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USDA Investing $75 million in Partner-Led Projects with Focus on Climate-Smart Ag, Equity in Program Delivery

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September 27, 2021

(U.S. Department of Agriculture)  The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) will invest nearly $75 million for 15 partner-led projects to address natural resource concerns on private lands. This year, projects funded by the Regional Conservation Partnership Program’s (RCPP) Alternative Funding Arrangements (AFA) focus on climate-smart agriculture and forestry and other conservation priorities as well as improving access for historically underserved producers.
   
“The AFA component of RCPP is designed for partners who are thinking outside of the box to address some of our most pressing natural resource challenges,” said Terry Cosby, Chief of USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). “RCPP is a testament to the power of partnership. By combining local expertise, partner resources, federal assistance and a shared commitment to conservation we can advance critical priorities and innovative solutions that are key to addressing the climate crisis.”   
 
As part of this year’s project selections, NRCS prioritized projects that supported smart strategies on working lands to help sequester carbon, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the impacts of climate change. Several projects also had concrete plans for engaging producers from historically underserved communities.
 
Through RCPP, NRCS works with partners to implement projects that demonstrate innovative solutions to advance conservation priorities on the ground. AFA projects are partner-designed and partner-led RCPP projects that propose innovative uses of program funding to achieve conservation benefits. Through AFA projects, lead partners are responsible for contracting directly with eligible farmers, ranchers and other landowners to implement conservation activities on the ground.
 
2021 Projects
 
This year’s awarded projects are:  
 

  • Climate Action and Reforestation in Northern Michigan (Michigan)Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. Will work towards afforestation and reforestation goals under the Michigan Climate Action Plan by planting on approximately 16,400 acres. The project could serve as a model for large-scale forest restoration on private lands. Project partners will report on environmental outcomes related to sedimentation, nutrient loading and carbon sequestered.  
  • Enhancing Hawaii’s Forests for Climate Resilience (Hawaii)State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources. Will focus on landscape-level forest restoration, with locations selected for the highest potential carbon sequestration. Will also improve habitat for critically endangered bird species. Project partners will work with private landowners to plant 210,000 native trees and remove priority invasive plants from 1,650 acres.  
  • Expanding Soil Health Through Carbon Markets RCPP (South Dakota): American Coalition for Ethanol. Will work to create a strong market driver for climate-smart agriculture practices (no-till, cover crops, and nutrient management) for farmers in the grainshed supplying a farmer-owned ethanol facility in South Dakota. Market access would generate an estimated $18.5 million in new revenue annually in the RCPP project area.  
  • Great Plains Grasslands Conservation (South Dakota, Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska)National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. Farmers in the region will implement grassland restoration and prescribed grazing systems on more than 1 million acres. An estimated 350,000 acres of grasslands will be enrolled in perpetual conservation easements and project partners plan to estimate the carbon benefits of project activities.
  • Gunnison River Drought Resiliency and Restoration (Colorado)Trout Unlimited. Will restore wetlands and riparian areas while improving irrigation water management on at least five working ranches in three distinct tributaries to the Gunnison River.   
  • Healing Mine-Scarred Landscapes via Reforestation (Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia)U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities. Will reforest abandoned mine lands in the Appalachian region leveraging private capital and carbon market revenues. Partners will plant 2.5 million trees and the sequestered carbon estimated and sold as carbon offsets. Restored forest ecosystems will also benefit wildlife, including golden-winged warbler and American woodcock.  
  • Illinois Climate-Smart Agricultural Partnership (Illinois): Illinois Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Land and Water Resources. Will establish a Climate-Smart Agricultural Champions program for Illinois producers that will incentivize climate-smart conservation practices and systems with greenhouse gas and water quality benefits. Project partners will also create an Agricultural Climate-Smart Institute to establish educational and training programs for climate-smart systems and practices.  
  • Iowa Partners for Natural Infrastructure (Iowa)Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship. Will establish a natural infrastructure-based project in priority watersheds within a 35-county area. The project aims to improve outreach and expand landowner participation, particularly among historically underserved landowners and producers. Will work to install 40 constructed/restored wetlands, resulting in conversion of 1,600 acres. to improve water quality, reduce greenhouse gas  emissions and increase wildlife habitat.
  • Maryland Clean Water Commerce Outcomes Project (Maryland)Sand County Foundation. Will help scale up the pay-for-performance program and expand access to nutrient reduction funding to more producers, including historically underserved producers. Many of the practices and systems implemented by farmers to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed will have climate co-benefits.  
  • Middle Rio Grande RCPP (New Mexico)Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District. Will integrate efficient use of water and enhancement of wildlife habitat. Project partners will use land management, short-term rental and easement activities to help producers increase the resiliency of their operations and adapt to long-term drought conditions and will target project benefits to historically underserved producers.
  • Pilot Watershed Project (Ohio)Ohio State University. Will establish a pilot watershed in the larger Western Lake Erie Basin to test water quality management strategies with the goal of reducing phosphorus concentrations in local water bodies. The project will improve water quality monitoring infrastructure and incentivize participation through an “agglomeration bonus” that increases payments as more producers implement practices.  
  • Saginaw Bay Watershed ASSET Program (Michigan)The Nature Conservancy. Will increase the permanent adoption of strip till and cover crops in the Saginaw Bay watershed offering producers incentives to support transition to a strip till system, ultimately reducing nutrient and sediment loss to nearby waterways. Partners aim to achieve a 2,000-ton sediment reduction and a 9,000-pound phosphorous reduction.
  • Shasta Valley Farm and Fish Drought Resilience (California)National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. Will support the implementation of a Safe Harbor Agreement designed to improve conditions for threatened coho salmon along 37 stream miles within the Shasta River, a tributary to the Klamath River.  
  • Soil and Water Outcomes 2022-2023 (Illinois, Indiana, Missouri)Illinois Soybean Association. Will replicate and scale up an existing pay-for-performance model piloted in Iowa to improve water quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in target watersheds. Farmers will implement conservation practices and systems on 140,000 acres of  cropland. RCPP funding will be used to pay for the verified water quality outcomes while partner contributions from Nutrien Ag Solutions and PepsiCo will pay for the verified carbon reductions.  
  • Upper Arkansas Forest Fund (Colorado)National Forest Foundation. Will work to reduce the risk of severe fires in the Upper Arkansas River Watershed by treating a total of 13,500 high-priority acres. Remote sensing and fire modeling tools will help partners report on project outcomes, measured by reduced fire risk and retained carbon storage capacity.  

