If you find this site useful, please

Advanced Biofuels USA: promoting the understanding, development and use of advanced biofuels around the world.

Advanced BioFuels USA

The Hand Sanitizer Market: A Salvation for Beleaguered Ethanol Producers, or Not?

BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals, BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production, Business News/Analysis, California, Federal Regulation, Florida, Food and Drug Administration, Funding/Financing/Investing, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Marketing/Markets and Sales, Minnesota, New York, Opinions, Policy, Texas
March 24, 2020

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) created exemptions allowing certain alcohol fuel permit holders to sell ethanol (alcohol) for use in the production of hand sanitizers.

Consequently. Aemetis, Inc. said its 65 million gallon per year ethanol plant near Modesto, California has begun shipments of 200 proof alcohol for use in the production of hand sanitizer, which is in a significant shortage created by the worldwide spread of Coronavirus (COVID-19).

“Can’t hand sanitizer save the industry now?”

As an Argus media reporter asked at an emergency RFA online press conference on the coronavirus crisis, “why can’t the whole industry pivot to industrial ethanol production? Why can’t hand sanitizer save the industry now?”

The response from Randy Doyal, CEO, Al-Corn Clean Fuel, based in Minnesota was that there would be less vodka but more hand sanitizer coming in the next week to 10 days.

The good news

As Raymond James’ Pavel Molchanov observed this week, “Just as automakers converted their plants to supply tanks and fighter jets during World War II, and those same companies are now looking at supplying ventilators, many other enterprises amid the COVID-19 crisis are looking for creative ways to address the public health emergency. Here is one that, we admit, we would not ordinarily think about: producing hand sanitizer from corn ethanol.

“Aemetis, an early entrant into this market, points to prospective pricing of $70+ per gallon (yes, really). Amid oil prices at nearly 20-year lows, well below $30/Bbl, it goes without saying that ethanol prices are depressed: currently around $1.00/gallon. Selling into the hand sanitizer market can offer pricing that is 70x higher. Yes, you read that right. To be sure, the economics vary on a site-by-site basis, based on (among other things) proximity to hand sanitizer production facilities. Aemetis (AMTX), which produces ethanol in California, has the advantage of being located on the West Coast, and last week it became one of the first ethanol players to take advantage of the Treasury’s authorization. From our conversation with Aemetis, here is the economic proposition, in general terms… Retail stores are selling hand sanitizer at around $1.50/ oz. Of that, $0.50 goes to the retailer and distribution, $0.20 for packaging, and $0.20 for the compounder. That leaves $0.60 for the ethanol feedstock. With 128 ounces in a gallon, the implied selling price is upwards of $70/gallon.”

Some market sizing

Hmm. Let’s quickly demolish the thought that this is anything but a small-scale opportunity.

Now, sanitizer is around 1/3 alcohol — so consider the maximum market size to be around 30 million gallons.

That’s US ethanol production for about 17 hours.

The following RFA members are among the ethanol companies that have provided high-grade ethanol for hand sanitizers and other cleaning products in recent weeks: Absolute Energy (St. Ansgar, IA); Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company (Benson, MN); Grain Processing Corp. (Muscatine, IA and Washington, IN); and Pacific Ethanol (Pekin, IL).

Donations in the offing

Some producers are simply donating ethanol to support the community.

Today, we hear that two Iowa Renewable Fuels Association members sent the first donated shipment of Iowa ethanol and glycerin to the state of Iowa to be used by Iowa Prison Industries for the production of hand sanitizer during the national shortage. The donation is made by Iowa ethanol producer Absolute Energy and Iowa biodiesel producer Western Iowa Energy. The Iowa Renewable Fuels Association (IRFA) worked with Iowa Prison Industries to secure the shipment of these products and other necessary ingredients. Templeton Rye is also providing distilled water for the project. The finished product will be distributed free of charge by the state of Iowa for priority use.

