Accelerating the Transition to a Green Future: Ethanol-Blended Fuels and Electric Vehicles

 by Tushar Chhabhaya (Aarya Automobiles/The News Motion/Times of India) ... Two technologies have emerged as frontrunners in the quest for a sustainable and environmentally conscious future of mobility: ethanol-blended fuels and electric vehicles. As we navigate the challenges of climate change and resource depletion, these two paths hold the promise of steering us toward a greener, more sustainable tomorrow. India, in particular, has recognised the potential of these technologies, as evidenced by recent developments and initiatives in the biofuel industry.


India, like many other nations, is grappling with the dual challenge of meeting energy demands while curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels, derived from renewable organic materials, have emerged as a key solution. Recent initiatives in India, such as the launch of the Global Biofuel Alliance at the G20 summit, demonstrate the nation’s commitment to sustainable energy strategies. But what makes biofuels, particularly ethanol, a game changer?

Firstly, ethanol is a cleaner-burning alternative to traditional fossil fuels. When blended with gasoline, it significantly reduces emissions of harmful pollutants, including carbon monoxide and particulate matter. This cleaner combustion not only contributes to improved air quality but also aligns with global efforts to combat climate change.

Secondly, ethanol production can provide economic opportunities, especially in rural areas. India has a unique agrarian profile because of which, bioenergy has good potential in the country.

India’s biofuel industry has the potential to create jobs, stimulate rural economies, and reduce the country’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. The cultivation of biofuel feedstocks, such as sugarcane and corn, can become a lucrative source of income for farmers.

According to Economic Times, India has already achieved ethanol blending of 10% in June, 2022 and will achieve 20% by 2025-26. This is significantly going to help farmers by preventing agricultural waste burning and keeping organic waste in landfills.


To accelerate the transition to a green future, it’s essential to recognise the synergy between ethanol-blended fuels and EVs. While EVs are rising, internal combustion engine vehicles will continue to be a significant part of our transportation landscape in the coming years. Ethanol-blended fuels, such as E10 which is 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline, can play a crucial role in reducing the emissions from these vehicles.

Ethanol can also be used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as a range extender. PHEVs combine an internal combustion engine with an electric motor and a battery. Ethanol can be used in PHEVs to extend their electric-only range, thus reducing their overall carbon footprint.

The Path Forward for India

India’s commitment to the biofuel industry, exemplified by the Global Biofuel Alliance and the Bio-Energy Summit 2023, is commendable. However, to realise the full potential of ethanol-blended fuels and EVs, a comprehensive approach is required.

Firstly, investment in research and development is crucial. Advancements in biofuel production methods and battery technology can make these technologies even more efficient and cost-effective.

Secondly, infrastructure development is important. Expanding the network of charging stations for EVs and ensuring the availability of ethanol-blended fuels across the country will encourage their adoption.

Lastly, public awareness and incentives are needed to drive consumer acceptance. Government policies that provide incentives for the production and purchase of biofuels and EVs can significantly boost their adoption rates.

In conclusion, the path to a green future lies in a harmonious blend of ethanol-blended fuels and electric vehicles.

These technologies represent not just environmental solutions but economic opportunities as well. India’s recent initiatives in the biofuel industry are a step in the right direction, but sustained efforts and investments are needed to accelerate this transition. As we deal with the challenges of the 21st century, embracing these green alternatives will not only secure our energy future but also leave a healthier planet for the generations to come.  READ MORE

Advanced Biofuels USA Ideas on Agricultural Policy and the Farm Bill

(Advanced Biofuels USA) As Congress begins work on the upcoming Farm Bill, Advanced Biofuels USA is well aware of the fiscal restraints that might not allow for increased funding levels for renewable energy or crop development R&D at Land Grant Schools, USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) laboratories, or small R&D businesses unless innovative programming approaches are developed.

These constraints come at an unfortunate time as there are significant technical hurdles that need to be overcome to meet the CO2 reduction goals established by the 2021 Government-Wide Sustainable Aviation Fuels Grand Challenge and provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act (P.L.117-169). These goals include producing 3 billion gallons/year by 2030 and 35 billion gallons/year by 2050 of Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF).

We hope these goals can be met by refocusing available Farm Bill funds on the early stages of development of innovative  low-cost, low-carbon emitting SAF and related fuels. These initiatives should include:

 • Developing improved biomass conversion systems, enzymes, and fermentation organisms,

• Developing and improving cost-efficient biomass and dual use crops,

• Assisting start-up businesses and innovative projects through the “Funding Valley of Death” to the prototype stage. 

All of these initiatives are relatively low-budget, especially in comparison to the late-stage funding of commercial projects that, if decent economics are shown, have other private/public funding options.

We would like to recommend several project approaches that are relatively inexpensive but offer good “bang for the buck” opportunities to meet these goals.

  1. Increase ARS Biomass Hydrolysis and Fermentation Bacterial Research

At present, very good USDA/ARS alcohol fermentation bacteria such as FBR4 are over twenty years old. But, because of funding deficiencies, ARS Bioenergy researchers have not been able to address commercial deficiencies or develop more efficient genes and microorganisms that would lower biofuel production costs. New multi-year ARS projects should be instituted at current ARS Bioenergy laboratories. These projects should include co-operative initiatives with Land Grant institutions and small businesses.

  1. Develop New Low-Cost Biofuel/Bioproduct Crops and Pathways at 1890 Land Grant/HBCU Institutions

The 1890 Land-Grant HBCU institutions have a unique connection to rural communities and ecosystems. The great George Washington Carver did his research at one such institution. They could be the start of new sustainable agriculture revolution based on environmentally sound crops that have unique cell wall structures that favor bioconversion and additional value-added uses.

