If you find this site useful, please

Advanced Biofuels USA: promoting the understanding, development and use of advanced biofuels around the world.

Advanced BioFuels USA

“The Thing to Remember Is that It’s Agriculture.” Manta’s New Way to Think about Algal Biofuel

Algae/Other Aquatic Organisms/Seaweed, BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production, Biorefinery Infrastructure, Business News/Analysis, Co-Products, Energy, Farming/Growing, Federal Agency, Feedstock, Feedstocks, Funding/Financing/Investing, Heating Oil/Fuel, Infrastructure, Marine/Boat Biofuel/MGO/MDO, Maryland, Original Writing, Opinions Advanced Biofuels USA, Process, R & D Focus, Sustainability, University/College Programs
November 16, 2019

by Joanne Ivancic* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  Not only is the Manta Biofuel system a way to grow, harvest and process algae into oil that can be used for heating or powering heavy duty engines or ocean-going vessels, or as a feedstock for refineries; Dr. Ryan Powell sees the Manta Biofuel system as a way for farmers to capture and treat high nutrient farm runoff before it enters watershed streams, preventing algal blooms before they start.

But for Powell, co-founder of Manta Biofuel, it’s not just about money.  Sure, everyone needs to make a living; Powell’s motivation is more than that, and may be representative of a new generation of innovators, leaders and just ordinary people.  Powell wants to invest his life in mitigating the horrors that will accompany the effects of climate change—the pain of people leaving their homes as they flee rising water levels or severe drought and the disease and the war and suffering those bring.

One of Manta’s test ponds, a repurposed fish hatchery pond in Frederick County, Maryland.

Forget the damage to property values; Powell sees how higher incidence of severe droughts and flooding will lead to devastation and wars in the world his children will inherit.  And he wants to be sure that he tried to make a better world for them. Manta Biofuel is how he will accomplish that.

 

A Maryland Story

This is the story about Powell’s efforts and the efforts of the team working at Manta Biofuel in central Maryland.  It’s about transitioning from a fossil-based to a renewable energy future while also solving other problems.

Manta’s final product ready for use

In addition, it’s a typical story that is rarely told about the twists and turns between the inception of an idea, something that has never been done before (not just doing something better), to something transformative, not just disruptive.  It’s about making that idea sustainable (economically, socially and environmentally) and successful as a business in a world with a changing climate, a climate that never existed before.

Vision, Confidence, Hope

It takes vision, persistence, confidence and a serious dose of optimism and hope amid depressing economic realities and climate change forecasts.  It also takes a bit of audacity to think about taking even a small corner of the energy market dominated by internationally established, well-financed and politically powerful oil/gas/coal/fossil energy interests.

Finished biocrude (Photo: Manta)

With 5 years of work behind them, financially supported by state and federal programs such as the Maryland Industrial Partnership (MIP), Maryland Technology Development Corporation (TEDCO) and the U.S. Department of Energy, Powell and his team of engineers, technicians and business partners have brought their bench-based work to the great outdoors, to agriculture.  Here the prototype technology is taking wild, natural algae or purpose grown algae and turning it into the building blocks of energy, fuel, chemicals and products which are now made with fossil carbon.

The Manta team has repurposed 15 acres of old fish hatchery ponds in the Maryland countryside for use as algae agriculture and algae conversion to fuel oil or biocrude using proprietary harvesting and conversion technologies. Just up the road from the U.S. Army weapons research facilities at Ft. Detrick and down the road a piece from the site of historic peace negotiations at Camp David, this is where they are testing each element of their process.

Twists and Turns: The Spiral Dance from Idea to Testing to New Idea to Testing to ….

Although Manta’s core business eventually will be selling the equipment for harvesting and processing algae, in order to have algae to test in a realistic environment, they have also found themselves learning about and growing algae.  At the moment, developing the systems for growing the algae is just as key to the integrated process as perfecting the harvest equipment and conversion system.

Field study: harvest prototype system test facility

This has led to a new approach to algae, one that takes it away from white lab coats and biotechnology to jeans, mosquito repellant, hats with brims and open ponds where algae can grow naturally, nourished by runoff and/or waste from local farms. It has also led to incorporating that algal agriculture into their business plan.

