hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL)

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to Triple Bottom Line Sustainability Indicators for Waste-to-Energy Supply Chains

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Development of a triple-bottom line sustainability (social, environment, economic) assessment tool for local government to evaluate trade-offs of different organic waste streams and energy conversion strategies can help achieve local/regional policy objectives over the current and

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Treating and Valorizing the Aqueous Phase from Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) --- March 19, 2024 --- ONLINE

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is becoming more and more popular as a process to efficiently valorize bio-based feedstocks, even those with a high moisture content. Besides biocrude, which represents the energy-dense product to be utilized in fuel production, relevant amounts of

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Biofuels Market Booms as Demand Exceeds Pre-Pandemic Levels

by Felicity Bradstock (OilPrice.com)  - Biofuels, particularly those derived from waste and non-food crops, are gaining traction as a renewable energy source to decarbonize hard-to-abate sectors like aviation and shipping. - The U.S. and India are leading the charge in biofuel

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The Digest’s 2024 Multi-Slide Guide to an Efficient, Cost-Effective Anaerobic Digester

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) A high production cost of renewable natural gas results from slow disintegration and hydrolysis of recalcitrant feedstocks in conventional AD leads to low productivity; low methane content of biogas produced from AD requires downstream purification; and

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Cementos Argos to Use Microalgae for Carbon Capture

(Global Cement) Cementos Argos has partnered with Ecopetrol, EAFIT and the University of Antioquia to develop a method of carbon capture using microalgae that also produces useable biomass. The partners will process this biomass into biocrude, with similar properties to fuel

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New EU-funded FUELGAE Project Aims to Resurrect Algae as a Promising Source for Aviation Biofuels

by Christopher Surgenor (GreenAir Online) Over a decade ago, algae was seen as a very promising biomass for producing jet biofuel and a number of high-profile startups attracted big-name investors. In 2009, Continental Airlines flew the United States’ first-ever commercial jet

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Commercial Development of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

by Axel Funke (IEA Bioenergy) Fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) have been developed for several decades to enable production of bio-based liquid energy carriers and commodities from lignocellulosics, such as e.g. wood residues. While it obvious that there has been

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Making the Case for Marine Biofuels

by Michael Kass (Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Biodiesel Magazine)  The maritime industry is one of the most important transportation sectors, with more than 80% of all goods shipped via large container or cargo vessels that are powered using residual heavy fuel oil

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Licella

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest/REenergize the Gulf Coast) What’s up with the Wonder from Down Under? Licella’s Cat-HTR decarbonization platform could help customers meet their net-zero carbon commitments. How do they use water as the agent of change and turn biomass

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to HTL Technology Scale-up

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  HTL represents a processing technology that precludes the need to evaporate or dry the waste feed prior to conversion to fuel. In fact HTL requires that the feed be aqueous. HTL enables the conversion of the

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Low Carbon Fuels 2040: The Emerging Markets

(Biofuels Digest/Nuu Media) Low Carbon Fuels 2040: The Emerging Markets provides detailed case studies, updates and analysis of the key producers and developers participating in Renewable Diesel projects and Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) projects in the USA, Canada, Europe, Asia, and in South

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Adsorptive De-Nitrogenation as a Pathway to SAF

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The Bioprocessing Separations Consortium is a National Laboratory-led effort, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office, that is dedicated to identifying and overcoming separations challenges associated with the conversion of biomass into fuels

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CoBiol-A Pathway to Decarbonization and Public Engagement at Large

by Fatma Marrakchi, Daniele Castello, Lasse A. Rosendahl (IEA Bioenergy Task 34 Newsletter Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction)  ... To achieve a cleaner and healthier environment, there is a strong focus on the development of sustainable low-carbon, high yield, and costcompetitive liquid bio-crude oil as

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The Promise and Controversy of Bamboo Biofuels

by  Haley Zaremba (OilPrice.com) A new paper from GCB Bioenergy suggests that bamboo, being a fast-growing plant that absorbs carbon dioxide, could be a promising source for biofuels such as bioethanol and biochar; Critics argue that even if biofuels have an efficient production

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Marine BioEnergy

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Giant Kelp is one of the fastest growing producers of biomass. Giant kelp does not grow naturally in the open ocean because kelp needs key nutrients that are available in deep ocean water or near shore

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Two-Day Webinar Series: Biocarbon Incorporation into Transportation Fuels via Co-processing in Refineries --- September 20 and 27, 2023 --- ONLINE Presentations Available to Download and Listen

Co-processing of biogenic feedstocks within the existing petroleum infrastructure represents an opportunity to incorporate large volumes of bio-carbon into transportation fuels. However, upgrading intermediate liquids from biomass and waste to final products efficiently and economically, while minimizing impacts to existing

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to the Outlook and Lifecycle Characteristics of Alternative Marine Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The transportation Sector accounts for 33% of total US emissions and marine fuels are 3 percent of that- and they are famously hard to electrify. In this overview from the US Department of Energy’s BioEnergy

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The Pathways to Biofuels: A Survey of Why We Should Stop Fretting

byMichael Barnard (CleanTechnica) We have enough waste biomass feedstock to fulfill all of our transportation needs, and the market and a bunch of bright people will figure out which ones are cheapest and lowest impact. ... And in this future world of

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Crud-to-Crude: The Global Potential of Biofuels Made from Human Waste

by Sean Mowbray (Mongabay) • Creating liquid biofuels from human waste shows promise as a way to meet one of alternative energy’s greatest challenges: reducing the transportation sector’s heavy carbon footprint. The good news is there is a steady supply

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Steeper Energy Collaborates with Invest Alberta to Bring Biomass Conversion Plant to Alberta

(Steeper Energy)  Steeper Energy (Steeper) is pleased to announce the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Invest Alberta Corporation (Invest Alberta) to commercialize Steeper’s proprietary Hydrofaction® technology within Alberta, aligning with Alberta’s broader goal of becoming Canada’s cleantech leader. Steeper’s Hydrofaction® technology