And DSM is donating too. They have produced 130,000 litres free of charge #desinfectiemiddel for Ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport it, which will distribute this to #ziekenhuizen and in the #zorginstellingen Netherlands. DSM added, “with this donation we help where we can in fighting #coronavirus it.” More on that story.     READ MORE

IRFA MEMBERS DONATE ETHANOL AND GLYCERIN TO STATE OF IOWA FOR HAND SANITIZER PRODUCTION (Iowa Renewable Fuels Association)

Minnesota ethanol producer ramping up production of industrial alcohol used in sanitizers: A biofuels downturn in recent months has been exacerbated by the coronavirus shutdown. (Star Tribune)

Faltering ethanol refiners switch to hand sanitiser (Financial Times)

How biofuels enter the race against the coronavirus pandemic (EurActiv)

Ethanol producers help produce hand sanitizer to combat COVID-19  (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

IOWA AND NEBRASKA BIOFUEL PLANTS DONATE TO HAND SANITIZER PRODUCTION (Brownfield Ag News)

Minnesota ethanol producer ramping up production of industrial alcohol used in sanitizers (Star Tribune)

Amyris Launches Leading Hand Sanitizer and Receives Initial Positive Result for Vaccine Adjuvant (Biofuels Digest)

Ethanol plants seek rule changes to resupply hand sanitizer (Associated Press)

EPA suspends enforcement of environmental laws amid coronavirus (The Hill; includes VIDEO)

As renewable fuel demand collapses, Pacific Ethanol makes alcohol, hand sanitizer (Sacramento Business Journal)

Germany approves ethanol use in disinfectant production (Argus Media)

Editorial: With nation at war to beat coronavirus, FDA approval for ethanol-based hand sanitizer was wise decision (Daily Nonpareil)

Coronavirus Not Stopping Amyris: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Amyris’s Production Resilience (Biofuels Digest)

FDA Changes Boost Alcohol for Sanitizer From Ethanol Makers (Associated Press/New York Times)

Bioenergy delivers 7,000 liters of alcohol to the Meta Governorate and the Puerto López Mayor’s Office (Federation National de Biocombustibles)

FDA allowing more ethanol plants to make sanitizer (Argus Media)

More ethanol plants help produce hand sanitizers (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

OPINION: Finding hope in dark times (Ethanol Producer Magazine/Renewable Fuels Association)

Swedish chemicals firm gets green light to produce hand sanitisers (Biofuels International)

WNY Energy is supplying ethanol to be made into sanitizer amid coronavirus pandemic (WIVB)

Distillers, lawmakers pressure FDA to revise hand sanitizer guidelines to permit excise tax relief (ABC News)

A look at the SIREtizer process, as ethanol plants join hand sanitizer production effort (Daily Nonpareil)

Valero closes two ethanol plants, retools third to make hand sanitze (San Antonio Express News)

Swiss face shortage of ethanol for disinfectant after abandoning stockpile (Reuters)

Western New York Energy supplies ethanol to U.S. distilleries, global corporations for sanitizer to fight COVID-19 spread (Niagara Frontier Publications)

LaHood Helps Expedite Waiver To Convert Galva Ethanol Plant To Make Hand Sanitizer (WLDS)

Ethanol plant re-tools ro make sanitizer (Geneseo Republic)

Nebraska Innovation Campus, ethanol partners turning out thousands of gallons of hand sanitizer (Lincoln Journal Star)

Repurposing ethanol from biofuel to disinfectant (Deutsche Welt)

Farmers and Biofuel Workers Affected by COVID-19 Pandemic (KSOO)

CLARIANT STARTS MONTHLY PRODUCTION OF 2 MILLION LITERS OF DISINFECTANT IN GENDORF TO SUPPORT VITAL INSTITUTIONS DURING COVID-19 OUTBREAK (Clariant)

Missouri ethanol plant producing alcohol for 50,000 gallons of hand sanitizer (Fox 4 KC)

3,000 gallons of hand sanitizer being made by KAAPA-Ravenna (Kearney Hub)

Galva plant to make sanitizer (State Courier)

Ethanol plants continue to help produce hand sanitizer (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

This Dayton-based ethanol company might repurpose its plants to make hand sanitizer (Dayton Business Journal)

Iowa gifted 5,000 gallons of ethanol for hand-sanitizer project (The Gazette)