 “The thing to remember is that it’s agriculture,” was one of the first things Powell said during my visit as I parked downwind of the pile of poultry manure used to feed the algae.

As he explains it, “A high input, high control approach works for high value biotech products, but it doesn’t work when you are growing biomass for fuel. Only systems that have taken an agricultural approach to producing the biomass have scaled.”

Trenches for gravity-fed pond fill and drain system

 

The Basics

Powell envisions the first commercial versions of the system working on the model of typical agricultural enterprises. Farmers will grow native algae in ponds built on low spots on farms where its often too wet for crops and where excess water runs off fields. 

The Manta system spans the process from making sure the algae is properly fed to harvesting the algae using magnetized nano beads and to production of fuel oil or biocrude for shipment to an oil refinery.  A co-product will be biochar for sale as a carbon sequestration soil amendment.

 

Overview of the system:

  1.  Ponds will be gravity fed, about 10 acres, three feet deep in appropriate clay soil filled with 1-3 feet of farm-sourced water. This avoids expensive liners usually used for algae cultivation.

2.  Local wild algae communities will assemble themselves and populate the ponds or cultured algae can be used. This avoids problems with contamination of tailored algae strains and avoids concerns related to genetically enhanced or non-wild organisms.

Trough for mixing manure slurry algae feed

3. Locally sourced manure can be mixed with farm-sourced water to create a slurry to supplement nutrients in any runoff. From 2-5 tons of manure per acre is used to nourish the algae, depending on the pond’s water characteristics.

4.  Rotating sprayers about 5 feet above the water surface distribute the algae feed.

5.  After 3-7 days, depending on weather, algae is ready to harvest.

6.  The Manta system pumps the algae into the patented harvest/separation system.

a.  Algae is mixed with nano-sized magnetite beads made by Manta which pull the algae out of the solution as it “sticks” to the magnetized beads.

b.  This solution passes through a tray of magnetized ceramic disks, the algae/beads “sticking” to the disks.

c.  Every so often the disks rotate and scrapers remove the algae/beads from them.

d.  After repeating this process to an appropriate density, the calcium is removed from the solution (similar to a water softener process) which enables the algae and beads to disengage and go their separate ways: the beads to gather more algae and the algae to the conversion process.

Feed sprayers in test pond

7. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) converts the algae to products ranging from sweet light biocrude (.25% sulfur) to #6 fuel oil or heavy biocrude (depending on the chosen temperature of the reaction); and biochar.

8.  Depending on the temperature of the conversion, the final oil product may be used as heating oil,  as #6 (bunker) oil for heavy engines such as maritime shipping vessels, or as a biocrude feedstock for processing or co-processing at large refineries.

Where is Manta Now?

At this time, each of the dynamic elements of the system is being tested independently at the fish hatchery: the algae agriculture, harvest and separation, and conversion.  In the lab, innovations for continuously improving the production of the nano-sized magnetized beads continue.

Current harvester with magnetic disk separation system (Photo: Manta)

By the 2020 growing season, Powell expects to bring all the elements together, to work on fitting together, synchronizing and automating all the processes from harvest to conversion.  The system will be readied to operate in the ponds to minimize energy use.

Now that the technologies are settled, the Manta team is working on the devils in other details.

Questions Being Discussed

As the Manta team looks to the practical aspects of bringing the technology and algal products to market, they have some decisions to make.

Algae before (left) and after (right) harvest (Photo: Manta)

Do they use the ponds to demonstrate not just the technologies, but also a retail or wholesale business? If so, do they want to start selling to residential heating oil customers where there is great interest or to one large customer such as a university or industrial customer?  Then, do they set up their own company or work through existing distributors?

Do they want to incorporate the conversion system into each harvest location or bring the dense algae solution to a location on the farm that will service multiple ponds?

The Manta team has consulted with experts at national laboratories, business and academia about these options.

Grants have taken Manta this far; now they need serious investors to complete the integrated testing, to build multiple modules, and to prove the process for mass production and trouble shooting.  They want to operate multiple modules in an agricultural business setting.

Federal grants don’t cover scaling up or capital costs.  With their federal grants they can develop the prototype system, but not 5 or 10 modules needed for testing at the next scale. For that they need private capital.  Finding that capital is their priority until the next growing season.

