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The Interaction of the Clean Air Act, California’s CAA Waiver, Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Renewable Fuel Standards and California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard

Business News/Analysis, California, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Agency, Federal Litigation, Federal Regulation, History of Advanced Biofuels, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Opinions, Original Writing, Opinions Advanced Biofuels USA, Policy, Policy Statements, Analysis by ABUSA, Sustainability, Transportation
May 21, 2018

by Joanne Ivancic* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  The Trump Administration is taking a new look at Obama Administration era Co2 regulations.  On the transportation side, these include reviewing Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards; threatening to take away California’s authority to set their own mileage and pollution controls, including CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission reduction standards; and quarreling with the petroleum and biofuels industries over implementation and enforcement of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

Thus, the Clean Air Act (CAA), California’s unique authority to regulate more stringently under a CAA provision, CAFE standards, the RFS and California’s model Low Carbon Fuel Standards have been in the US national news a lot lately.

Click on images to enlarge

In some ways, all these activities are intertwined, especially in California, with a change in one having implications for others.

Ideally, all these federal programs should complement each other.  Unfortunately, due to variations in interpretations regarding implementation and enforcement, that isn’t necessarily happening. 

This article will review federal and state programs involved in improving the health and welfare in the US by regulating ground transportation, particularly cars and light duty trucks. It will track the policy paths that have converged in the conversations about a “midterm review,” including recent litigation filed by California, 16 other states and the District of Columbia; and untangle some of the threads of various transportation and fuel interests.

Legislation History

Clean Air Act—Federal Responsibilities

The legal authority for federal programs regarding air pollution control is based on the Clean Air Act (CAA). The most recent amendments dating to 1990 (Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA)) modified and extended federal legal authority provided by the earlier Clean Air Acts of 1963 and 1970 and the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments (1977 CAAA) regarding air pollution control.

History

Because pollution was considered a health issue, from the beginning the U.S. Public Health Service was authorized to research techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution.

Based on USPHS research and public outcry, the 1970 (1970 CAA) authorized the federal government to limit emissions from both stationary (industrial) sources and mobile sources (cars, trucks, transportation). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created on December 2, 1970, by the Nixon Administration, to implement and enforce these.

  • Leaded to Unleaded

One new EPA national program phased out leaded gasoline in favor of unleaded to protect public health and welfare from the harmful effects of airborne lead and to accommodate the use of catalytic converters to clean up tailpipe emissions. By July 1974, within only four years of enactment, all major service stations had to offer unleaded gasoline.

Transitioning from leaded to unleaded gasoline

Major amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1977 (1977 CAAA) added requirements pertaining to air pollution sources in geographic areas not meeting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), “non-attainment areas.”

If leaders want to use policy to push the transition to renewable fuels (high octane fuels such as E30) to protect public health and welfare from the harmful effects of greenhouse gas emissions, the leaded-to-unleaded transition could serve as a model for implementation of that transition and for EPA to require availability of renewable fuels much as it required availability of unleaded gasoline.

Clean Air Act—California Authority

During the drafting of the 1970 Clean Air Act, California pointed to its decades of experience restricting tailpipe emissions as air pollution control measures; and to its unique air quality problems.  Written into the 1970 CAA, California can ask the EPA administrator for a waiver to restrict tailpipe pollution from cars more stringently than the federal government. EPA shall grant a waiver unless it finds that California, under the Clean Air Act Section 209 – State Standards :

  • was arbitrary and capricious in its finding that its standards are in the aggregate at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable federal standards;
  • does not need such standards to meet compelling and extraordinary conditions; or
  • has proposed standards not consistent with Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act.

 EPA must approve this waiver before California’s rules may go into effect. Once California files a waiver request, EPA invites and reviews public comments then determines whether California has satisfied the law’s requirements.

This waiver process applies only to California, however, any other state can choose to adopt California’s more stringent standards. Thirteen states and the District of Columbia currently opt for the tougher rules. These “Section 177” states are: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington. Arizona took itself off the list in 2012.