  1. Re-Imagine the SBIR/STTR Program as a 1st Stage Venture Capital Program 

Phase I SBIRs should be thought of as a very cost-effective way to test new ideas. As venture entrepreneurs will tell you, learning from failures is as important as achieving success at this stage of R&D. Stopping investments at $170,000 (current Phase I funding level) is considerably less expensive than using the concurrent R&D and production approach (often used by DOD and DOE) where millions are spent to evaluate approaches which turn out to be bad ideas. To double the number of SBIR ideas being tested would not be a major expenditure. For example, the FY 2023 USDA-NIFA-SBIR budget was $13 million. An additional $23 million, to double the number of grants and cover inflation (see #4), is insignificant in comparison to overall Farm Bill appropriations.

     4.  Index USDA Grant Programs to Inflation Rates

Simply put, USDA research grants do not pay for the level of research and accomplishment that was envisioned when the budget levels were first set, often two decades ago. USDA Research Grant awards should be increased to reflect cost increases since those levels were set. From that baseline, awards should be periodically increased to reflect inflation rates of equipment, supplies, and personnel costs. A recent article in the respected journal Nature (1/19/2023) compared 2023 prices with those in 2018 finding 30% to 90% increases for common laboratory supplies and equipment. Personnel costs have been rising at a similar rate as universities have been raising student compensation to acceptable economic levels.

In addition to these programming suggestions, we have identified two policy issues whose revision could significantly improve the rural agricultural economy.

  1. Hemp Should be Removed from the Schedule 1 Controlled Substance List

Inclusion of hemp positive provisions in the 2018 Farm Bill led to the rebirth of a national hemp industry. As a result, recent research has found hemp biomass to be uniquely suited to biofuel production. With THC legalization now having bi-partisan support and the number of states legalizing it increasing, removal of hemp from the Federal Schedule 1 Controlled Substance List would be a great benefit to all in the agricultural industry. First, it would remove the confusion that exists at the state enforcement level, especially for growers focusing on low THC content. Second, it would be beneficial for innovative growers and processors attempting to fund non-THC hemp biomass for sustainable, low CO2 producing biofuels and bioproducts.

    2.  “Near Shore” Sustainable Feedstock and Technology Transfer Agreements Should be Negotiated with Central and South American Governments

Increasing efforts by China to build relations with countries outside of Asia have led to increased economic assistance and trade agreements by that country in South America that could be to our disadvantage.  Increased costs and disruptions during the Covid pandemic have also showed that current long-distance supply-chains in many cases are not cost effective or efficient.

“Near Shore” (Nearshoring and Renewable Energy, Wilson Center, October 2022) agriculture technology and supply agreements with our friends and allies throughout South and Central America could reduce renewable energy supply-chain costs and strengthen the bonds between the US and those countries. Under these agreements, agriculture technologies could be shared with Central and South American countries. Mutual economic benefits would be produced, similar to those achieved by Canadian, Mexican, and US automotive industries under NAFTA.

On behalf of Advance Biofuels USA and growers and processors in the biofuel/bioproduct industry we look forward to working with members of Congress on agricultural policies. PDF

SAF Modeling Debate Isn’t Really about “GREET vs. ICAO.” It’s about Current Data vs. Old Data.

by Geoff Cooper (Renewable Fuels Association) Last year’s Inflation Reduction Act created tax credits meant to stimulate the production and use of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), a critical tool in the aviation sector’s decarbonization strategy.

To qualify for the tax credits, SAF must reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50% compared to conventional jet fuel. SAF that achieves the minimum 50% reduction earns a tax credit worth $1.25 per gallon. The value of the credit increases as the carbon intensity of the SAF decreases, topping out at $1.75 per gallon for SAF that has net-zero or carbon-negative emissions. For the purposes of estimating the carbon intensity of different SAF options, Congress directed the U.S. Treasury to use the methodology established by the United Nations’ International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) or a “similar methodology.”

RFA and many other stakeholders (including airlines, SAF producers, farm groups, members of Congress and university researchers) have argued that Treasury should recognize the Department of Energy’s GREET model as a “similar methodology” for the purposes of determining SAF carbon intensity (and, thus, tax credit values). Meanwhile, some in the environmental community are pushing the Treasury to require that the ICAO methodology be used exclusively.

Those environmental groups have attempted to label our advocacy on SAF modeling as some kind of behind-the-scenes, clandestine lobbying effort to purportedly “weaken” SAF standards. Nothing could be further from the truth.

We support using the DOE GREET model because it would strengthen the credibility, transparency, and scientific robustness of the SAF tax credit program. Period. In addition, Congress required the use of DOE GREET for estimating the carbon intensity (and tax credit values) for non-aviation fuels under separate provisions on the IRA. Why should Treasury use different rules (and different methodologies) for different fuels, when Congress gave it the authority to harmonize the approach?

In any case, the SAF modeling debate has been mired by confusion and purposeful misdirection about the actual differences between the DOE GREET methodology and the ICAO methodology.

The truth is, DOE’s GREET isn’t just a “similar methodology” to ICAO…it’s really the “same methodology.” The two approaches aren’t all that different. Both use the GREET model to assess direct supply chain emissions, and both rely on Purdue University’s GTAP model to analyze potential land use change scenarios.

So, if DOE GREET and ICAO are generally using the same approach and modeling tools, why are their carbon intensity results for certain SAF options (like corn ethanol-to-jet) so much different?

The answer is simple: One methodology (DOE GREET) uses the most up-to-date data and assumptions regarding crop and biofuel production, while the other (ICAO) uses grossly outdated information and faulty assumptions.

In fact, for its estimates of emissions related to corn and ethanol production, ICAO uses a version of the GREET model from 2012 (ICAO also relies on European crop and ethanol production data from the 2006-2012 timeframe). DOE has publicly released no fewer than 13 updated or revised versions of GREET since 2012, which begs the question: why is ICAO still using an obsolete GREET model version from 11 years ago?