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DOE Helps Industry Leverage Bioenergy Feedstock Expertise DEADLINE April 14, 2023

by Erin Voegele (Biomass Magazine)  The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) has launched an initiative that aims to help industry and universities leverage the Feedstock-Conversion Interface Consortium’s capabilities to help solve real-world problems that the bioenergy and bioproduct

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EU Launches Dung-To-Fuel SAF Project

by Graham Warwick (Aviation Week Network) Abundant animal manure could be converted to sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) via hydrothermal liquefaction. -- Europe produces about 1.4 billion metric tons of manure annually from animal farming, some of which could be converted to sustainable

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Feeding the Petroleum Industry with Plant-Based Fuel Additives: U of S Research

by Brooke Kleiboer (Saskatoon Star Phoenix) Young Innovators: Biofuel acts the same way as fossil fuel but is instead solely made of plant-based materials, which are more easily generated in nature.  --  While people around the world slowly increase their

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U.S. Department of Energy Awards $118 Million to Accelerate Domestic Biofuel Production

(U.S. Department of Energy) 17 Projects Will Boost Production of Biofuels for Consumer and Freight Transportation in America, Support President Biden’s Decarbonization and Climate Agenda -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $118 million in funding for 17 projects

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Hydrothermal Liquefaction for SAF

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The US generates ~10 million tons municipal wastewater sludges/year Disposal to land or landfills is limited, expensive. The Opportunity is to convert sludges to fuels using Hydrothermal Liquefaction. Conversion of sludges to ‘biocrude’, for upgrading

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The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to Genifuel

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Genifuel Corporation produces equipment to convert wet organic wastes into renewable fuels and other valuable byproducts. The wet waste material is completely eliminated. The Genifuel process has been tested with over 100 materials, including wastewater

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The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide ABLC Guide to Hydrothermal Liquefaction for Sustainable Liquid Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Research has shown that HTL technology is one of the most energy-efficient solutions for handling wet biomass streams. Circlia Nordic’s proprietary Technology is well suited for multiple applications, such as: wastewater treatment, plastics, manure, and

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Turkish Airlines Receives ‘Airline Sustainability Innovation of the Year’ Award from CAPA

(Turkish Airlines/Biobased Diesel Daily) Turkish Airlines announced this month that it received the “Airline Sustainability Innovation of the Year” award by CAPA-Centre for Aviation for its innovative sustainability efforts. The global carrier, which puts sustainability at the center of its business model,

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Biofuel on Road to Energy, Cost Savings

by Beth Burmahl (Argonne National Laboratory) Argonne collaborates with U.S. laboratories on research to identify promising biofuels for different engine types.  -- Biofuel is closer to becoming a cost-competitive, climate-friendly solution for slashing carbon emissions in cars and trucks, according to two new

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Biodiesel Magazine Podcast: New Process Yields Low-Cost Biodiesel from Food Waste

by Anna Simet (Biodiesel Magazine) This week's Biodiesel Magazine podcast features, Michael Timko, Professor of Chemical Engineering and Heather LeClerc, Ph.D. Candidate with Worcester Polytechnic Institute Interview.  READ MORE/LISTEN Hydroxyapatite catalyzed hydrothermal liquefaction transforms food waste from an environmental liability to renewable

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WPI Researchers Create New Method for Making Biodiesel Fuel with Food Waste

(Worcester Polytechnic Institute/Business Wire) With gas prices soaring and food costs pinching family budgets, an interdisciplinary team of researchers at WPI is looking at ways to use food waste to make a renewable and more affordable fuel replacement for oil-based diesel. The work,

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Easing Pain at the Pump with Food Waste: New Method for Making Biodiesel Fuel

by Jack Levy (Worcester Polytechnic Institute/ Phys.Org) ... To make the fuel, the researchers employed a process called hydrothermal liquefaction, which uses heat and water to break down the food waste into a liquid. It's a method that has been used

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Hot Hydrofaction: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to Steeper Energy

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Steeper Energy’s President, Perry Toms, shared this illuminating slide guide at ABLC on how hydrofaction – a proven thermochemical is advancing biofuels commercial acceptance. From milestones to commercialization partners, get all the details on how

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Bioenergy Technologies Office State of Technology—2020 Research and Development Status

(U.S. Department of Energy) The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) funds research and development (R&D) on technologies necessary for the deployment and production of cost- competitive bioenergy, primarily biofuels. Results of experimental efforts are periodically compiled and

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Co-Processing Cooperation: National Labs Working Together to Create Clean Energy Fuels

(U.S. Department of Energy)  Since 2018, a multi-laboratory consortium, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and guided by an industrial advisory board, has focused on adding co-processing of bio-oils into existing refinery units with petroleum feedstocks to produce

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Greener Biofuel Production Beckons

(Chemical Processing) Novel electrocatalyst-based system operates at mild conditions and produces hydrogen -- A research team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, Wash., has developed a patent-pending system that uses a flow cell bioreactor to turn carbon previously

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Hot Hydrofaction: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to Steeper Energy

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Converting low-value biomass to bio-crude oil upgradable to advanced biofuels and chemicals at existing refineries via hydrofaction is hot. Find out how Steeper Energy is using hydrofaction for advanced biofuels in cost-effective ways and at

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Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2

by Will Thurmond (Emerging Markets) Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. (249 pages, September 2021) provides a detailed analysis and outlook for low-carbon feedstock availability, and a feasibility assessment for technology commercialization pathways in sustainable aviation fuels

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Process Removes Biofuel Contaminants from Wastewater and Generates Hydrogen to Fuel Its Own Operation

by Karyn Hede (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/Phys.Org)  ... "The currently used methods of treating biocrude requires high-pressure hydrogen, which is usually generated from natural gas," said Juan A. Lopez-Ruiz, a PNNL chemical engineer and project lead. "Our system can generate