ETHANOL PLANTS STEP UP TO FILL NEED FOR HAND SANITIZER (NewsDakota.com)

Member Spotlight: KAAPA Ethanol Steps Up with Sanitizer and Personal Protective Equipment (Renewable Fuels Associaiton)

Western New York Energy supplies ethanol for sanitizer (World-Grain.com)

Clariant begins monthly production of 2 million litres of disinfectant during Covid-19 outbreak (Biofuels International)

“Helping Hands”: BASF significantly expands sanitizer production in Ludwigshafen and supports VCI platform for nationwide emergency provision (BASF)

Poet produces ethanol-based sanitizer for frontline workers (Dakota Farmer)

As U.S. fuel demand dries up, more ethanol producers turn to hand sanitizer (Reuters)

University Hand Sanitizer Project Galvanizes Nebraskan Ethanol Producers (Renewable Fuels Association)

Nearly 30% of ethanol plants idled, including four in Minnesota — Gasoline demand has dropped, but eased FDA rules have let one plant pivot to hand sanitizer. (Star Tribune)

Bosselman Enterprises distributes free ethanol-based hand sanitizer to area businesses  (Grand Island Independent)

Fueling up our hand sanitizer (Grand Island Independent)

Highwater Ethanol supplying 190-proof product used in hand sanitizer (Granite Falls News)

New York Biofuel Plant Supplies Ethanol for Sanitizer (Green Chemicals Blog)

Commonwealth Agri-Energy Partners with Distilleries to Make Kentucky Proud (Renewable Fuels Association)

Spirit of innovation keeps some manufacturers humming (Rochester Business Journal)

Editorial: Kansas farmers finding creative use for ethanol (Topeka Capital-Journal)

Why You Can’t Find Rubbing Alcohol: The U.S. now has vast surpluses of a sanitizing liquid that consumers aren’t allowed to buy. (Wall Street Journal)

Circle Logistics Begins Shipping Bulk Ethanol for Expedited Production of Hand Sanitizer (Circle Logistics)

POET, World’s largest ethanol producer forced to find a new market — hand sanitizer (CNBC)

Circle Logistics Starts Bulk Division Focused on Ethanol (Transport Topics)

Minnesota plant goes ethanol production to hand sanitizer (RFD TV)

Health Canada recalls some hand sanitizers due to industrial-grade ethanol content (BNN Bloomberg)

Ethanol Plants Producing to Protect (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

Area partners team to offer free protective equipment, sanitizer and guidance to small businesses (Daily Nonpareil)

Ethanol Plants Producing to Protect (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

California Company Gets Early Start on Hand Sanitizer Production (Renewable Fuels Association)

EPA issues guidance for ethanol plants producing hand sanitizer (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

Hand Sanitizer, Disinfectant Demands Hit ‘Biblical Proportions’ (Bloomberg)

 

Excerpt from Associated Press:  The problem for the ethanol industry is that most plants make food-grade ethanol, one step below the highest pharmaceutical grade. But since the plants aren’t certified to comply with stringent production standards designed to protect quality of medicines, food ingredients and dietary supplements, the FDA doesn’t want the alcohol used for a product to be applied to the skin.

In addition, the alcohol is not denatured or mixed with a bitter additive to make it undrinkable. The FDA insists this step is “critical” because of cases of poisoning, sometimes fatal, among young children who have accidentally ingested hand sanitizers.

An FDA spokesman said Thursday that regulators have already seen a rise in poisonings linked to hand sanitizers in recent weeks, “heightening this public concern.”

The FDA is also skeptical of industry claims that undenatured sanitizers could be distributed in a way that would keep them away from children.

The Consumer Brands Association, formerly the Grocery Manufacturers Association, has had conversations with the FDA to push the agency to reconsider its guidelines. The group, which represents branded food, consumer products and beverage companies, said that hand sanitizer supplies are running so low that its members have had to ration it out to workers in stores, distribution centers and manufacturing plants.

“We need a temporary solution,” said Mike Gruber, vice president of regulatory and technical affairs at the trade association. “This goes toward ensuring basic food safety practices.”