For estimating hypothetical land use change (LUC) emissions, ICAO uses Purdue’s GTAP-BIO model. This is the same model that is integrated with the DOE GREET model for assessing LUC scenarios. Again, the big difference between DOE GREET and ICAO on LUC emissions estimates is not the model used; rather, it’s the data and assumptions plugged into the model. ICAO uses land use change “emissions factors” and elasticities developed in 2014 by U.C. Berkeley and the California Air Resources Board. Meanwhile, the DOE GREET team uses emissions factors from a module called “CCLUB” (developed by scientists at Northwestern University, Argonne National Lab, and the University of Illinois), which was updated as recently as October 2021.

RFA and others are simply asking the Treasury to allow the use of the latest versions of GREET (integrated with GTAP and CCLUB), which was released in March 2023 and is populated with the most current data regarding corn and ethanol production factors.

RFA has developed this handy “cheat sheet” to explain the key differences between the DOE GREET approach and the ICAO approach. Again, the two approaches use the same basic methodology and modeling tools. The difference in results boils down to the fact that one (DOE GREET) uses current information about crop and ethanol production and one (ICAO) uses grossly outdated information, proving correct the adage that “a model is only as good as its underlying assumptions and data” (others have put it a little more bluntly: “garbage in, garbage out”!) In the end, the SAF modeling debate shouldn’t be characterized as “GREET vs. ICAO.” It’s really more about current data vs. old data.  READ MORE


ACA Calls On Treasury To Adopt GREET For SAF Tax Credit (American Carbon Alliance/Ethanol Producer Magazine)

RFA Seeks Fair Treatment for Ethanol as SAF Feedstock (; includes AUDIO)

Biofuel groups hopeful on IRS rules for SAF tax credit (Agri-Pulse)

Ethanol Maker Says US ‘Green’ Jet Fuel Fate Hinges on Tax Policy-- Green Plains CEO expects US guidance as soon as September; Decision on how to track emissions key to IRA benefit (Bloomberg)

Minnesota ag official urges adoption of GREET for SAF tax credit (Biodiesel Magazine)

Excerpt from Biodiesel Magazine:   In the letter, Petersen specifically criticizes the CORSIA model for failing to credit climate-smart agricultural practices, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), and the use of low-carbon intensity electricity and hydrogen. “We should reward farmers who adopt increasingly lower-carbon operations and practices onsite and prevent misaligned incentives that fail to recognize and encourage cleaner processes and products,” he wrote.

The Minnesota Bio-Fuels Association (MN Bio-Fuels) issued a statement Aug. 25 applauding Petersen’s letter. “Minnesota Bio-Fuels Association is grateful for Commissioner Petersen and Secretary Vilsack’s efforts to ensure Minnesota farmers and ethanol producers can continue contributing towards the decarbonization of our transportation sector,” said Brian Werner, executive director of MN Bio-Fuels. “We urge regulators in Washington to adopt SAF tax credit guidance that supports Minnesotan farmers and biofuels."

A full copy of the letter is available on the MN Bio-Fuels website. READ MORE


In 2023, fewer people (38%) said they believe EVs are better for the environment than gas vehicles, than in 2022 (46%). Meanwhile, the number of people who said gas vehicles were better for the environment jumped to 13% in 2023, from 9% last year. -- Medora Lee, USA Today reporting on Autolist survey  READ MORE

Small Powertrains and Energy Systems Technology Conference --- October 31 - November 2, 2023 --- Minneapolis, MN

Powering Innovation for Small Engines -- In partnership with the Japanese Society of Automotive Engineers (JSAE), SAE’s Small Powertrains and Energy

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Global: “K” Line Issues CO2 Reduction Certificate for Bulker Biofuel Trial

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Global Biofuel Output Lags in Race to Achieve Net Zero Emissions Targets: IEA

by Aditya Kondalamahanty and Samyak Pandey (S&P Global) Biofuel demand for road transport to peak by 2040; Need to broaden feedstock

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Accelerating the Transition to a Green Future: Ethanol-Blended Fuels and Electric Vehicles

 by Tushar Chhabhaya (Aarya Automobiles/The News Motion/Times of India) ... Two technologies have emerged as frontrunners in the quest for a

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Marine Biofuel Helps Computer Maker Acer Reduce Sea-logistics Emissions

(Acer/Biobased Diesel Daily) The Taiwan-based information and communication technology company Acer Inc. announced mid-September the publication of its 2022 Sustainability Report,

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Used Cooking Oil Being Developed as Aviation Fuel: Ministry

by Ade Irma J, Resinta S (Antara Indonesian News Agency)  The Indonesian Industry Ministry stated that the potential of used cooking oil, currently

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Biden's IRA Drives Surge in US Imports of Chinese Used Cooking Oil

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Veriflux Partners with Indonesian UCO Exporters Association to Enhance Feedstock Traceability

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The Philippines Energy Department Affirms Commitment to Sustainable Aviation Fuel

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AGQM Releases New B100 Guidelines for Biodiesel Use as Pure, Unblended Fuel

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BP, High Plains Partners Announce New Joint Venture at Groundbreaking for South Dakota Crush Plant

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Ethanol Still Makes Sense for Climate, Rural Communities

(Solutions from the Land)  ... Renewable corn energy seems a no-brainer compared to nonrenewable petroleum-based gasoline. Oil does not—and cannot—foster life

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Removal of Fuel Subsidies in Nigeria Has Several Effects on Its Citizens: How Biofuels Can Help

by Onyinye Jane Achukwu (Advanced Biofuels USA) In a recent article, Henry Nnaemeka of the Daily Post noted, "The removal of

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Universiti Teknologi Petronas and Malaysian Kuwaiti Investment Embark on Pioneer Project in Sabah to Optimise Plantation’s Biomass