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Microalgal Crops: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to MicroBio

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest) From algal-based wastewater treatment plants and purification ponds with biofuels/co-products in California to aviation fuels and algae strain improvements, MicroBio is leading R&D and innovation of microalgae cultivation for bio products. Get all the

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Lewisporte Biofuel Project Takes Next Step with Call for Environmental Assessment Public Comment DEADLINE: February 14, 2022

by Evan Careen (SaltWire) Construction of proposed 163-hectare facility Terra Nova Energy Center includes a new bulk cargo port and marine fuel jetty -- A proposed liquid fuel and power plant project in the town of Lewisporte is now undergoing an environmental

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Bio-Crude Production from Protein-Extracted Grass Residue through Hydrothermal Liquefaction

by Saqib Sohail Toor, Ayaz Ali Shah, Kamaldeep Sharma, Tahir Hussain Seehar, Thomas Helmer Pedersen and Lasse Aistrup Rosendahl (Energies) In the present study, the protein-extracted grass residue (press cake) was processed through hydrothermal liquefaction under sub and supercritical temperatures

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Energies' Special Issue "Hydrothermal Liquefaction for Aviation and Maritime Sustainable Fuels"

(Energies) ... Aviation and maritime, key components of the transport fuel area, will thus be pillars of future sustainable energy scenarios and thus prioritized in policymaking, being the most difficult sectors to electrify. These applications, however, present very peculiar and different technological

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Blending of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude with Residual Marine Fuel: An Experimental Assessment

by Andrea Maria Rizzo and David Chiaramonti (Energies Special Issue Hydrothermal Liquefaction for Aviation and Maritime Sustainable Fuels) ... As sustainable biofuels will be used as blend components in the case of large-scale deployment, it is necessary to investigate the

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Progress in Commercialization of Biojet /Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF): Technologies, Potential and Challenges

by Susan van Dyk and Jack Saddler (IEA Bioenergy Task 39) Biojet/ Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) must play a major role if the aviation sector is to significantly reduce its carbon footprint. To meet its carbon reduction targets, large volumes

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Enabling Sustainable Transportation with Hydrogen: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Linde

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  What does the era of clean hydrogen look like? How can we decarbonize the world with hydrogen? What does hydrogen demand look like over the next 30 years? What are the hydrogen colors of gray,

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The Economics of Poop for Creating Biofuels

by Asanga Padmaperuma (U.S. Department of Energy) Techno-economic analysis is the first to model PNNL technology across wastewater facilities -- Wastewater—American households produce billions of gallons of it daily, from flushing toilets to cleaning clothes. But wastewater is not just a waste. The

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PNNL Bioenergy Team Releases Report on Path to Sustainable Aviation Fuel

by Mary Ann Showalter (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  Bioenergy experts identify critical areas, opportunities for bringing technology to aviation industry  -- A report has been published summarizing a workshop designed to accelerate the commercialization of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology for producing

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Microalgae Help Purify Water and Synthesize Biofuels

(Russian Foundation for Basic Research/NewsWise) RUDN University chemist together with colleagues from India, Russia and South Africa showed that green microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana can be used for cleaning wastewater from a toxic pyrene. Algae absorb pyrene and at the same time change

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How Feasible Are Biofuels in Marine Applications?: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Marine Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Do biofuels have potential for the maritime sector? Should BETO implement a biofuels program for large ocean-going vessels to meet the International Maritime Organization’s carbon reduction goals (a 40% reduction relative to 2008 levels by

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Canfor and Licella, through Arbios Biotech, Moving forward with Biomass to Biofuel Plant in Canada

(Licella)  • Canfor has announced its final investment decision to proceed with the development of a commercial-scale biomass to biofuel plant in Prince George, British Columbia, under Arbios Biotech, its joint venture with Licella. Supports the decarbonisation of transportation fuels

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Advanced Biofuels, Solid to Liquid Tech, Biocrudes: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Haldor Topsoe

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  If you missed this slide guide from ABLC Digital on what it will take for advanced biofuels to take off further, here’s your chance! Haldor Topsoe leaders cover thoughts on legislation, feedstocks, biofuel production, solid

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Dig Their Big Rig: Licella Commissions World’s Largest Operating Hydrothermal Liquefaction Facility

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Licella commissions world’s largest operating hydrothermal liquefaction facility  --  In Australia, Licella has completed initial commissioning of its upgraded Cat-HTR commercial-demonstration plant. The Commercial Stage 1 facility is co-owned with Canadian Forest Products Ltd. (Canfor), a

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Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2

(Emerging Markets Online)  New study! Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels 2030, Vol 2. (249 pages, August 2021) focuses on low-carbon feedstock availability, technology pathways for low carbon renewable diesel, and sustainable aviation production. Renewable Diesel & Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) 2030  covers

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Biogenic Carbon Fuels, Co-Processing Strategies: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Coprocessing Bio-oils in Refineries

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Leveraging existing refining infrastructure leverages billions US$ in CAPEX and 5 million bpd of crude refining. NREL, PNNL, and LANL is tackling how to accelerate adoption of co-processing biomass-derived feedstocks with petroleum streams in operating

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Waste to Energy: Biofuel from Kelp Harvesting and Fish

by Kelsey Adkisson  (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/Newswise)  Possibility of cheaper, greener fuel for remote, coastal Alaska communities --   Kelp is plentiful in remote, coastal Alaska. Fuel is not. And it’s expensive. Many isolated communities rely on diesel generators for energy because they

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What to Do with Food Waste? Well, That Depends. NREL Researchers Examine Disposal Methods as More Landfills Prepare to Shut Down

(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  The expected decline in the number of landfills across the United States coupled with bans on disposing large amounts of organic waste in landfills that have been enacted in multiple states has prompted researchers at the U.S.