Distillers that produce vodka, whisky and other alcoholic drinks have been given some regulatory waivers by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau allowing them to produce hand sanitizer. Many have done that, but they produce much smaller volumes of alcohol than an ethanol plant could produce. They also receive a benefit in the Senate-passed stimulus bill.

Under the latest FDA guidelines, regulators maintain standards for alcohol, requiring new producers to use alcohol that meets federal or international standards for use in either drugs or food products.

The regulatory hurdles are especially frustrating for Midwest ethanol producers who are facing plunging fuel demand and a petroleum fight between Saudi Arabia and Russia that caused prices to plummet. The factors are forcing more plants to curtail production and close.

For ethanol producers relaxed rules, including a requirement of the hard-to-acquire denaturant, would allow them to step in an help in a national emergency.

“If we could get the FDA to say yes you can use the beverage grade and for the duration of this emergency at least for some point in time here for the next two weeks you can waive the denaturant we would literally have millions of gallons of hand sanitizer available within a matter of days,” said Monte Shaw, CEO of Iowa Renewable Fuels Association, an ethanol trade group. “Every one of our plants has gotten contacted by people who want this stuff and we can’t send it to them.” READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Daily Nonpareil:  Dreessen and Schultz explained the SIRE process and recipe, which comes from the World Health Organization and is approved by the FDA, which produces 250-gallon batches. Plant workers fill plastic totes with 200 gallons of 200 proof alcohol, then add pharmaceutical-grade glycerol, hydrogen peroxide (at 3% before it goes in, Schultz noted), distilled water and a bittering agent. The ingredients are mixed and then the sanitizer is tested in the plant chemistry lab to ensure the alcohol percentage is where it should be — 80%.

With the FDA relaxed guidelines, the only denaturant — an additive required to give a bitter taste to discourage ingestion — SIRE is required to put in the sanitizer is denatonium benzoate. It’s safe for skin, but don’t drink it.

Staff members do a final quality control check to make sure no particles made it through the process, “and then it’s ready to bottle,” Dreessen said.

Schultz said the totes are triple-rinsed with water and sterilized with alcohol before the process begins. SIRE expects to send out more than 25,000 gallons by the end of the week. One roadblock, which is quickly being overcome, is bottles.

On that front, there’s been help.

After an initial story about SIREtizer by the Nonpareil, CRC Inc. of Council Bluffs reached out and donated 3,000 quart-sized bottles. The business, located on Nebraska Avenue, manufactures food service blenders. Don Crossley, one of the company’s owners, said the company donated the bottles it had left in stock to help the effort. Crossley also helped connect SIRE with an additional source of bottles.

Last week SIRE also shipped 1,200 gallons of alcohol denatured with isopropyl — a stronger denaturant than the aforementioned denatonium benzoate — to the Iowa Correctional Institution for Women in Mitchellville in central Iowa, with another 1,200 set to go out on Monday. Prisoners there are working on a production line to make sanitizer with the SIRE alcohol blend to be sent to the state’s COVID-19 Emergency Operations Center, where leaders from various state agencies are working to tackle the pandemic.

Daniel Clark, director of Iowa Prison Industries, an agency that provides work training to Iowa inmates, said the prison has produced 2,400 gallons so far, with the plan to produce 4,500 gallons weekly, for the EOC, which distributes the product around the state.

An additional source of sanitizer throughout the state and region has come from distilleries. Schultz said SIRE is providing alcohol to Patriarch Distillers and Brickway Brewery & Distillery in Omaha and Lonely Oak Distillery in Earling in Shelby County to assist as those companies create hand sanitizer.

SIRE is also setting up contracts with chemical wholesalers and other companies to get more alcohol out for conversion to sanitizer.

Lastly, SIRE is working with local retailers. Some area bars and restaurants have already worked with the company to sell half-gallon, gallon and quart-sized bottles, available for purchase during a pickup of takeout food and drink. And there are a limited amount of small spray bottles for $4, also. READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Associated Press/New York Times: The Food and Drug Administration has relaxed regulations on the types of alcohol that can be used to make hand sanitizers during the shortage caused by the coronavirus pandemic, expanding the market to potentially millions of gallons made by ethanol producers.