Magnitite beads attracted to magnet (no algae in solution)

The Steps of the Dance — Stories from the Bone Yard

While touring the test site, I learned not only of the successful end-products and current business plans, but of the “iterations” that came before.

The foundation of the algae harvest system is the magnetized nanobeads of magnetite.  The algae in water adheres to the beads. See video.  One of Manta’s key innovations has been finding a way to make these beads more economically than anyone else.

Harvest and separation

After the algae adheres to the beads, it still has to be separated from the water, then separated from the beads in sufficient concentration for conversion to biocrude.  The story of developing machinery to accomplish this is told in the “boneyard” at the test pond site.

In the “boneyard.” The first prototype.

The very first prototype Powell built using basic hand tools on the back deck at his home.   This prototype resulted in the first $150,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

The DOE grant helped pay for more sophisticated tools such as 3D printers and a computer-controlled cutter, CNC router table.  Manta engineers, Zachary Schwartz and John Sturgis  are now able to design and engineer the mechanical prototypes for Manta’s systems, and quickly make and assemble them in-house which makes moving from one iteration to another immensely faster than if they had to outsource this work. Powell is glad to be able to “cut, test, remake in a day as compared to weeks.”

At the time of the first prototype, they were thinking the system would be mobile; that it could move through an algae pond while it harvested and processed.  On-lookers, like me, hoped that this system would be useful for harvesting harmful algal blooms in lakes in Florida, in the Great Lakes along the North Coast, in the Chesapeake Bay or Gulf of Mexico.

Second prototype using stacked, light weight refrigerator magnets

 “Quickly we realized that was not the best idea,” explained Powell, referring to the mobile characteristic as well as to its use to harvest algal blooms.

–Preventing, not harvesting, wild algal blooms.  Address the algae problem before it begins.

As for use for algal blooms, Powell says there are two problems.

The first is technical: the density of wild algal blooms.  Although they are dense enough to block sufficient sunlight from underwater plants causing dead zones; or spread toxic strains of algae in large bodies of water, the density is too low for that initial system to either make a difference or to harvest enough to produce any useful product.  Even with their revised system, “the amount of money you could reap per gallon is about 10 times lower than with purpose-grown algae.”  Not enough to make such a system self-supporting.

The algae harvested at the ponds in Maryland is about 0.2 grams/liter prior to concentration in the Manta system.  Wild algae blooms are often ten times less dense.

Third prototype

The second problem, Powell explains, is “Who pays?  As a private company, you would have to have tens of millions of dollars of equipment built.  You can’t come up with that out of thin air.  You need a contract in place to go to a bank to get funding.”  Using a system like this to treat an algae bloom in a place like Lake Erie or the Chesapeake Bay would cost hundreds of millions of dollars because you would have to treat so much water.

Instead, the Manta system can address the algal bloom problem before it begins.

With the Manta agricultural algae process you could prevent the nutrients that cause algal bloom from reaching the lakes and bays by growing algae with farm-based nutrients before the water gets into the rivers that flow into the lakes, bays and Gulf.  This could be part of an economic, environmental and socially sustainable nutrient management plan.

Fourth prototype introduces disk shape for magnets

Moving to Agricultural Algae Harvest

So, for the following iterations, they learned two things.

One, they didn’t worry about being a water-borne mobile unit and, two, they needed to control costs. Thus, they built a very different system using less expensive, less powerful refrigerator magnets configured in flat layers. This significantly dropped the cost — by 60 to 100 times.

This iteration of the system was very good at collecting the algae/magnetite particles from the water flowing through the machine as it recovered 99.4% of the them in a single pass. While effective at collecting the particles, this design unfortunately did not make it easy to get the particles back out of the machine once captured. Not good, but the progress on the proof of concept was sufficient to get $1 Million from the U.S. Department of Energy to continue the research.

Firth prototype

The following version had generally the same design and also used refrigerator magnets. The Manta team developed a different way to get particles out. Yet they still were stymied in effectively retrieving the algae/bead slurry from the machine.