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Execution of Memorandum of Understanding with Peninsula, for Joint Development of Ammonia Bunkering in Spain

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CALL FOR SPEAKERS Sustainable Aviation Fuel Summit 2024 --- June 18-19, 2024 --- Brussels, Belgium

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JGC : Detailed Study Begins for Biomethane Supply Project in Indonesia

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Consumer Demand Driving Sustainable Aviation Fuel Market

by Mark Dorenkamp (Brownfield Ag News) Consumer demand is expected to launch the sustainable aviation fuel market, providing additional revenue streams

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Fischer Introduces “Stop EV Freeloading Act” to Support Infrastructure Investments, Promote Fairness

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EPA Official Highlights Agency’s Biofuels Support

by Cindy Zimmerman ( EPA’s Senior Advisor for Agriculture Rod Snyder talked about the agency’s commitment to biofuels and the Renewable

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European Biogas Association to Cooperate with Global GHG Protocol in Developing Rules for the Reporting of Biomethane Purchase

(European Biogas Association) The European Biogas Association (EBA), together with the Coalition for Renewable Natural Gas (RNG Coalition), met last week with Pankaj Bhatia, Global

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Carbon Dioxide Utilization Markets, Resources, and Environmental and Energy Justice

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  A new DOE project is quantifying resource availability and costs for CO2 utilization (CO2U) in sustainable

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Neste and SQUAKE Enable Businesses to Opt for Sustainable Aviation Fuel in Flight Booking Systems to Reduce Their Air Travel Related Carbon Emissions

(Neste) Neste and SQUAKE, a leading technology provider for powering carbon calculations and providing tangible compensation for all travel and logistics

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Subsidy Removal: Rise in Fuel Price Presents Biofuels as Viable Option – Environmentalists

by Henry Nnaemeka (Daily Post) The removal of fuel subsidy by the President Bola Ahmed Tinubu-led government has no doubt caused

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Mitsui to Invest in Renewable Diesel and SAF Production Business in Portugal

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NKT Cable-Laying Vessel to Run on Biofuels

(ReNews.Biz) The NKT Victoria will be able to run on hydrotreated vegetable oil. NKT has certified its cable-laying Vessel NKT Victoria to

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Trucking Looks Set to Push for More Use of Biofuel in Europe

by Charlie Bartlett (The Load Star) As the EC FuelEU Maritime sidelines biofuels on environmental grounds, the trucking industry has begun

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Indian Standards on Biofuel to Support Greater Bay Area’s Clean Energy Goals

(India Education Diary)  The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India commits to complement the green initiatives

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Ampol Reveals Plans to Take Biodiesel on the Road

by Jennifer Dudley-Nicholson (The West Australian/Australian Associated Press)  Australia's biggest petrol retailer has revealed plans to produce renewable diesel for heavy

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How Airports Can Lead in Bio-Based Economic Development --- September 27, 2023 --- ONLINE


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Fueling Aviation’s Sustainable Transition via Sustainable Aviation Fuels (FAST-SAF) and Low-Emission Aviation Technologies (FAST-Tech) Grant Program DEADLINE November 27, 2023

(U.S. Department of Transportation) The Department of Transportation (DOT), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces the opportunity to apply for funds

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DOE Announces Nearly $48 Million to Advance Clean Hydrogen Technologies

(U.S. Department of Energy) Funding Will Help Reduce Costs and Improve the Performance of Critical Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell Technologies,

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Biden Broadens Use of Social Cost of Carbon

by Jean Chemnick  (E&E News Climatewire)  The Biden administration announced plans Thursday to consider climate costs in a much broader swath

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South Jersey Industries and OPAL Fuels Announce the Signing of Renewable Natural Gas Joint Venture

(South Jersey Industries and Opal Fuels/Business Wire)  South Jersey Industries (SJI), an energy infrastructure holding company, and OPAL Fuels Inc. (Nasdaq: OPAL), a

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Biden Administration to Put $4.6 Billion toward State and Local Climate Plans

by Rachel Frazin (The Hill) The Biden administration announced Wednesday that it will make $4.6 billion available to help states, localities

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Private Jet Owner interest in Sustainable Aviation Fuel Jumps 76%

by Doug Gollan (Private Jet Card Comparisons)  More private jet owners and operators are seriously considering the use of Sustainable Aviation

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VoltAero Hybrid-Electric Aircraft Makes Landmark Flight Fueled by Wine Waste

by Jack Daleo (Flying Magazine)  The company flew its proprietary hybrid-electric powertrain on a demonstrator powered by biofuel produced from vineyard

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Methane Policy & Issues --- September 29, 2023 --- Washington, DC

Please join OurEnergyPolicy and bp America for lunch and an expert panel discussion on methane policy and issues, business, climate,

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Unlocking the Opportunity of Low-Carbon Hydrogen: Investment, Incentives, and Collaboration --- September 28, 2023 --- ONLINE

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Cranfield University at the Forefront of New £14.1m Global Initiative to Transform Net Zero Hydrogen Production

(Cranfield University) The Global Hydrogen Production Technologies Center (HyPT) is led in the UK by Cranfield University in collaboration with

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Utilizing Electricity to Produce Intermediates from CO2 and Biomass

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) A recent DOE project analyzed promising bolt-on compatible CO2 reduction pathways to fuels or products from standalone biorefineries; Published

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EPA Calls for Nominations for 2024 Green Chemistry Challenge Awards DEADLINE December 8, 2023

by Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton (Bergeson & Campbell) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on September 8, 2023, that

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Renault to Maintain Mixed Ethanol Combustion Engines in Brazil

by Alberto Alerigi Jr. and Carolina Pulice (Reuters)  Renault (RENA.PA) will maintain production of ethanol-fueled combustion vehicles in Brazil, where nine in 10