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Circla Nordic Debuts, Backed by ECCO Investment, Utilizing Bio2Oil Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology for Biocrude

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) In Denmark, ECCO Investment has made a key investment in Bio2Oil technology and a new company has been formed, Circla Nordic, to stress the circular nature/sustainability of the technology. The company has also received notice of

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Competitive Edge: Bio2oil

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) ... Bio2oil was founded with the aim of commercializing the Hydrothermal Liquefaction technology (HTL). It’s a process that converts biomass to liquid fuel in the presence of water. We focus on getting the process efficient and

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Will Biorefineries Meet Air Quality Regulations?: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Biofuels Air Emissions

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Can biofuels production meet federal air quality regulations? At what cost? What are the emissions across the biofuels supply chain? What are the economic and human health impacts? Are there mitigation opportunities and approaches that work? 

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Manta Wins MEIA 2021 Pitch Finale; MD Clean Energy Startups Shine

(Maryland Energy Innovation Accelerator)  MEIA 's 2021 Pitch Competition was a smashing success. Congratulations to Grand Prize winner Manta Biofuel, and Audience Choice co-winners InventWood and Manta Biofuel. Did you miss the event? Watch the video and pitches here. Owings Mills-based Manta

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Saskatchewan Based Startup NULIFE GreenTech Receives Global Recognition.

(NULIFE GreenTech)  NULIFE GreenTech is 1 of only 7 companies selected from over 750 global applicants for Repsol Foundation (Spain) Entrepreneurs Fund, and 1 of 9 for the Canadian Trade Commissioners ClimaTech Accelerator. -- - Saskatchewan based startup NULIFE GreenTech (NULIFE) has

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Progress in the Commercialization of Biojet / Sustainable Aviation Fuels: Technologies, Potential and Challenges

(IEA Bioenergy) This report, prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 39, provides an extensive analysis of the current and potential technologies for production of biomass based sustainable aviation fuels (Biojet/SAF). Sustainable Aviation Fuels will have to play a major role if the aviation

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Hydrothermal Processing: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Algal Based Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Dan Anderson from Pacific Northwest National Lab shared this illuminating slide guide at BETO’s Peer Review this year with the latest on PNNL’s work on building algae hydrothermal liquification (HTL) pathway to fuels, with the

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) from Liquefaction

by John Holladay and Zia Haq (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and U.S. DOE, Bioenergy Technologies Office) In November 2020, PNNL facilitated an international workshop on HTL for SAF production. Present an overview of findings • Quick overview of HTL • Details from the

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Fuels and Products from Waste: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Organic Waste Conversion

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Wet waste, municipal sludge residuals, animal manure, food waste, inedible fats/oils/greases – all things we used to throw away, but now can be converted into valuable bioproducts. Check out this illuminating slide guide on BETO’s

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MEIA Spotlight -- Ryan Powell

(Maryland Energy Innovation Accelerator) Ryan Powell is the founder and CEO of Manta Biofuel, an MEIA Startup that produces crude oil from algae at a cost that could be competitive with traditional petroleum. Manta’s team has developed their proprietary magnetic algae harvesting

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Biomass to Sugar Conversion Mechanisms: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Pretreatment and Enzymes for Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Get the latest on thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic reactions for biofuels and biochemicals production from Rajesh Gupta from Lee Enterprises Consulting in this illuminating slide guide. From lignocellulosic and algal biomass, comparison of popular pretreatment

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Results of the International Energy Agency Bioenergy Round Robin on the Analysis of Heteroatoms in Biomass Liquefaction Oils

by Philip Bulsink, Ferran de Miguel Mercader, Linda Sandström, Bert van de Beld, Fernando Preto, Alan Zacher, Anja Oasmaa, Nicolaus Dahmen, Axel Funke, and Benjamin Bronson (Energy Fuels) A round robin study evaluating the analysis of biomass liquefaction oils (BLOs) from

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Biocrude Passes the 2,000-hour Catalyst Stability Test

by Karyn Hede (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  Sewage and food waste biocrude conversion process reaches major milestone -- A large-scale demonstration converting biocrude to renewable diesel fuel has passed a significant test, operating for more than 2,000 hours continuously without

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5 Key Tech Takeaways: Highlights from Tech Presented at ABLC 2020

by Iacovos Vasalos (Center for Research and Technology-Hellas/Biofuels Digest) This report summarizes highlights from the ABLC 2020 Biofuels Digest Virtual Conference, which took place in July 7-10, 2020. (And if you haven’t already registered for this year’s ABLC Digital on May 3-7,

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These Metal-Based Catalysts Can Boost Biofuel Yields

by Mike Timko (Worcester Polytechnic Institute/Biofuels Digest)  A recent study led by a team from Worcester Polytechnic Institute shows that metal-oxide-based catalysts reduce char build up during biofuel conversion processes, increasing bio-crude oil yield and decreasing yields of low-value byproducts. ... Utilizing

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The Fuel for Thought Podcast

(Haldoe Topsoe) The world’s first podcast about renewables for the refinery industry season two. This time, Sylvain Verdier and Mikala Grubb from Topsoe look into some of the most pressing topics in renewables and the refining industry, including trends in

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Okeechobee: From Blooms to Biocrude

by Mary Ann Showalter (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  PNNL’s hydrothermal liquefaction shows promise for turning harmful algal blooms into biocrude -- ... Algal blooms can also raise treatment costs for drinking water suppliers, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The U.S.