 For details on the awarded projects and to view an interactive map, visit the RCPP website.
 
More about RCPP AFAs
 
Farmers, ranchers and private forest landowners can participate in RCPP AFA through lead partners and can contact local service centers offsite link image     for more information.  
 
First authorized in the 2014 Farm Bill, RCPP has leveraged partner contributions of more than $1 for every $1 invested by USDA, resulting in nearly $3 billion collectively invested in natural resource conservation on private lands. Partners are expected to offer value-added contributions to amplify the impact of RCPP funding in an amount equal or greater to the USDA investment.  RCPP projects range from a minimum of $250,000 to a maximum of $10 million.
 
Under the Biden-Harris Administration, USDA is engaged in a whole-of-government effort to combat the climate crisis and conserve and protect our nation’s lands, biodiversity and natural resources including our soil, air and water. Through conservation practices and partnerships, USDA aims to enhance economic growth and create new streams of income for farmers, ranchers, producers and private foresters. Successfully meeting these challenges will require USDA and our agencies to pursue a coordinated approach alongside USDA stakeholders, including State, local and Tribal governments.
 
USDA touches the lives of all Americans each day in so many positive ways. In the Biden-Harris Administration, USDA is transforming America’s food system with a greater focus on more resilient local and regional food production, fairer markets for all producers, ensuring access to healthy and nutritious food in all communities, building new markets and streams of income for farmers and producers using climate smart food and forestry practices, making historic investments in infrastructure and clean energy capabilities in rural America, and committing to equity across the Department by removing systemic barriers and building a workforce more representative of America. To learn more, visit www.usda.gov.   READ MORE

USDA ANNOUNCES MAJOR INVESTMENT IN ACE AND PARTNERS’ EFFORT TO UTILIZE CLIMATE-SMART PRACTICES TO SECURE MARKET ACCESS TO CLEAN FUEL MARKETS FOR FARMERS AND ETHANOL PRODUCERS (American Coalition for Ethanol)

USDA Invests in Effort to Secure Clean Fuel Market Access For Farmers and Ethanol Producers (GrainNet)

USDA funds ACE-led project to help farmers access LCFS markets (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

USDA Invests in Using Climate Smart Ag for Low Carbon Fuel (AgNewsWire)

 

Excerpt from American Coalition for Ethanol:  Today (September 24, 2021), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced a $7.5 million investment in the American Coalition for Ethanol (ACE)-led Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) project to secure farmers premier access to low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) markets based on their adoption of USDA climate-smart agricultural practices.