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The Global Sugar Shortage Is about to Ease Thanks to a Corn Supply Boom

by Dayanne Sousa (Bloomberg/Economic Times) For consumers fighting rampant food inflation, the plunging sugar prices will be a respite. The

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Todd's Take: Has the Case for Ethanol Come Full Circle?

by Todd Hultman (DTN Progressive Farmer) ... The same day President Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

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Fork in the Road for Trucks: Hydrogen or Batteries?

by Mike Lee (Politico Pro Climatewire) Truck makers are building both kinds of rigs as regulators and lawmakers throw the dice

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Strategic Biofuels Receives Air Permit Approval to Advance Its Louisiana Green Fuels Project

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EBA Concerned with the ENVI Committee’s Vote Excluding Biogases from the Net Zero Industry Act

(European Biogas Association) On 20 September, the European Parliament’s Committee on Environment (ENVI) adopted its Opinion on the Net Zero Industry Act (NZIA),

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Bion’s Ammonia Recovery Technology’s Initial Startup Successful – Maintains Controlled Steady-State

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Ethanol – A Saviour that Gives Savings

by Karthik Ganesan (The Indian Express)  India needs clear research and development plan to scale up ethanol production -- ... In a

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Feenstra: Combating President Biden’s Electric Vehicle Mandates -- President Biden Refuses to Accept the Facts. 95% of Cars on the Road Today Run on Liquid Fuel and Are Significantly More Affordable and Reliable than Electric Vehicles.

by Randy Feenstra (Congressman  (R-IA 4th District)/The Iowa Torch)  ... There is no clearer example of his executive overreach than his hasty

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Some Countries Are Already Talking about Walking Back Fossil Fuel Car Bans

by Bradley Brownell (Jalopnik) Will anyone be ready for their own EV mandate deadlines? --- In the wake of the United Kingdom Prime

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EPA: 1 New SRE Petition Filed, 3 SRE Petitions Now Pending

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) The U.S. EPA on Sept. 21 released updated small refinery exemption (SRE) data, reporting that

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Ethanol Blog -- RFA Chief: EPA Science Board Using Bad Data to Question Corn Ethanol Emissions

by Chris Clayton (DTN Progressive Farmer)  As the EPA's Science Advisory Board meets Thursday and Friday, the ethanol industry is continuing

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to CO2 Reduction and Upgrading for e-Fuels Consortium

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Commercial shipping and transportation expected to be difficult to electrify/decarbonize. Projected supply of traditional biomass feedstocks

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ANGI Energy Systems Teams uup with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Truck Pioneer Nikola Corporation in Strategic Collaboration

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KRISO Achieved ABS’ Approval for It’s Offshore Ammonia Production Platform

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‘Companies Need to Re-assess the Way They Communicate about Their Purchase of Carbon Credits’: EU Agrees Ban on ‘Climate Neutral’ Claims by 2026

by Oliver Morrison (Food Navigator Europe) The EU has agreed more details about proposals to ban ‘climate neutral’ claims by 2026, which

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21st International Conference on Renewable Mobility "Fuels of the Future 2024" --- January 22-23, 2024 --- Berlin, Germany

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Webinar: Decarbonizing Combustion Vehicles – A Portfolio Approach to GHG Reductions

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Renewable Propane: Regulatory & Refiner Perspectives

(Stillwater Associates) On August 22, 2023 Stillwater President Megan Boutwell presented about regulatory & refiner perspectives at the Renewable Propane Summit

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Flash Report – SRIA Release: CARB’s First Salvo of Proposed 2023 LCFS Amendments

(Stillwater Associates) On September 8, 2023, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) released the Standardized Regulatory Impact Assessment (SRIA) for the

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CO2 Pipelines: The New Populist Republican Target

by Mike Soraghan (E&E News Energywire)  Far-right leaders are often fans of pipelines crossing the country, but when it comes to

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Why Ethanol? Why E85? Handout

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Biden Launches American Climate Corps

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Lawmaker Calls for Relaxation of Biofuel Requirement to Ease Oil Prices

by Beatriz Marie D. Cruz (Business World) The government should provide P5.19 billion in fuel subsidies to the transport, farm and fisheries sectors

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Orlen Group to Build EUR 184-mln Oil Pressing Plant for Biofuel

(The First News) The Orlen Group, Poland's dominant energy conglomerate, has signed a contract for the construction of an oil pressing

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UAE: Meet Emirati Green Champion Leading Research in Biofuel Production

by Angel Tesorero (Khaleej Times) Sara Ishaq Alkhoori became one of the recipients of this year's L'Oréal-Unesco For Women in Science International

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Department of Energy Releases Request for Information on Building Supply Chains to Meet Sustainable Aviation Fuel Grand Challenge Goals DEADLINE November 2, 2023

(U.S. Department of Energy) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has released a Request for Information (RFI) to better understand the challenges facing

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The UK Is Delaying the Switch to Electric Cars. Automakers Are Furious

by Hanna Ziady (CNN)  The UK government said Wednesday it would delay a ban on the sale of new gas and diesel cars

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GAO Affirms Legality of Vilsack's Use of CCC for Climate-Smart Projects

By Philip Brasher (Agri-Pulse) The Government Accountability Office says Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack had the legal authority to use the Commodity

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Can Push for Carbon Capture Pipelines Also Mean Billions for Conservation-Minded Farming?

by Donnelle Eller (Des Moines Register) Builders of carbon capture pipelines stand to reap billions in tax credits. Will farmers also

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It’s Time For Flex Fuel Fairness

by Geoff Cooper (Renewable Fuels Association/Ethanol Producer Magazine) In 2014, nine major auto manufacturers produced and sold more than 2.8 million

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Growth Energy Urges Action after Administration Officials Show Commitment to Biofuels at 2023 Advocacy Summit