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Marine Biofuel Testing Set to Begin at the Alfa Laval Test & Training Centre

( gCaptain)  As the marine industry races to slash greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, the Alfa Laval Test & Training Centre is taking a key role. The 2800 m2 testing space – already equipped for today’s oil and gas fuels –

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Manta Biofuels Launches Crowd Investment Campaign

by Joanne Ivancic* (Advanced Biofuels USA)   This week, Manta Biofuels has launched a crowd investment campaign on Republic and began reaching out to colleagues, business associates, mentors and friends, offering them a chance to invest in this growing business. Dedicated to

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Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Steeper Energy

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Hydrofaction is Hot! Don’t take our word for it – dive into this new slide guide from Steeper Energy’s CEO Perry Toms who takes us through the progress towards commercial scale of Steeper’s hydrofaction technology

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Workshop on Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Path to Sustainable Aviation Fuel --- November 17-19, 2020 --- ONLINE

This virtual workshop is organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO). The objective of this workshop is to identify the role of hydrothermal

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Licella Enter into New Joint Venture with Canfor to Form Arbios Biotech

(Licella)  Arbios Biotech creates a low-carbon circular economy by converting post-consumer biomass and residues into advanced biofuels  --   Licella Holdings Ltd. (‘Licella’) is pleased to announce the Company has entered into a new joint venture, Arbios Biotech (‘Arbios’), with Canadian Forest Products Ltd.

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ANL Releases 2020 Updates to GREET Models

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) Argonne National Laboratory’s Systems Assessment Center on Oct. 9 announced the 2020 release of the suite of Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Technologies (GREET) models. GREET is a life-cycle analysis tool that can

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Commercial Status of Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction Technologies

(EIA Bioenergy) Direct thermochemical liquefaction (DTL) of biomass is an important pathway to bioenergy and biochemical production in the circular economy. The aim of this report is to highlight how DTL technologies currently have a role to play in mobilising

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Updates to Task 39’s Demonstration Plant Database

(IEA Bioenergy)  The Task 39 pilot and demonstration plants database was recently updated. Information on all European facilities (121) were verified and updated. 226 entries are currently active in the online database. Technologies covered include gasification, fermentation, hydrotreatment, fast pyrolysis,

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Hydrothermal Liquefaction Waste to Fuel: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Bio2Oil

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Bio2Oil takes biomass to crude oil, like our planets process, just faster. Their technology can convert sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, industrial waste biomass, and other biomass streams into fuel. While they have a continuously operating pilot

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5 Ways to Reduce Costs in Integrated Biorefineries: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Enabling Lower-Cost Biofuels

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) just released a new report that outlines five specific, yet broadly applicable, areas of focus to reduce costs in an integrated biorefinery. This analysis builds upon ongoing R&D strategies to lower

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Bioliquids and Their Use in Power Generation – A Technology Review

by T.Seljak, M.Buffi, A.Valera-Medina, C.T.Chong, D.Chiaramonti, T.Katrašnik (Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews) -A systematic and holistic assessment of relevant properties of bioliquids.  -New technical advances of piston engines and micro gas turbines using bioliquids.  -A detailed analysis of required power

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Expert Workshop on HTL in Brussels

by Sigurd Koldste (Bio2Oil)  Back in late November, our CEO Ib Johannsen participated in an expert workshop on hydrothermal liquefaction in Brussels, Belgium. The workshop was hosted by five European research projects (HyFlexFuel, WASTE2ROAD, 4refinery, NextGenRoadFuels and Heat to Fuel) in collaboration with the Norwegian National Centre

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Solve Invasive Seaweed Problem by Turning It into Biofuels and Fertilisers

(University of Bath/Phys.Org) UK researchers have developed a cheap and simple way of creating biofuel and fertiliser from seaweed, whilst removing plastic from the oceans and cleaning up tourist beaches in the Caribbean and Central America. Millions of tonnes of rotting seaweed

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The Latest Developments on Powering Our World with Grass, Twigs, and Other Green Waste

by Michael Timko (Worcester Polytechnic Institute/Biofuels Digest)  ... But, the food left on our plates is energy dense, rich in starches, lipids, and other components, all begging to be made into biofuels. After years of development, bioenergy costs remain too

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The Secret Sauce: Industry Partnerships Key to Advancing Bio-Based Chemicals and Fuels

by Asanga Padmaperuma (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) ... Today, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories study the development of chemicals and fuels with the use of cost-effective, renewable carbon sources, while working closely with the bioenergy industry. In support of the

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PNNL Brews Up Batch of Biocrude Oil

by Asanga Padmaperuma (U.S. Department of Energy/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  ... Spent grain is also an attractive feedstock for producing high quality biocrude oil that can be refined into transportation fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers recently achieved a

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Minding the Cost Gap: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to IEA Bioenergy’s Cost Reduction for Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Today’s top story, “Mind the Gap,” refers to a rather bleak and disturbing assessment offered by IEA Bioenergy on the prospects for cost-competitive advanced biofuels. The report looked at 89 different organizations and their technologies,

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Bringing Algal Biofuel Production to Scale: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Biocrude Production in Advanced Photobioreactor-Based Biorefinery

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Everyone wants more productive algal strains – but how do you get them? Can you advance the technology enough to get economical, large-scale algal biofuel production? Ron Chance and Paul Roessler, both of Algenol Biotech, shared this

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Yucky Scum May Someday Fuel Cars, Planes and Trains because of PNNL Researchers

by Steven Ashby (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/Tri-City Herald) Algae is often seen as a yucky muck, but it may soon join crop waste and cooking oils as an important ingredient in the recipe for renewable biofuels. At the Department of Energy’s Pacific

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Trade Associations Launch Liquid Biofuel Supply Chain Strategy and Taskforce to Tackle Carbon Emissions

by Nunzia Florio  (Tank Storage Association) Trade Associations OFTEC, the Tank Storage Association (TSA) and the UK and Ireland Fuel Distributors Association (UKIFDA) have kicked off 2020 with the launch of a future vision for liquid fuels ‘Supply Chain Strategy for Liquid Fuels’, which

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WPI Professor Expands Green Energy Research with $2M DOE Grant -- Chemical Engineer Works to Turn Yard Waste and Food Waste into Biofuel

by Sharon Gaudin (Worcester Polytech Institute) Chemical engineers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute are broadening attempts to convert waste into environmentally friendly biofuels, lowering reliance on fossil fuels, cutting the amount of municipal waste going into landfills, and reducing water pollution and