ACE, together with RCPP partners South Dakota Corn Growers Association, Dakota Ethanol, South Dakota State University, Cultivating Conservation, and collaborator Sandia National Labs, will use the USDA financial assistance to compensate farmers for adopting climate-smart practices that sequester carbon, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improve soil health. The partnership will pair USDA technical assistance with significant partner financial and in-kind contributions to quantify the resulting soil health and GHG benefits, correlate them with existing models, and develop a non-proprietary verification system. This data will then be used to secure farmer access to clean fuel or LCFS markets for the first time based on the GHG benefits of USDA climate-smart practices.

“We share the Biden administration’s goal of reaching net-zero GHG emissions by 2050,” said Brian Jennings, ACE CEO. “Ethanol can reach net-negative carbon intensity by crediting biofuel crops grown with climate-smart farming practices in clean fuel markets via carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and continued carbon reduction improvements at individual ethanol facilities.” 

“USDA’s investment in our project to validate the benefits of climate-smart practices in further reducing corn ethanol’s carbon footprint is a vote of confidence in the role farmers can play in reaching net-zero emissions by 2050,” Jennings added. “Further, this project will provide a prototype for how clean fuel policies can reward farmers for climate-smart practices that reduce the overall carbon intensity of corn ethanol.”

According to Michigan State University’s GHG calculator that uses USDA data to compare GHG reductions from different cropping systems, changes to be incentivized in the new RCPP from conventional tillage to no-till would sequester an additional 91,000 metric tons of GHG emissions per year in the project area. This is comparable to removing 20,000 cars from the road. If these reductions were credited in existing mandatory clean fuel markets, such as the California LCFS, farmers could generate over $10 million a year in new revenue. 

“The South Dakota Corn Growers Association is proud to partner on this project,” said Scott Stahl, President of the South Dakota Corn Growers Association.  “The growth of the ethanol industry over the past 15 years has been critical to the economic health of South Dakota farmers and rural communities. While the Renewable Fuel Standard continues to play an important role, South Dakota Corn Growers has invested significant resources analyzing the economic benefits that farmers could reap through new clean fuel market access,” Stahl commented. “For example, farmers within the RCPP project area could secure an additional 39 cents per bushel for their corn if GHG reductions were credited in the California LCFS marketplace for climate-smart practices.”

ACE and RCPP partner Dakota Ethanol have worked extensively with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and California regulators to help them better understand ethanol’s climate benefits. 

“The market premium we receive by selling our ethanol into the California LCFS program is a significant driver for making several process improvements to reduce our natural gas and electricity usage,” said Scott Mundt, Dakota Ethanol CEO. “In addition to the gains we can make within the facility, properly structured clean fuel policies can incentivize significant GHG contributions from the farmers who supply our corn. Compensating the 500 farmers in Dakota Ethanol’s grain shed to lower the carbon intensity of their corn production through adoption of climate-smart conservation practices would result in significant climate and economic benefits.”

South Dakota State University will collaborate with the Department of Energy’s Sandia National Laboratory to quantify the GHG contributions made by RCPP participating farmers. Further, SDSU will work with the larger partnership to establish a non-proprietary verification system that will allow farmers and ethanol producers to fully benefit from LCFS markets.

“SDSU has been working in the field of soil carbon for over 30 years and is excited to partner on this project,” said David Clay, SDSU’s Professor of Soil Science.  “SDSU has long been a leader in studying the environmental and economic benefits of changes in production practices. We strongly believe this RCPP will expand our work to meaningfully scale the adoption of climate-smart farming practices throughout the biofuel producing regions of the United States.”

Cultivating Conservation brings years of experience in leveraging USDA conservation programs to address critical environmental challenges to benefit farmers and natural resources and is partnering in the development and deployment of this project.

“This project is critical to gaining regulators’ acceptance of the climate benefits generated by farmers through climate-smart farming practices,” said Lisa Moore, Cultivating Conservation’s founding member.  “Equally important is the role this project will play in demonstrating to farmers the economic value of clean fuel policies.  We greatly appreciate USDA’s leadership in helping us make this case to farmers.”  READ MORE

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Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping 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Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New York Michigan New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine needles pine nut 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renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory 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South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Fuels Policy; carbon removal Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do 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