CAA waivers have been granted to California for 45 years.  Most recently, in response to a 2005 request to the George W. Bush Administration, the Obama Administration’s EPA granted a waiver to California for regulations that added carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emission standards for motor vehicles beginning with the 2009 model year.

This came after lengthy litigation.

In 2009, after the Supreme Court’s 2007 finding that EPA had legal authority under the Clean Air Act to regulate carbon dioxide emissions, EPA granted California’s 2005 waiver request. In 2012 the Supreme Court ruled that the Obama Administration’s EPA relied upon adequate scientific evidence when it found that carbon dioxide and similar “greenhouse gases” endanger public health and could be regulated under the Clean Air Act.

What is in California’s current waiver?  Legislated in 2006, California’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction program including the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Advanced Clean Car (ACC) standards (Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program and Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program) and cap-and-trade program combine control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions into a single coordinated package of requirements. This GHG package constitutes portions of California’s implementation of it’s current CAA waiver.

  • Revoking California’s Current Waiver

As the Trump Administration reviews California’s CAA waiver, it might seem that one way that the current EPA might revoke California’s waiver would be to find, from reviewing scientific evidence, that CO2 and other greenhouse gases or pollutants previously regulated no longer cause harm to the public health or welfare.

However, the Clean Air Act includes no mechanism for revoking a waiver.

Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE) 

In response to the 1973 oil embargo, to reduce use of petroleum transportation fuel, especially imported petroleum fuel, and to encourage US vehicles to be more competitive with Japanese products, Congress passed the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975, which established fuel economy standards that manufacturers’ fleets must meet for new passenger cars starting with model year (MY) 1978.  These Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards prescribed mileage or fuel economy goals, as an average of new car sales. 

The Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA), charged with administering this program, also established CAFE standards for light trucks (i.e., pickups, minivans, and SUVs) beginning with MY 1978.

In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, raised the fuel economy standards of US cars, light trucks, and SUVs to a combined average of at least 35 miles per gallon by 2020 and required standards to be met at maximum feasible levels through 2030.

In 2012, NHTSA established final passenger car and light truck CAFE standards for model years 2017-2021. NHTSA predicts for model year 2021, on average, a combined fleet-wide fuel economy of 40.3-41.0 mpg.

 

These CAFE standards were included as part of the 2012 compromise which acknowledged California’s GHG ( LCFS, ZEV and LEV) programs even though the EPCA of 1975 specifically precludes granting California or any other state a waiver from federal fuel economy/mileage standards.

The EPCA states, “When an average fuel economy standard prescribed under this chapter is in effect, a State or a political subdivision of a State may not adopt or enforce a law or regulation related to fuel economy standards or average fuel economy standards for automobiles covered by an average fuel economy standard under this chapter.”

The Trump Administration is reviewing whether California’s 2012 waiver covered CAFE regulations and if that violates the EPCA.

Some changes made to the CAFE standards during the 2012 negotiations moved them toward the EV-biased California regulations.  

For example, prior to MY2020, manufacturers were encouraged to produce flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) that could use home-grown high ethanol fuel blends such as E85 (50-85% ethanol) as a way to reduce use of imported fuel. This was incorporated into fuel economy calculations with the “F-Factor.”

The F-Factor has only been determined through MY 2018.  Absent a new determination by EPA, the F-Factor for MY 2019 and subsequent years will default to zero resulting in the elimination of crediting for FFVs.  As a result, automakers are phasing down FFV manufacturing.  This trend runs counter to increasing success in the market with more E85 and flex fuel blender pumps being installed around the country improving access to these fuels; Department of Energy and other studies finding that mileage improvements can be achieved using engines designed for high octane/high ethanol fuel blends; and proposed regulations (REGS Rule or Renewables Enhancement and Growth Support Rule) to limit use of fuels containing more than 15% ethanol to FFVs.