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Cellulosic Mixotrophy: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Novel Platform for Algal Biomass

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) There’s a lot of flat, dry land in the U.S. but researchers at Arizona State University and others are looking at how that land could support biofuel production. How about evaporation-resistant reactors coupled with thermotolerant, high-productivity

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Converting Waste to Synthetic Crude Oil: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Licella’s Thermochemical Tech

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Licella is transforming plastic and biomass waste into high value sustainable resources. Their Cat-HTR platform uses water at high temperature and pressure to transform wastes and residues to synthetic crude oil, chemically equivalent to fossil

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First Joint Workshop -- Five European H2020 Projects and the Norwegian National Centre Bio4Fuels : Potential of Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) Routes for Biofuel Production

(HyFlexFuel)  The first joined Expert Workshop took place on the 19th November 2019 in Brussels. Almost 100 participants attended, making the workshop very successful. A number of industry speakers, as well as research speakers have given presentations which can be found

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Biofuels Production and Consumption in Denmark: Status, Advances and Challenges

by Sune Tjalfe Thomsen and Henning Jørgensen (IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Newsletter)  1. Status of transportation biofuel industry in Denmark -- In Denmark, a considerable part of the total energy demand is derived from renewable sources. In 2017, 26% of

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“The Thing to Remember Is that It’s Agriculture.” Manta's New Way to Think about Algal Biofuel

by Joanne Ivancic* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  Not only is the Manta Biofuel system a way to grow, harvest and process algae into oil that can be used for heating or powering heavy duty engines or ocean-going vessels, or as a

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The Potential of Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) Routes for Biofuels Production

(Netwerk Betreibstoffe/BEsustainable Magazine Autumn 2019) Hydrothermal Liquefaction is one of the most promising technologies for the conversion of sustainable biomass into renewable transport fuels. Five European research and innovation projects and the Norwegian National Centre Bio4Fuels are jointly organizing an expert

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The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Commercializing Conventional and Advanced Transport Biofuels from Biomass and Other Renewable Feedstocks

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Several of the better known IEA Bioenergy rock stars — there are four and possibly five in this set, from the US and Canada, so we’ll put them sort of on a par with Neil

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Algae Harmony with HTL: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Hydrothermal Liquefaction

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Converting algae to fuels is challenging. But PNNL is working on developing process models and techno-economic analysis to inform hydrothermal liquefaction algae conversion research for fuels and chemicals. Check out what Susanne Jones and others

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All About Algae: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Algal Biomass Yield Improvements

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Global Algae Innovations is working on a trifecta of goals: 1) to develop improved strains and cultivation methods to increase the algal biofuel intermediate yield by at least 70% AND 2) to develop new drying and

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EERE Helps American Small Businesses with $43.6 Million for Phase II Innovation Projects

(U.S. Department of Energy)  American small businesses received a near-$44 million boost from the Energy Department's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. As part of last Monday’s announcement, small businesses are receiving Phase

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Solving the Puzzle Surrounding Algae for Biofuels

by Asanga Padmaperuma (U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  PNNL team develops new model for analyzing biocrude yield and economics Scientists have made significant strides in transforming algae to biocrude using a process called hydrothermal liquefaction, or HTL. Still, the long

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RE-CORD Signature of a Memorandum of Understanding with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

(RE-CORD)  The Renewable Energy Consortium for Research and Demonstration (RE-CORD) signed today a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, www.nrel.gov ) for coordination on thermochemical conversion of biomass for the production of biofuels and

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Amazing Algaculture: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to MicroBio Engineering

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  MicroBio Engineering works on facility designs, algae equipment, R&D, engineering consulting, techno-economic analyses, LCAs and wastewater treatment. Their focus on algaculture, specifically microalgae cultivation, is what the focus of this presentation is on. John Benemann, CEO and

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Diesel Decarbonization Brings Transformative Opportunities for Next Generation Biodiesel Feedstocks

by William R. Thurmond (Emerging Markets Online/MENAFN)  New study finds next generation feedstock markets and technologies are big winners in diesel decarbonization initiatives for low carbon fuels. In the U.S., Canada, Europe, Asia, and Latin America, strong demand signals and incentives

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Researchers Produce Renewable Engine Fuel from Wet Biowaste

by Edwin L. Aguirre (University of Massachusetts Lowell) A team of researchers from UMass Lowell, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and China Agricultural University in Beijing has developed a new, sustainable way of converting wet biological waste into diesel-compatible fuel, using heat

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(A)lgae + (B)iomass = (C)onstructive: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Sandia National Labs

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Sandia National Laboratories shares a famous acronym with Saturday Night Live but the work they have done is key to the future of the bioeconomy, having delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation’s most

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SoCalGas Wins $3 Million CEC Grant to Advance New RNG Technology

(Southern California Gas Co./Biomass Magazine)  Southern California Gas Co. (SoCalGas) today announced the California Energy Commission (CEC) has awarded the company a $3 million grant to fund the next phase of development of a new technology that doubles the amount of renewable energy created

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CENER is Developing Technology for Future Urban Biorefineries, to Move towards a Circular Bioeconomy

(Bio-based News)  CENER is involved in 4 specific initiatives, in order to develop the most adequate management and valorization routes of different urban biowastes  --   The Biomass Department of CENER (National Renewable Energy Centre of Spain) is convinced of the need to

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So Happy Together: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Biomass and Plastic Wastes Co-Processing

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Lorenz Bauer, from LJBILL Chemical Consulting and a member of Lee Enterprises Consulting offers this illuminating overview of biomass and non-recyclable plastic to liquid fuel, landfill and carbon reduction, and more. Lee Enterprises Consulting is the world’s

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Biochar Science and Market: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Biochar

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Hugh McLaughlin, PhD, PE, a technical expert in pyrolysis, biochar and activated carbon, and Gerald Kutney, PhD, a business expert in pyrolysis and biochar, and both members of Lee Enterprises Consulting offer this illuminating perspective on

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January 2019 PyNe43 Newsletter Available

(Netzwerk Biotreibstoffe) It (January 2019 PyNe43 Newsletter) contains contributions on Electrocatalytic upgrading to stabilize pyrolysis oil Progress towards commercialization at pilot and demonstration scale Pyrolysis of forestry and fishery residue for rural applications. Overview on catalysts to upgrade pyrolysis oils.

