 700oC.

DOE Funding: $999, 973; Non-DOE Funding: $250,786; Total Value: $1,250,759

 

AOI 7A: Advanced CCUS Systems from Steam Methane Reforming Plants  

Engineering Study of Svante’s Solid Sorbent Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology at a Linde Steam Methane Reforming H2 Plant — Linde Inc. (Danbury, CT) will complete an initial engineering design of a commercial-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) capture plant for a steam methane reformer (SMR), using the Svante VeloxoTherm™ solid adsorbent CO2 capture technology to make blue H2. The overall system would be designed to capture approximately 1,100,000 tonnes/year net CO2 with 90% or greater carbon capture efficiency while producing H2 with 99.97% purity, from an existing Linde SMR H2 plant along the US Gulf Coast. The project is intended to achieve the overall DOE performance goals of a 90% CO2 capture rate with 95% CO2 purity from a SMR plant producing 99.97% H2 from natural gas.

DOE Funding: $1,498,778; Non-DOE Funding: $374,695; Total Value: $1,873,473

 

Initial Engineering Design Study for Advanced CO2 Capture from Hydrogen Production Unit at Phillips 66 Rodeo Refinery — Phillips 66 (Houston, TX) will complete an initial engineering design of a commercial scale, advanced CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) plant that separates and stores ~190,000 tons/year net CO2 with more than 90% carbon capture efficiency from an existing steam reforming plant at Phillips 66 Rodeo Refinery, California. The goal of this project is to advance the CCS technology for commercialization in a steam reforming plant application.

DOE Funding: $959,089; Non-DOE Funding: $242,106; Total Value: $1,201,195

 

AOI 7B: Advanced CCUS Systems from Autothermal Methane Reforming Plants

Blue Bison ATR Advanced CCUS System — Initial Engineering of a 1.66MTPY CO2 Capture Unit from Tallgrass Planned Blue Bison ATR Producing 220 MMSCFD of Pure Hydrogen — Tallgrass MLP Operations LLC (Johnson, KS) will design a commercial-scale carbon capture unit capable of separating and storing 1.66 million tonne/year of 95% pure CO2 with more than 97% carbon capture efficiency. As designed, the Blue Bison plant will, for the first time, combine carbon capture, pure H2 production (220 MMSCFD at 99.97% purity), and H2 combustion in auxiliary burners. This project would act as a precursor to the proposed development of a replicable world scale ATR blue H2 plant that could produce a cost competitive, carbon-neutral fuel that can significantly decarbonize the energy economy while simultaneously capitalizing on the nation’s vast natural resources.

DOE Funding: $1,499,374; Non-DOE Funding: $375,496; Total Value: $1,874,870

 

AOI 9C: Hydrogen Combustion Systems for Gas Turbines – Industrial Class

Development of a Retrofittable Dry Low Emissions Industrial Gas Turbine Combustion System for 100% Hydrogen and Natural Gas Blends  Solar Turbines Incorporated (San Diego, CA) will develop a retrofittable dry low emissions gas turbine combustion system for 100% hydrogen and hydrogen/natural gas blends. This project would enable industrial gas turbines to provide carbon free, rapidly dispatchable power that is vital to grid stability. The proposed work will advance an existing, early development stage hydrogen combustion technology to an engine-ready design. Overall project objectives include construction and rig testing of a complete combustion system capable of functioning in 100% hydrogen and natural gas blends, demonstrating prototype feasibility and combustion performance, developing engine control algorithms and hydrogen flame detection methodologies, formulating reduced kinetic mechanisms for use with CFD/LES analysis followed by bench-scale and rig test validations, and performing techno-economic analyses for gas turbine power plants and pipeline compressor stations fueled with hydrogen.

DOE Funding: $4,500,000; Non-DOE Funding: $1,125,000; Total Value: $5,625,000

 

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Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio- Renewable Fuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New York Michigan New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD80 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Fuels Policy; carbon removal Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow 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