The fuel economy calculation’s “R-Factor” was supposed to enable apples-to-apples comparisons of fuel economy despite changes in the energy density of E0 or E10 test fuel and E85 test fuel. EPA has admitted that the R-factor is inaccurate for today’s vehicles with turbo charged, computer controlled engines and promised in 2012 that it would fix this problem “in a timely manner,” although it has not yet done so.

2012 Compromise — Bringing together CAA, CAFE and California CAA into One National Program

In the wake of the Supreme Court’s 2007 confirmation of EPA’s authority to regulate greenhouse gases, stakeholders (NHTSA, EPA, automakers, United Auto Workers, consumer groups, environmental and energy experts, states (particularly California), and the public) weighed in on the Obama Administration’s work to establish both emissions regulations under the CAA and mileage standards under CAFE in an integrated program.

In the final 2012 rules, EPA, NHTSA and California announced a “harmonized” national pollution control and fuel economy program.

Because testing CO2 tailpipe emissions were part of EPA’s vehicle tests related to mileage (fuel economy) under CAFE, instead of setting new procedures designed to analyze pollution similar to those designed for other CAA pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, etc.), NHTSA, EPA and California decided to use just the CAFE tailpipe mileage test procedures to assess both mileage and pollution.

Thus, vehicles that have no tailpipes appear, for purposes of CAA pollution assessment, to emit no emissions from energy used to power the vehicles.  For example, there is no assessment at all of pollution from electricity produced (from coal, natural gas, biomass, etc.) to power electric vehicles.

In a strange twist, this new “harmonized” system  allowed pollution standards, which under previous CAA regulations had to be met by every vehicle class, now, for CO2 using CAFE procedures, could be spread across a manufacturer’s fleet.  Thus, vehicles with no tailpipes might balance out heavy tailpipe polluting vehicles where previously each vehicle class had to meet standards.

To prevent the unwanted result of the “no tailpipe emissions” EVs balancing out high-CO2-tailpipe polluting/low mileage vehicles, the auto manufacturers agreed to the 54.5 MPG CAFE goals, with a midterm evaluation, due in April 2018, to determine if this was a fair compromise.

Also as a part of this “harmonization” incentives for design and production of engines and fuels which produce low life cycle pollution have been decimated. Lack of the F-Factor and R-Factor and lack of life cycle comparisons of actual transportation power sources prevents vehicle manufacturers from taking advantage of the characteristics of biofuels, such as high octane/high ethanol blends.

In effect, CAFE regulations were modified to encourage and give preference to EVs.

And, instead of taking the original CAA approach of setting pollution control performance objectives and letting the transportation industry develop optimal ways to achieve the goals, the 2012 regulatory system gives electric vehicles an advantage that circumvents the intent of the pollution control policies of the CAA by not counting pollution from their power sources.

As to the numbers, in 2012 EPA determined that new passenger cars and light duty trucks CAA pollution emissions would be limited to 163 grams CO2 per mile (g/mi) in model year 2025. This was determined to be equivalent to 54.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for CAFE standard assessment, if the standards were met exclusively with fuel efficiency improvements.

As a result of the blended, double purpose effect of the CO2 measurements to meet fuel economy AND emissions control goals, California’s CAA waiver appears to serve also as a CAFE waiver.

This may provide the Trump Administration a justification for unraveling the 2012 compromise and effectively withdrawing California’s waiver due to the EPCA’s prohibition of states regulating fuel economy standards.  

  • 2017-8 — Tearing Apart the CAA, CAFE and California CAA Waiver Regulations — Role of RFS and LCFS

In January 2017, a few days before President Barack Obama left office, the EPA announced the conclusion of the midterm review, finding “the greenhouse gas emissions standards for cars and light trucks remain affordable and effective through 2025.”

However, in March 2017, the Trump Administration’s EPA and Department of Transportation re-opened the midterm evaluation process and in April 2018, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt announced that EPA found the current standards not appropriate and EPA’s intent to revise them, to re-evaluate California’s CAA waiver and the coordinated national standard (2012 compromise) that combined the CAFE, CAA and California GHG regulations.