(Growth Energy) Growth Energy, the nation’s largest biofuels trade association, welcomed its members from across the U.S. to Washington, D.C. last

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New US Producers Plan 4.4 Million mt/year Green Methanol for Shipping

by Max Lin (S&P Global/Platts)  Emerging players eyes strong maritime demand growth; SunGas, Carbon Sink and WasteFuel to start production this decade; US

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African Nations Set to Visit India for Ethanol Blending, Biogas Studies

by Subhayan Chakraborty (Business Standard)  Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda keen to replicate India's ethanol blending, biogas initiatives -- Close on the heels of

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ENGIE Expands Its Biomethane Portfolio

(ENGIE)  The biomethane market is set for substantial growth and ENGIE has set its sights on becoming one of the leading

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Indonesia Attorney General launches Graft Probe into Palm Oil Fund Agency

by Fransiska Nangoy, Bernadette Christina and Stefanno Sulaiman (Reuters) The Indonesian Attorney General's Office has launched a corruption investigation into the

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GOP Lawmakers Testify against Eminent Domain Use for Carbon Pipeline

by O. Kay Henderson (Radio Iowa)  An Iowa lawmaker is suggesting the Iowa Utilities Board lacks the authority to grant Summit

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CycleØ Inaugurates Spain’s First Biomethane Plant with Ammonia Stripping

(CycleØ/Globe Newswire)The facilities are located in the Catalonian municipality of Vallfogona de Balaguer. CycleØ plans to have 20 biomethane plants

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Systems Development and Integration – Emerging and Supporting Technologies

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) SDI directly supports BETO’s strategic goal to decarbonize the transportation sector through R,D, &D to produce

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An Aerolíneas Argentinas Plane Made Its First Flight with Sustainable Fuel

(télam) Flight AR1135 is the company's initial test within the framework of its Sustainability Plan. The aircraft loaded 2% SAF type

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Denmark Receives ‘Historic’ Clean Jet Fuel Delivery to Meet Growing Demand

by Anthony Wright (GasWorld) Denmark has received a record quantity of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) at a terminal in Prøvestenen. The

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BRIDGES Bioenergy 101 Webinar: Incorporating Bioenergy National Laboratory Research into the Classroom --- October 5, 2023 --- ONLINE

Are you interested in providing hands-on, data-centric bioenergy experiences in your classroom? The Bioenergy Research and Education Bridge (BRIDGES) Program is partnering with

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Climate Needs and Market Demand Drive Future for Durable CDR

by Karan Mistry, Bahar Carroll, Thomas Baker, Paulina Ponce de León Baridó, Alex Dewar, and Amy Sims (Boston Consulting Group) If

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The CDR R&D Act of 2023 Will Funnel $12 Billion towards RD&D for Carbon Removal

(Carbon 180) “Federal investment in research, development and demonstration of emerging technologies is essential to support innovation and ultimately deliver a

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DOE Announces $17.2 Million to Use Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Unconventional Reservoirs, Combined with Carbon Storage DEADLINE December 13, 2023

(U.S. Department of Energy)  The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management (FECM) today announced up

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DOE Announces $27 Million for Carbon Dioxide Transport Networks to Manage Carbon Emissions DEADLINE November 16, 2023

(U.S. Department of Energy) Funding From President Biden’s Investing in America Agenda Will Help Connect Sources of Carbon Dioxide to Locations

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Biden-Harris Administration Announces Availability of $4.6 Billion in Competitive Grants to Cut Climate Pollution as Part of Investing in America Agenda DEADLINE April 1 and May 1, 2024

(Environmental Protection Agency)  Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched $4.6 billion in competitive grants to fund state, local, and

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Chevron Does U-turn and Invests in Utah Green Hydrogen Project

by Cameron Murray (Energy Storage News)  Oil and gas major Chevron has performed a U-turn and invested in ACES Delta in

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Energy Transitions to and from Gas Cooking: A Global Perspective --- October 11, 2023 --- ONLINE

This webinar focuses on a comprehensive perspective on energy transitions in cooking, encompassing both the adoption of gas as well

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IRENA Virtual Knowledge Exchange Series on Renewables-based Clean Cooking: Key Messages and the Way Forward

(Clean Cooking Alliance)  The Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7) target of achieving universal access to clean cooking fuels and

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SAF Use Gaining Traction, Advocates Say

(National Business Aviation Association) Advocates of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) say the environmentally friendly alternative to conventional Jet A is gaining

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EPA Agrees to RFS Enforcement Improvements in Response to OIG

(Inside EPA) EPA has agreed to a series of steps to improve its internal safeguards against fraud in the renewable fuel

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Expect to See E15 and E85 Offered at More Gas Stations

by Cody Ronnfeldt (Norfolk NE Radio) Higher blends of ethanol are being offered at more gas stations in Nebraska and bill

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Stu Ellis: Biofuels Looking to Takeoff with Help from Lawmakers

by Stu Ellis  (Herald & Review)  ... And the U.S. Department of Agriculture's projections for exports ratchet down every time a

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A Local Struggle over Carbon Pipelines in Iowa Is Becoming a 2024 Presidential Flashpoint

by Jillian Frankel and Alex Tabet (NBC News)  GOP presidential candidates are trying to strike a balance between supporting Iowa’s ethanol

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OMV to Supply Air France-KLM with 2,000t Sustainable Aviation Fuel This Year

(OMV AG)  OMV and Air France-KLM committed to playing active role in reducing the aviation industry's carbon footprint; Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

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CMA CGM and Maersk Join Forces to Accelerate the Decarbonization of the Shipping Industry

(Maersk)  Both CMA CGM and Maersk have set ambitious Net Zero target and invest extensively in the energy transition in shipping. The

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KPI OceanConnect and Uni-Tankers Collaborate on Successful Biofuel Trial