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Scientists Convert Wet Biological Waste into Fuel We Can Blend with Diesel

by Christian Nordqvist (Market Business News)  A team of scientists has converted wet biological waste into diesel-compatible fuel. We are now a step closer to producing renewable engine fuels from wet biological waste that are compatible with current diesel fuel infrastructure. ... Biological waste

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Heard on the Floor: Reflections and the Buzz from ABLC Global 2018

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)   It was, at times, not unlike the old trading floor of the Chicago Board of Trade and that was no coincidence, for there was optimism abounding and the deal-talk that flows from a general feeling that

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From Ponds to Power: $2M to Perfect Algae as Diesel Fuel

by Nicole Casal Moore (University of Michigan) U-M becomes one of the few institutes in the world working on the problem end-to-end  --  With $2 million from the U.S. Department of Energy, University of Michigan researchers aim to make the long-touted promise

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SET-Plan Steering Group Approved Implementation Plan of SET-Plan Action 8: Bioenergy and Renewable Fuels for Sustainable Transport

(European Technology and Innovation Platform-Bioenergy)  On 13 June 2018 the SET-Plan Steering Group approved the Implementation Plan of SET-Plan Action 8: Bioenergy and Renewable Fuels for Sustainable Transport. The plan was prepared by a working group, co chaired by industrial experts from

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EERE Success Story—From Breakfast to Biocrude: Study Identifies Production Potential across Nation

(U.S. Department of Energy)  Cattle waste and wastewater. Sludgy grease ensconced in restaurant and cafeteria grease traps.  Food waste—uneaten leftovers or culinary mistakes. Contrary to the lyrics in The Sound of Music, these aren’t a few of our favorite things. But when paired with

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Researchers Improve Method to Convert Food Waste into Biofuels

by Sharon Gaudin (Worcester Polytechnic Institute/Biomass Magazine)  Funded by a U.S. Department of Energy grant, a team of researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute is creating a better way to convert waste food into biofuels that are environmentally friendly, a project that

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Why Hydrothermal Liquefaction Hasn’t Taken off Yet

(Algae Industry Magazine/Science Trends)  enguang Zhou writes in Sciencetrends.com about work recently published in the journal Bioresource Technology regarding why Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae — a bio-oil technology which does not require dewatering and drying of algal biomass — up to now, has rarely

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The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to Sustainable Bioeconomy for Arid Regions (SBAR)

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Sustainable Bioeconomy for Arid Regions (SBAR) is a multi-level research project that will cultivate two desert-dwelling crops, guayule and guar, for a sustainable bioeconomy. Combined, guayule (perennial) and guar (annual) feedstocks can provide biomass year round

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Dry Idea: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to the Bioeconomy in Arid Regions

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The Sustainable Bioeconomy for Arid Regions (SBAR) is a multi-level research project that will cultivate two desert-dwelling crops, guayule and guar, for a sustainable bioeconomy. Scale up to profitable production, however, requires feedstock improvements, expansion of cultivation,

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Professor Snape and Partners Create Magic with First Hydrothermal Carbonization Plant in UK

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest)  ... In the United Kingdom, The University of Nottingham, the Energy Research Accelerator, and CPL Industries are working together to develop a new £4m (about $5.5 million) facility to use the hot new technology Hydrothermal Carbonization to

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New Feedstocks, New Targets, New Processes: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the only federal laboratory dedicated to the research, development, commercialization, and deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. NREL — home to the National Bioenergy Center — advances

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Q&A with Bioenergy Researchers: Making Biocrude and Biofuel from Human Waste

by Erik Hyrkas (U.S. Department of Energy)  Did you know that the Energy Department is working to create biofuel from resources like human waste? In fact, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technology Office works with national laboratories to research the

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Russian Scientists Discover Method to Convert Food Waste into Biofuels

(Skoltech)  ... Scientists from Skoltech and the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Joint Institute for High Temperatures have proposed converting food waste into biofuel via hydrothermal liquefaction – a thermal depolymerization process used to turn wet biomass into oil. ... The question of how

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WSU, PNNL Convert Biofuel Waste into Commodity, Now Targeting Sewage Sludge

by Maegan Murray (WSU Tri-Cities/Washington State University)  A method of converting a biofuel waste product into a usable and valuable commodity has been discovered by researchers at Washington State University and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Converting algae to biofuels is a two-step process.

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Lignin Waste Modified for Industrial Bio-Oil Use

(Phys.Org/University of Borås)  Lignin, a waste product in biomass and ethanol production, now finds new value as bio-oil in new products. At the University of Borås, Sweden, a team of researchers has investigated methods to extract and refine lignin for

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Commercial Path to Algae Biofuels: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Thermochemical Algae Processing

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The US Department of Energy is supporting a project on hydrothermal liquefaction — a thermochemical interface for algae biofuels — developing processing methods to reduce conversion cost, improve sustainability and enable commercialization of algal biofuels

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The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and Catalytic Conversion into Hydrocarbons

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The DOE established and funded a project to develop a novel Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of biomass and integrate with Virent’s Catalytic BioForming Process to efficiently produce cost effective “drop‐in” fuels from woody biomass and

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Hot Path for Waste to Fuels: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Hydrothermal Liquefaction

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Hydrothermal liquefaction has a huge fan base in the biorefinery R&D sector. There’s lots to like.  It’s robust tech and can be applied to attractive, low-cost wet feedstocks (ag resid, sludge, manure) that exploit HTL