In turn, California and 16 others states and the District of Columbia have filed a petition for review of EPA’s recent actions related to the midterm review agreed to in the 2012 CAFE stakeholder compromise.  Separately, a number of environmental organizations have also filed a petition for review of the EPA withdrawal of Mid-Term Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Model Year 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicles

  • 2012 Federal Regulations Confounding Policy Goals of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and California’s Low Carbon Fuels Standards

The 2012 “harmonization” resulted in not only in circumventing a key purpose of the Clean Air Act, to reduce harmful pollutants from every vehicle’s transportation emissions, particularly as applied to newly recognized greenhouse gas, CO2; but also circumvented the policy goals of the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

At the federal level, to achieve President George W. Bush’s policy to “get off our addiction to (high priced) oil” the focus on incentivizing engine efficiency (CAFE) expanded to incentivizing a transition away from petroleum transportation fuel via the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 created the RFS which was expanded in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) that also raised CAFE goals to 35 mpg.  Provisions in the EISA also promoted sustainability criteria (particularly indirect land use change) for renewable fuels, also included in California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS).

Renewable Fuel Standard, MTBE, History and Objectives

Even before the RFS, due to ethanol’s properties as a non-toxic oxygenate and for its low-cost octane properties, ethanol was on the way to be used as 10% of gasoline blends.

After the transition from leaded to unleaded gasoline was complete, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments required another fuel change in non-attainment areas, the introduction of oxygenates to improve combustion and reduce emissions.

In the early 1990s, petroleum refiners, based on their own research, decided to use the petroleum additive, MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) for this purpose. However, MTBE, a persistent carcinogen, was eventually found in water supplies near leaking fuel tanks. MTBE does not break down readily; it does not go away. Lawsuits ensued.  In the early 2000s, states began to ban MTBE.

In order to stop the health hazards of MTBE while also retaining the low-emission benefits of oxygenates, EPA allowed ethanol to be used as a safe, effective substitute oxygenate. Beginning in 2004 refiners chose to replace MTBE in US gasoline with ethanol at 10% blends (E10), using this more economical ethanol first in the non-attainment areas, then across the US as oil companies found that ethanol’s high octane value enabled them to make less expensive 85 octane gasoline blendstock.

Legislation enabled the Environmental Protection Agency to accommodate E10’s higher Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) characteristics, the “one pound waiver.”  Oil refiners, finding ethanol a less expensive alternative to MTBE, had no reason to fight this legislation.  Corn growers diversified into ethanol production obtaining a market for corn that enabled prices to rise enough to avoid the need for government subsidies.

EPA’s current interpretation of this specific “E10” legislative language, is to create a barrier to permitting E15 (15 percent ethanol) to gain market share, even though E15 has lower RVP than E10.  However, as the statute applies to all fuels containing gasoline and 10% ethanol, that language is broad enough to encompass blends with more than 10% ethanol, and EPA can revise its interpretation and promulgate a revised rule.

Although E10 would have become standard regular gasoline (87 octane) in the US due to the transition from MTBE, when Congress wanted to make an effort to “go green” it passed the Renewable Fuel Standard as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and legislated 10 percent ethanol into the retail fuel market.

Again, anticipating increasing markets for gasoline, and recognizing the economic benefit of using less expensive ethanol for oxygenate and octane, the petroleum industry had no cause to oppose this 2005 legislation.

However, amid concerns about rising oil prices ($60 in August 2005 rising to $147.30 in July 2008), Congress passed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 expanding the RFS to include advanced biofuels, cellulosic biofuels, bio-based diesel and effectively limiting corn starch-derived ethanol to the 10% of the anticipated market that it “owned” from RFS1.