(KPI OceanConnect) KPI OceanConnect supplies bespoke B30 biofuel blend to Uni-Tankers M/T Alsia Swan for successful trials on board the 5,700

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EBA Applauds the TRAN Committee for Recognising the Long-Term Contribution of Renewable Fuels to the Decarbonisation of the Sector

(European Biogas Association) On the 19th of September, the European Parliament’s Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) voted its Opinion on the Revision

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Royal Caribbean Group Drives Forward Alternative Fuel Use with the Successful Completion of Biofuel Testing

(Royal Caribbean Group/PR Newswire) Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas is the first in the maritime industry to successfully test

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LanzaJet Strengthens Collaboration with Technip Energies to Accelerate the Global Deployment of Sustainable Aviation Fuel

(LanzaJet/PR Newswire) Alliance Integrates the Companies' Technologies and Leverages Combined Global Capabilities to Engineer, Develop, and Deliver Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Systems Development and Integration – Scale-Up Portfolio

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) SDI directly supports BETO’s strategic goal to decarbonize the transportation sector through R,D, &D to produce

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CO2 Capture, Storage & Reuse 2024 --- May 15-16, 2023 --- Copenhagen, Denmark

Following last year’s great response to our CO2 Capture, Storage & Reuse Conference with over 390 participants from 26+ countries we’re announcing next edition

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Special UN Summit, Protests, Week of Talk Turn up Heat on Fossil Fuels and Global Warming

by Seth Borenstein (Associated Press) As a record-smashing and deadly hot summer draws to a close, the United Nations and the city that

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Scania and Flix Announce Long-​Term Partnership to Make Sustainable Long-​Distance Travel a Reality

(Scania)  New long-term partnership between Flix and Scania will see the increased use of biogas vehicles in bus travel; Initially, Scania

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Montana Renewables Receives First Camelina Oil

(Calumet) First commercial demonstration of low carbon intensity, non-food seed oil to open new markets for Montana -- Calumet Specialty Products Partners,

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OCI Global to Double Its Green Methanol Capacity in the United States

(OCI Global) OCI will scale capacity by 200,000 tons at its facility in Beaumont, Texas; The green methanol will come from

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Turkey’s Pegasus Airlines Offers New Climate Program in Partnership with Norway-based CHOOOSE

(Pegasus Airlines/Biobased Diesel Daily)  Turkish carrier Pegasus Airlines recently announced a partnership with Norway-based climate-tech company CHOOOSE. ... The new platform allows travelers

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Airbus Partners with DG Fuels to Foster Sustainable Aviation Fuel Production in the United States

(Airbus) This partnership will support the scaling of a promising technology to produce sustainable aviation fuels from cellulosic waste and residues.

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MEPs Back Plans to Boost Use of Renewable Energy

(European Parliament) Renewables will have to make up 42.5% of the EU’s energy consumption by 2030, with the aim of achieving

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel: Challenges of Scale

by Tony Cartolano (Lee Enterprises Consulting/Biofuels Digest) ... In January 2022, Valero Energy Corp said that tax incentives for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF)

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Trafigura Selects IsoTherming® Technology for Grassroots Diesel Hydrotreater in Argentina

(Elessent Clean Technologies/Biobased Diesel Daily)  Elessent Clean Technologies announced in early September the signing of license and engineering contracts with Trafigura

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Clean Fuels Releases Outlook on Global Supplies of Used Cooking Oil for Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel Production

(Clean Fuels Alliance America) Global UCO supplies are anticipated to rise from 3.7 billion gallons in 2022 to between 5 billion

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Biodiesel Educator Named Teacher of the Year in South Carolina School District

(Richland School District Two/Biobased Diesel Daily)  In South Carolina, Richland School District Two announced Sept. 13 that the 2023-’24 District Teacher

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Decarbonizing Refining: TotalEnergies Launches a Call for Tenders for the Supply of 500,000 Tons per Year of Green Hydrogen

(TotalEnergies/Business Wire)  As part of the drive to decarbonize its European refineries, TotalEnergies (Paris:TTE) (LSE:TTE) (NYSE:TTE) is launching a call for

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PT Pertamina Internasional Chooses Topsoe Technology at Cilacap Facility in Indonesia

by Ulrik Frøhlke (Topsoe)  Topsoe is selected technology provider at PT Kilang Pertamina Internasional’s (“PT KPI”) renewable fuels production units in

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Converting Existing Industrial Facilities into Advanced Biorefineries

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest/REenergize the Gulf Coast) Digest WEBINARS returned to the airwaves again this past week and we were

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Eni, LG Chem Explore Renewable Diesel, SAF Project Development in South Korea

(Eni/Biobased Diesel Daily)  South Korea’s leading chemicals producer LG Chem and Italian energy group Eni Sustainable Mobility jointly announced Sept. 14

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Opinion: Illinois Economy, Safety Reach New Heights with Carbon Capture

by Joe Heinrich and Rick Terven Jr. (Agri-Pulse/Smart Carbon Network/Illinois Pipe Trades Association) ... Thanks to carbon capture technology, we can

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Lawsuits Initiated Against EPA on the Renewable Fuels Standard, Despite Rising Energy Prices

by Michelle Rook (AgWeb) Environmental and fossil fuel organizations have launched a series of lawsuits against the RFS which establish

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Retailers Show Vision in Blazing Trails for Ethanol

by Cindy Zimmerman (  More and more retailers are taking the plunge and offering higher ethanol blends around the country, but

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World Hydrogen Energy Summit --- October 16-17, 2023 --- Delhi, India

The World Hydrogen Energy Summit is the Energy And Environment Foundation’s global event offering a unique platform for hydrogen leaders

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States in the Southeast Have Potential for Biogas Production

by Daniel Hall ( Gus Simmons, the Director of Bioenergy for Cavanaugh & Associates, highlights the growing interest in biogas projects