Powell describes the thought process, “So, now we were at the point where, OK, we have two different types of machines.  We’ve got the disk type machine where it is easy to retrieve the particles once the machine captures them, but isn’t very good at capturing them from the flowing water; and we have these two machines that can capture the particles out of the water very well, but we cannot get them back out of the machine. So, let’s combine the best of both worlds.”

So combining what they learned from different development paths, they used refrigerator magnets with the disks and celebrated one of their first really successful machines.  It could separate the particles from the water and the captured algae/magnetite beads from the machine.

Calcium removal system (Photo: Manta)

Eventually, they developed and made their own disk-shaped ceramic magnets because when they asked industrial ceramic magnet makers to produce them, they were told it couldn’t be done.

Undaunted, Manta had to get innovative yet again.  The team created a way to make the ceramic disk magnets that they needed and they are in use today.

Next they needed to separate the magnets from the algae slurry that is scrapped from the magnets.  The “reversal process” they created uses a process similar to that used by water softeners.  It separates algae from the beads so that the algae biomass can move to the HTL converter and the beads to gather more algae.

Modern American Gothic: Manta co-founder Ryan Powell and technician Kelly Morsey in front of the prototype HTL system

Conversion Process

The iterations of the HTL conversion process are not so visually apparent. There’s no boneyard for the various iterations that resulted in their efficient, cost effective process.

In this prototype, the algae slurry (about 200 gram/liter) is pumped through a high pressure pump to 2000 psi and is heated via a series of coils. A heat exchanger picks up energy from converted algae oil going out to a chiller and returns that energy to the process.

The high pressure algae slurry starts at a coil at ambient temp, then moves to another coil at the heat exchanger that takes it to 225-250 C then to 270-290 C.  The substance circles around pipes and out to a chiller. 

The details of what Manta has done to make the process cost effective and energy positive are proprietary.

Ryan Powell explaining the prototype HTL system

The Army Corps of Engineers has expressed interest in this element of the Manta system.

As with the magnetized beads, Manta might have a separate business based on their economical HTL innovations.

Products

If you run the HTL hotter, you end up with light sweet crude (.25% sulfur—very sweet crude). If it runs less hot, the result is a heavy crude.  The co-product is biochar which, if used as a soil amendment makes the process carbon negative.

At this point in the demonstration phase, Manta performs proprietary post processing to use the algae product in heating oil which meets the ASTM D396 spec for #2 fuel oil.

So far, two barrels have been tested using their product as residential heating oil and negotiations are in process for testing at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science where Powell invented and licensed the system while earning his Ph.D. at its Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET).  They hope to eventually fuel the UMCES boilers that heat water for the oyster research ponds with this product.

HTL prototype cooling coils

Algae Agriculture

Every farm that employs this system will have its own characteristics with some baseline shared requirements.

To minimize costs and energy input, gravity-fed waters fill ponds from streams or field runoff. To minimize equipment costs and maintenance, ponds must have a clay base and sides.

Feeding the algae will depend on the types of wild algae, local water characteristics and the characteristics of local manure at each site, in each pond.  Manta technicians test water samples at various locations regularly to determine if and when feeding is needed and appropriate times for harvest.   Eventually, these will be automated as part of the system.

During the real-life pond testing, Manta has devised a number of ways to address the agricultural aspects of this project.

Algae test pond with lemna, duckweek, and creeping primrose

Part of the agreement with the fish hatchery property owners was that Manta could use the ponds for testing in exchange for, among other things, improving this area that had been left fallow and unused for hatching fish for a number of years.  That meant clearing trees, shrubs and weeds and learning how to prevent them from growing back.

Having grown up on a farm in western Ohio where his family still farms, Powell was familiar with managing field drainage and weeds.  Eventually, one element of their essential equipment became a tractor to keep pathways cleared and to prepare the ponds for the algae.

Duckweed (lemna) and creeping primrose liked what Manta had done for them in the ponds and grew well.  Because the HTL part of the system can process these types of biomass, the Manta team tried to grind the duckweed into a slurry for the HTL process. With the equipment at hand, they couldn’t get the grind quite right.  Eventually, this should work, but it’s a project for another day.  For now, they are learning to control these by adjusting the depth of the ponds.  As Powell reiterated, this is agriculture and challenges of pests and weeds can be expected and addressed.