The established oil industry generally was not happy about this expansion which was designed to replace petroleum with renewables, although some explored diversifying into renewable fuels for a few years and others, like Valero and the Koch Industry’s Flint Hills Resources, continue to own and operate ethanol biorefineries. 

Life cycle “seed-to-wheel” analysis of renewable fuels compared to the legislative baseline of 2005 “well-to-wheel” petroleum constitutes an integral part of the definitions and criteria for eligible renewable fuels. Controversial sustainability criteria, international indirect land use change (ILUC), were also added to the legislation.

With more wishful optimism than scientific evidence, the RFS2 legislation set annual goals for transitioning from petroleum to advanced biofuels.  No funding was provided in this legislation for research, development, production or deployment of advanced biofuels to achieve the goals.  With oil prices rising, the oil industry and private investors were expected to fund the transition to this exciting new energy industry.  Indeed, national conferences after the legislation passed were packed with investment firms, oil majors, transaction lawyers, agricultural interests, researchers and others interested in environmental improvements to transportation.

A system of tradeable/sellable renewable identification numbers (RINs) was designed to track accomplishment of the RFS goals.

At the same time, news articles and future-oriented studies based on economic modeling began to appear which predicted harsh environmental consequences of moving from petroleum to renewable liquid fuel.  In particular, Tim Searchinger‘s disproved predictions which continue to receive attention.

California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard – Focus on Life Cycle CO2 Emissions for Liquid Fuel

In 2006, California, more concerned with climate change mitigation and preventing in-state air pollution than finding home-grown substitutes for expensive foreign oil, passed Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) legislation as part of the GHG package.

LCFS implementation focuses on life cycle analysis of liquid transportation fuel measured as “carbon intensity” (CI) of gasoline and diesel fuel and their respective substitutes.

Initially intending to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020, California’s LCFS serves as a model to not only other US states and Canadian provinces, but to other countries, such as Brazil, establishing climate change mitigation strategies. California’s Air Resources Board is in the process of extending LCFS carbon intensity reductions to 20% below 2011 levels by 2030.

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) describes the technology-neutral program as “performance-based and fuel-neutral, allowing the market to determine how the carbon intensity of California’s transportation fuels will be reduced. This program is based on the principle that each fuel has “lifecycle” greenhouse gas emissions that include CO2, N2O, and other greenhouse gas contributors.” This lifecycle assessment using the GREET model (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) developed by Argonne National Laboratory examines the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production, transportation, and use of a given fuel. “The lifecycle assessment includes direct emissions associated with producing, transporting, and using the fuels, as well as significant indirect effects on greenhouse gas emissions, such as changes in land use for some biofuels.” CI is expressed in grams of CO2 equivalent per mega joule (gCO2e/MJ or g/MJ for short).

Like the CAA, the LCFS regulates greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, and others) and smog-forming and toxic air pollutants, but with a focus on fuels.

Under the LCFS, the carbon intensity of the underlying power is included in the CI score of the pathway.  California grid mix electricity is comparable from a carbon intensity perspective to both gasoline and diesel fuel (about 100 g CO2e/MJ).  However, EV’s get a credit boost attributed to energy efficiency. This provides a multiplier impact on LCFS credit generation.  Amendments to this program are currently under consideration.

Real Harmonization:  CAA, CAFE, CAA waiver, LCFS and RFS

Graham Noyes of the Low Carbon Fuels Coalition and Doug Durante of the Clean Fuels Development Coalition suggested how to harmonize the EPA, NHTSA and CARB programs in a recent Biofuels Digest article.

They suggest “The specific regulatory mechanical fixes necessary are for EPA to extend the current usage factor (known as the F-factor) to MY 2019 and beyond, and for EPA and NHTSA to harmonize the crediting for FFV manufacturing under the CAFE and GHG programs.  We also need to fix the so-called R factor which currently penalizes ethanol blends for a mileage loss. And finally, however one chooses to use ethanol, the carbon footprint of ethanol is demonstrably better than the power sources for EVs. Ethanol should therefore be treated as carbon neutral as is already the case for EV power. These changes can be implemented quickly and easily, will enhance automaker compliance with the standards and save money, and can be calibrated to recognize real world GHG and petroleum reductions. The FFV mechanisms can also be crafted to facilitate the CAFE and GHG crediting of high efficiency vehicles that utilize high octane fuels.”