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American Vanguard Releases 2023 Corporate Sustainability Report: New Detailed Report Reemphasizes Company’s Commitment to Sustainable Agriculture

(American Vanguard)  American Vanguard Corporation (NYSE: AVD) is pleased to announce the release of its 2023 Corporate Sustainability Report, a detailed

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Stanadyne's 2P DCR Fuel Pump Selected as a 2023 Automotive News Pace Awards Finalist

(Stanadyne)  ... Stanadyne’s two-piston diesel common rail fuel pump (2P DCR) innovation has been selected as one of the 34 finalists

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California Wades into Oil Lawsuits

by Arianna Skibell (Politico's Power Switch) California’s lawsuit against some of the world’s largest oil companies could supercharge a yearslong campaign

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Fort Simpson, N.W.T., Sees Fire Protection Work as a Biofuel Opportunity

by Liny Lamberink ·(CBC News) ... James Tsetso, the deputy mayor for the Village of Fort Simpson, sees opportunity in the

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HMM Aims to Have up to 10% of Its Fuel Mix Coming from Biofuels by 2026

by Sam Chambers ( HMM, South Korea’s flagship line, intends to have as much as 10% of its fuel mix coming

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Enabling Latin America’s Largest ISCC-Certified Marine Biofuels Supply Chain

(Monjasa) By enabling a sustainable and scalable biofuel option for the maritime industry in Latin America, global top 10 marine fuels

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United Signs Agreement to Buy up to One Billion Gallons of Sustainable Aviation Fuel from Cemvita

(Cemvita/Business Wire) Cemvita designs synthetic microbes that have the potential to convert CO2 into sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) -- Cemvita Corporation announced

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Costa Rica Looks Again at Ethanol Blending for Fuels

by Ileana Fernandez (Tico Times) The Costa Rican Oil Refinery (Recope) held its first technical roundtable this week to advance ethanol blending

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Ethanol, Biofuels Drive Farm Progress Show Conversation

(Agri-News) During the Farm Progress Show, Congresswoman Nikki Budzinski of central and southern Illinois stood alongside farmers and biofuels experts to

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Japan's First Biofuel-Hydrogen Tourist Ship to Set Sail in 2024

by Junya Hemmi (Nikkei)  Japanese marine shipping company Mitsui O.S.K. Lines plans to put the country's first biofuel-hydrogen tourist vessel into

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Brazil Offers Ethanol Tech to India to Settle Sugar Dispute

 by Mukesh Jagota (Financial Express) The development came about amid a few rounds of official level talks and a ministerial meeting

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EASA To Take the Lead on Decarbonizing European Aviation

by Charles Alcock (AIN Online) By 2050, 70 percent of fuel uploaded at European airports must be SAF and tankering will

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EU to Carry out Surveillance on Fuel Ethanol Imports amid Steep Increases Since 2021

by  Harry Clyne and Phillip Herring (S&P Global) EC to retroactively monitor import statistics, trends; Initiative to protect EU producers from rapid

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Brazil's Lula Launches 'Fuel of the Future' Program to Reduce Emissions

by Jeff Fick (S&P Global) Seeks to boost ethanol-gasoline blend; Implements national program for SAF; Will require airlines to cut emissions -- The administration

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Farm Bill Stalled as Time Ticks Away

by Chris Clayton (DTN Progressive Farmer) Trying to Craft a Farm Bill, IRA Climate-Smart Dollars Are Object of GOP Affection -- With

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Carbon Pipeline Company Has Not ‘Taken Any State off the Map’ after SD Permit Rejection

by Joshua Haiar and Jared Strong (South Dakota Searchlight) But Navigator CO2 pulls back on some operations while awaiting written decision

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PtX Production of Green Fuels Is Possible on Bornholm, EU-Funded Study Says

by Aida Čučuk (Offshore Energy) An EU-supported feasibility study, led by Port of Roenne and a number of local and national

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SCZone, Dutch Alliance Pen Cooperation Protocol to Boost Green Fuel Investments

(Zawya/Arab Finance) Under the protocol, the Dutch firms will establish green hydrogen production plants to directly supply various types of vehicles

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Separations and Performance Advantaged Bioproducts

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office seeks in its separations strategy to support scale-up of sustainable aviation

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16th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC) --- September 24-27, 2023 --- Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

The 16th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC) to be held in Sydney in 2023 is organised jointly by GCIRC (Global Council

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Bold Goals Action Leadership Events --- September 22, 2023 - May 2024 and TBA --- various locations around the world

Biofuels Digest is unveiling the first in a series of ground-up, global initiatives to help spark and synchronize a faster

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Australian Bioeconomy Conference --- September 19-20, 2023 --- Rydges Newcastle, NSW

The improved management of carbon across our economy – or our ‘bioeconomy’ – is critical if we are to mitigate

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Finding the Private Benjamins: Bridging the Dev Cap Gap

by Matt Lucas (Tuatara Development Capital/Biofuels Digest) We read with interest CJ Evan’s piece about the need for development capital (“Dev Cap”) to expedite

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California’s Climate Disclosure Bill Could Have Nationwide Impacts

by Kristoffer Tigue (Inside Climate News) The legislation, passed by the state lawmakers this week, still needs the governor's signature. But

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Lawmakers Strike $106 Million Deal for Fueling Hydrogen Cars, Trucks — Even though Hardly Anyone Drives One

by Alejandro Lazo (Cal Matters) Hydrogen fueling stations will get 15% of funds in a state program — even though Californians

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Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) doe Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandate mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) methanol-to-jetfuel Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave 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naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid 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Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification SAF pipeline SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK sal tree Salicornia salt water salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater seaweed cultivation Seaweed/Macroalgae second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks seed-to-wheel Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silage silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge 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