Hospitals and nursing homes are desperately searching for hand sanitizer, and ethanol plants that can make large batches of its main ingredient, alcohol, have offered to help.

The FDA has stringent production standards designed to protect the quality of medicines, food ingredients and dietary supplements, and it prohibited many ethanol plants from using their alcohol which didn’t meet high quality specifications for use in drugs or beverages.

Under the latest FDA guidelines announced Friday, ethanol made at plants that produce fuel ethanol can be used if it contains no additional additives or chemicals from the plants and they can ensure water purity and proper sanitation of equipment. The FDA said it will consider each plant on an individual basis and grant approval only if a plant meets quality control specifications.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Topeka Capital-Journal: The Hutchinson News reported last week that two of the plants in Kansas lay idle while the other nine have decreased production by at least 40%.

This shouldn’t come as a shock. After all, gas prices are low due to low demand, and demand is low because most people are staying home where they should be. Thus the demand for ethanol is down. Nevertheless, it’s still an unfortunate blow for corn producers in the state.

Mike Chisam, CEO of Kansas Ethanol in Lyons, told the News’ Alice Mannette demand for ethanol is likely not expected to rebound until 2021. Again not exactly shocking news, but still not what producers were hoping to hear.

Mannette also reported that Kansas ethanol plants are following this national trend. Kansas plants produce more than 600 million gallons of biofuel annually, which according to Kansas Renew, is worth slightly less than $1 billion.

Hearing news of revenue shortfalls during this COVID-19 pandemic is becoming old hat. Even still the Kansas economy is so dependent on agriculture that it’s hard to stomach each of these setbacks. Please don’t forget the impact these plants have on our state both for producers and the jobs the provide to Kansans.

Many of these plants are located in rural areas where employment is already scarce.

With demand low, we’ve seen ethanol producers get creative, pivot and sell their ethanol to people making hand sanitizers. What a creative solution that used a little Kansas common sense.

Two plants — East Kansas Agri-Energy and Pratt Energy — are selling their ethanol to distributors.

“The FDA put a waiver to use fuel-grade ethanol for hand sanitizer. They removed the excise tax until the end of the year,” Bill Pracht, the CEO of East Kansas Agri-Energy in Garnett and vice chairman of Renew Kansas told the News. “Most of our sales have gone outside the state to Texas, Florida and Louisiana. We’ve had some sales in the Kansas City area.”  READ MORE

Comments are closed.

More than 30,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 30,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors

FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters

Donate



Archives

Categories

Tags

2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 4th generation biofuels 7% solution 45Q 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane 100 octane 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election Activities 2022 9003 Program A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) Abu Dhabi acacia acetic acid acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Aircraft engine emissions Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy airports air quality Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-E ARPA-Terra artificial intelligence Aruba Asia ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D396 ASTM D975 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation Aviation biofuel aviation biofuel benefits aviation biofuel price aviation biofuel pumps/delivery Aviation Fuel aviation fuel production awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B10 B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B20 B25 B30 B33 B35 B40 B50 B75 B80 B98 B99 B100 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors billion ton study bio bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) Biofuel biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuels Biofuels Directive biofuels education biofuel tax credit Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons BioIsoprene Bio LPG biomass Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene bioprospecting BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch black carbon black grease black liquor black locust blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain blue carbon boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 Brachiaria bracken brackish water Brassica Brazil breweries British Columbia broker brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butanol emissions butyl acetate c C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass Canary Islands canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap-and-invest cap-and-trade carbohydrates carbon carbon-efficient fuels carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon price carbon recycling carbon sequestration carbon sink carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend Carbon tax border adjustments carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile China chitin chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products CO2 Sequestration coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG / R-CNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether digital Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed e-diesel e-LNG e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) French fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility green Jo Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kero kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulation regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable d Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustai Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsi Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

Notice

donate nowWe are not accepting donations from people or companies in Florida due to unfair reporting requirements and fees not imposed by any other state.