Advanced Biofuels USA Proposal:  Regulate Actual Life Cycle CO2 Emissions to Achieve Greater Near-Term CO2 Reduction Goals

By recognizing the low life cycle carbon emissions, low toxic emissions benefits, and engine efficiency gains of renewable fuels in the Clean Air Act and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, along with California’s CAA waiver and Low Carbon Fuel Standards programs, the investment anticipated as the driver to fulfill the RFS goals could be achieved.  And, true realization of the pollution control policy goals of the Clean Air Act would also be achieved.

Here’s how.

  • Keep the motor vehicle CO2 reduction goals in place.
  • Do not apply the CAFE regulatory approach (average for fuel economy) to calculate compliance with emissions standards.
  • Get rid of EPA restrictions on technologies.
  • Use the existing gram/mile approach to measure and regulate fuel economy for various vehicle classes.
  • Restore renewable fuel GHG reduction variables in fuel efficiency calculations.
  • Use higher ethanol and other renewable fuel blends to reduce non-renewable GHG COemissions instead of more expensive vehicle weight reduction strategies.
  • Base new ethanol mixtures on blends shown to produce performance and GHG reduction by US National Labs for both existing lower performance and new high efficiency engines. (3)
  • Base ethanol and other renewable blends on results from vehicle manufacturers that improve the mileage and performance of small-displacement, high efficiency turbocharged engines such as the eco-boost. (4)

 

Instead of working at counter-purposes, federal and California laws, regulations and policies could work in true harmony to achieve truthful, measurable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions that result from light duty ground transportation.

Instead of evading the pollution-control procedures of the CAA that should apply to each and every vehicle and that should reflect the true pollution caused by cars and light duty vehicles, the CAA should be embraced with the intention that, just as the RFS was a way to push transition away from liquid fossil fuels, the CAA when applied to electric vehicles should push the transition toward renewable electricity.

Trying to twist the regulations, to turn procedures inside out and backwards works against making the air cleaner, mitigating climate change and driving transportation into a renewables-based future.

 

(1) Martinez, Michael, Automotive News, Ford rushes to build more SUVs, February 12, 2018 http://www.autonews.com/article/20180212/RETAIL01/180219953/ford-suv-production and Thibodeau, Ian, The Detroit News, Ford marshals reinforcements for SUV production, February 12, 2018   http://www.detroitnews.com/story/business/autos/ford/2018/02/12/ford-boosts-navigator-expedition-production/110331592/

(2) Tsui, Chris, The Drive, The Ford Fiesta Is Dead in America, July 23, 2017  http://www.thedrive.com/news/12773/the-ford-fiesta-is-dead-in-america

(3) West, Brian, Group Leader, Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Group, Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL),  Can Fuel Efficiency Standards Be Met Cost-Effectively? and Future Fuels: Can Biofuels Make Gasoline Cleaner, Cheaper?   View Video  |  Download Slides

Breakthrough Research in Engine and Fuel Co-Optimization (U.S. Department of Energy)

(4) Ford Motor Company: Literature Review of Benefits of High Octane/High Ethanol Fuels

 

For more details on these ideas, see “Let’s Regulate CO2 Emissions, and Forget the 55.4 MPG 2025 Corporate Annual Fuel Economy Standard: The Inexpensive Way to Quickly Reduce Green House Gases” by Robert Kozak.

 

*Joanne Ivancic serves as the executive director of Advanced Biofuels USA. Any opinions expressed in his article reflect her views, not the views of Advanced Biofuels USA.