Commercialization

Manta has made innovations in every step of its system from growing algae as an agricultural crop through production and sale of fuel oil or biocrude.  Manta would like to commercialize the entire system; however, they may also find markets and discrete business opportunities for specific elements of the system: the magnetized nano-beads; the ceramic disk magnets; the HTL system.

Product samples. Light and heavy biocrude and biochar

All of these elements of the Manta system are ready to integrate into a continuous flow.

Next year the team wants to test whether it is better to go all the way from harvest to oil/biochar at each pond or to consolidate the conversion process for multiple ponds at a central location on land.

They will also put in place the business of selling the final products.  They are using the Ensyn business plan as a model.  Not only was the successful Ensyn concept also developed by the co-founders at a university, for Ensyn it was the University of Western Ontario; Ensyn’s first biofuel products have been heating oil and biocrude with industrial heating and cooling customers and co-processing at oil refineries.

Manta Biofuel provides an example of industries needed by a climate change conscious world, an example of thoughtful, creative innovation and an example of an opportunity for investment leading to climate smart agricultural innovation, good paying jobs, and movement to replace fossil fuels and fossil carbon with renewables.

Banks, financiers and venture capitalists who want to be prosperous in the climate changed world must consider new concepts like Manta’s as a path to prosper in a new future full of never-existing-before demands and their never-existing-before solutions.

 

*Joanne Ivancic serves as executive director of Advanced Biofuels USA(Photos by JIvancic unless otherwise noted)

H2Ohio Plan Recognizes Agriculture’s Contributions to Sustainable Goals (Solutions from the Land)

Excerpt from Solutions from the Land: A plan detailed last week by Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine underscores the role agriculture will play in meeting the Solutions from the Land vision: By 2030, America’s farms, ranches and forests are at the forefront of resolving food system, energy, environmental and climate challenges and achieving global sustainable development goals (SDGs).

Among the SDGs laid out by world leaders in 2015 and supported by SfL is the ensured availability and sustainable management of water.

The “H2Ohio” initiative was introduced in March in an early draft of the Ohio state budget, and on Nov. 14, DeWine rolled out the plan’s specifics. H2Ohio is said by state officials to be an investment in targeted solutions to help reduce runoff through increased implementation of agricultural best practices.   READ MORE

Comments are closed.

More than 30,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 30,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors

FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters

Donate



Archives

Categories

Tags

2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 4th generation biofuels 7% solution 45Q 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane 100 octane 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election Activities 2022 A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) Abu Dhabi acacia acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act advanced biofuel prices advanced biofuel production Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Aircraft engine emissions Air Force air p air pollution control Air Pollution Policy airports air quality Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion Angola anhydrous ethanol animal fat animal feed Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-E Aruba Asia ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D396 ASTM D975 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive Aviation biofuel aviation biofuel price aviation biofuel pumps/delivery Aviation Fuel awards/recognition Azerbaijan. B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B10 B11 B12 B12.5 B15 B20 B25 B30 B33 B35 B40 B50 B75 B80 B99 B100 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors billion ton study bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) Biofuel biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuels Biofuels Directive biofuels education biofuel tax credit Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons BioIsoprene Bio LPG biomass Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts bioprospecting BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance BioSNG Biotechnology birch black carbon black grease black liquor black locust blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain/blockcoin blue carbon boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brachiaria bracken brackish water Brassica Brazil breweries British Columbia broker brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butanol emissions butyl acetate c C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass Canary Islands canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap-and-trade carbohydrates carbon carbon-efficient fuels carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber carbon i Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon price carbon recycling carbon sequestration carbon sink carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis CH pathway cattle cavitation cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile China chitin CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products CO2 Sequestration coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG / R-CNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmet cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME (dimethyl ether) Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 price E12 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) French fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green chemistry green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway funds highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indone Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Lab National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol off-take agreements Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-gas prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK sales Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale gas shale oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smokestack soap social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve straw students sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugar cane sugar cane prices sugar cane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils Velocys Venezuela Vermont video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste water water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

Notice

donate nowWe are not accepting donations from people or companies in Florida due to unfair reporting requirements and fees not imposed by any other state.