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Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Jet Fuel Production

by Sierk de Jong, Kay Antonissen, Ric Hoefnagels, Laura Lonza, Michael Wang, André Faaij and Martin Junginger (Biotechnology for Biofuels)  The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares

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Norway's Statkraft to Make Biofuel from Wood Chips and Other Waste

by Geert De Clercq (Reuters)  Norwegian utility Statkraft has found a way to produce biofuel from wood chippings and other solid organic waste, which it says replicates in minutes a process that made crude oil underground over millions of years. Using high

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Cornell Engineers Transform Food Waste into Green Energy

by Blaine Friedlander (Cornell University)  In a classic tale of turning trash into treasure, two different processes soon may be the favored dynamic duo to turn food waste into green energy, according to a new Cornell-led study in the journal

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Advanced Biofuels Canada Adds Six Members as Canadian LCFS Approaches

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In Canada, Advanced Biofuels Canada revealed a signficant expansion of its membership. New members include: Cellufuel Inc. is currently operating a demonstration-scale facility producing clean synthetic diesel from lowvalue forestry residues. Ensyn Corporation has a 30-year history of

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Biofuels: Could Agave, Hemp and Saltbush Be the Fuels of the Future?

by Dyani Lewis (The Guardian)  Oilier plants, new processing technologies and multipurpose crops could put the biofuel industry back in the race for greener transport fuels.  --  Biofuels have long been touted as a carbon-neutral alternative to fossil fuels, doing

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The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Thermochemical Technology Horizons

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The Digest had a well-receive webinar on thermochemical technology horizons, featuring former DOE Biomass Program manager and in-demand industry consultant Paul Bryan on hand to detail the very latest in a wide array of non-biological

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Biotech Firm to Produce Renewable Fuel in New Office Space

by Emily Witty (MD Biz News)  ... (Ryan) Powell and his business partner Onur Unal are the founders of Manta Biofuel, a Baltimore-based biotechnology firm producing renewable crude oil through the harvesting and processing of algae. Just two and a half

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Bolt-on Cellulosic Ethanol: The Digest’s 2016 Multi-Slide Guide to Edeniq

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Edeniq is a biorefining and cellulosic technology company. Edeniq delivers integrated process innovations that unlock sugars. These technological innovations uniquely combine mechanical and biological processes. Edeniq’s capital light and operationally efficient solutions can be easily integrated

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Biofuel Made from Human Excrement Has Become Easier to Produce

by Megan Geuss (Ars Technica)  Wastewater treatment plants rejoice—you may have a hot commodity on your hands.  --  Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL) have developed a new method for treating human sewage to create a biocrude oil product

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Fuel from Sewage Is the Future – and It's Closer than You Think

(Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  Technology converts human waste into bio-based fuel  --  It may sound like science fiction, but wastewater treatment plants across the United States may one day turn ordinary sewage into biocrude oil, thanks to new research at

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Hydrothermal Processing and Algae to Oil: The Digest’s 2016 Multi-Slide Guide to Reliance Industries

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Reliance Industries has been working on HTL technology for algae conversion to biofuel for last 5 years and recently have started extending their work beyond algae to other feedstock. With its inherent technological advantages over other

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Carbon Negative Biofuel: The Digest’s 8-Slide Guide to Aljadix

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Aljadix is developing carbon negative biofuel from microalgae feedstock.  It has required a substantial re-design of the biofuel process.  Using Sapphire Energy and Algae Systems as models, Aljadix developed an innovative sea-surface cultivation platform (using sea-water growth

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IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Group Releases Germany Country Profile in Year End Newsletter

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Group released its end of year newsletter, which included a comprehensive  country profile for biofuels activity in Germany, authored by Franziska Müller-Langer (DBFZ and Nicolaus Dahmen (KIT). The overview includes Background

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BETO-Funded Projects Win at the 2015 R&D 100 Awards

(U.S. Department of Energy) Two projects funded by the Energy Department’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) have received awards at this year’s 2015 R&D 100 Awards. The annual “Oscars of Invention” awards recognize excellence in innovative technologies; BETO projects have had strong showings

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Three New Technologies to Make Energy Cleaner, More Efficient

by Frances White (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  Three technologies — a computational tool to improve power grid planning, a process to create biofuel from kelp and a hybrid device that makes hydrogen and stores energy — are being developed by

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Supply Chain Sustainability Analyses Completed

(U.S. Department of Energy)  This fiscal year, three Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis (SCSA) reports were published through Argonne National Laboratory. The SCSAs use a life-cycle analysis approach to identify energy consumption or environmental issues that may be associated with biofuel

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soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 chemical-looping hydrogen method Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chp chromium chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Fuel Production Tax Credit (45Z) Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Heat Standards Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart/conservation agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover cmelina CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location Co-op Extension co-operative co-processing co-products CO2 neutral fuels CO2Removal Certificates (CORCs) coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Coast Guard coastal habitat conservation coastal hay cobalt cock's foot coco coco methyl ester (CME) cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold flow cold-tolerance college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning commo Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement/engagement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression ratios compression-ignition engine computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology Cook Islands cook stoves cooking fuel cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 COP28 COP30 copper coppice cordgrass corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup corn-based products corn/maize Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality county cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D20 (20%DME) D5 (5%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Dehydration Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency egg shell Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrofuels (e-fuels) prices electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts Formate fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect Global South global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ HDO-SAK (hydro deoxygenated synthetic aromatic kerosene) health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 HVO30 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrid ships hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps/fueling stations hydrogen tax credit hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning machinery macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol benefits methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science 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weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm trunk sap palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peach shell 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refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propane/renewable propane pumps propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis pyrolytic liquefaction Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R Factor R100/RD100 R33 R5 R95B5/RD95B5 R99/RD99 rabbits race radiata pine radish leaves Rahal Letterman Lanigan 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