Revised article 5/25/2018 

Reprinted in Biofuels Digest 5/29/2018

 

CALIFORNIA GETS CHARGED UP FOR EVs (Politico’s Morning Energy)

FUTURE FOR MID-LEVEL BLENDS HANGS IN THE BALANCE WITH PROPOSED CAFE RULE (Minnesota Bio-Fuels Association)

UPDATE 1-Trump administration, California meet on vehicle emissions (Reuters)

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy:  The California Public Utilities Commission is expected to approve a $589 million program for its four investor-owned utilities to build out their electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The plan is part of the implementation of California’s aggressive greenhouse gas law passed in 2015. Most of the money — which will ultimately come from ratepayers — will go toward setting up electric vehicle charging stations and related infrastructure. California leads the nation by far in electric vehicle sales and adoptionREAD MORE

 

Except from Minnesota Bio-Fuels Association:  The EPA and Department of Transportation’s proposal to freeze Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards at 2020 levels could derail a promising future for mid-level blends of ethanol.

The lynch pin for mid-level blends of ethanol, ranging from 25 percent to 40 percent, was the CAFE Standard which had set targets for higher fuel economy for cars by 2025. The Department of Energy (DOE) has previously said that vehicles equipped with high compression ratio engines that use the high octane ethanol blends mentioned above would achieve higher mileage while reducing emissions.

But the proposed CAFE rule takes the pressure off automakers to use such advanced engine technology which would have paved the way for higher blends of ethanol.

Nonetheless, in the proposed rule, reference is made to comments from proponents, including the Minnesota Bio-Fuels Association, of using mid-level ethanol blends to achieve higher fuel economy.

It should be noted that this reference does not give a green light to mid-level blends but rather sets forth an issue for which additional input is sought from all parties to the matter, including proponents and opponents of higher ethanol blends.  READ MORE

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black locust blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain/blockcoin blue carbon boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brachiaria bracken brackish water Brassica Brazil breweries British Columbia brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butanol emissions butyl acetate C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass Canary Islands canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap cap-and-trade carbohydrates carbon carbon-efficient fuels carbon-neutral carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon f carbon fiber Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon price carbon recycling carbon sequestration carbon sink carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis CH pathway cattle cavitation cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile China chitin CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Power Plan (CPP) climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products CO2 Sequestration coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado Columbia combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG / R-CNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cottonseed oil cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DC DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether digest Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillation distilled biodiesel distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver divers diversification divestment DME (dimethyl ether) Dominica Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed e E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 price E12 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E40 E50 E55 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecuador ED95 education educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end user Energy Bill energy cane energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea EROEI erosion control EROWI esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol ethanol/bioethano ethanol/bioethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) Export externalities extremophiles F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Gerogia Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green chemistry green economy green house facility green job Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing GREET model Grenada gribble groundnut ground nut growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding Horse manure horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HRJ human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrofaction hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene Israel Italy Ivory Coast JA1 JAA jackfruit Jamaica Japan Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg Luxemburg lysis M15 M50 macadamia macauba Macedonia Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine maize Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta mamona management changes mandates manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanol/biomethanol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbe microbiology microorganizms microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) muck multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Lab National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NREL NTSB nucle nuclear nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obama Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol off-take agreements Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olive cake olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone p Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama panda pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peanut peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose perennial grains perennial grasses performan Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-gas prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island private educational business process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating propane propanol property insurance protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree PVO pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 rea reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation regenerative braking regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy for America Program Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable hydrogen renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard renewable propane Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) renewable volume renewable volume obligation (RVO) replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail return on investment R Factor RFI RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RSF2 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago sago pond weed SAIC SAK sales Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securiti Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale gas shale oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smokestack soap social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soy soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve straw students sub-Saharan Africa succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugar cane sugar cane prices sugar cane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennesee Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains trans transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tunicate Tunisia Tunsia Turkey Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL ultra low sulfur diesel UN underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USD USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils Velocys Venezuela Vermont video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste water water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

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