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Select Committee Democrats Releases ‘Solving The Climate Crisis’, A Congressional Roadmap For Ambitious Climate Action

Aviation Fuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)), Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Federal Legislation, Federal Regulation, Funding/Financing/Investing, Green Jobs, Marine/Boat Bio and Renewable Fuel/MGO/MDO/SMF, Opinions, Policy, Sustainability
June 30, 2020

(House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis)  Plan Would Put Americans Back To Work, Save Lives, And Help the United States Reach Net Zero By 2050  —  On Tuesday, led by Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Chair Kathy Castor (D-FL), members of the House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis unveiled a comprehensive plan titled “Solving the Climate Crisis: The Congressional Action Plan for a Clean Energy Economy and a Healthy, Resilient, and Just America.” The report lays out the Climate Crisis Action Plan, full of detailed, ambitious and actionable climate solutions that Congress should enact to benefit American families in communities across the nation.

The Climate Crisis Action Plan calls on Congress to:

  • Grow Our Economy and Put Americans Back to Work in Clean Energy Jobs
  • Protect the Health of All Families
  • Make Sure Our Communities and Farmers Can Withstand the Impacts of Climate Change
  • Protect America’s Land and Waters for the Next Generation

The full report is available HERE.

According to an independent analysis, the Climate Crisis Action Plan would save more than 60,000 American lives every year by 2050 thanks to reduced air pollution, as well as nearly $8 trillion saved through 2050 thanks to health and climate benefits.

The Climate Crisis Action Plan, released as a majority staff report, has received the early support of more than 90 outside organizations, including leaders in environmental justice, agriculture, buildings, electricity, public health, resilience, and transportation. Their support statements are available HERE.
 

“We have a plan – and it comes at a critical time,” said Chair Castor. “Our plan will put people back to work and rebuild in a way that benefits all of us. That means environmental justice and our vulnerable communities are at the center of the solutions we propose. The health of our families and the air we breathe are at the heart of our plan. We chart the course to good-paying jobs in solar and wind energy, in manufacturing American-made electric vehicles, and in strengthening communities, so they are more resilient to flooding, extreme heat, intense hurricanes and wildfires.”

The Climate Crisis Action Plan would put the country on a path to net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, if not earlier. It would power economic recovery through clean energy investment and family-sustaining jobs, and address the legacy of environmental injustice harming America’s low-income communities and communities of color.    READ MORE

Solving the Climate Crisis: The Congressional Action Plan for a Clean Energy Economy and a Healthy, Resilient, and Just America  (House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis) 

Dems’ ‘Action Plan’: Carbon prices, net-zero emissions (E&E News)

Congressional Climate Crisis Action Plan Would Decarbonize U.S., Add $8 Trillion In Benefits By 2050 (Forbes)

SfL Applauds House Select Committee Report Authors For Recognizing Valuable Role of Agriculture In Addressing Climate Challenges (Solutions from the Land)

New Poll: Voters Support Stimulus for Clean Energy, Not Fossil Fuels (Yale Program on Climate Change Communication)

RFA Welcomes Inclusion of Low Carbon Fuel Standard in Select Committee Recommendations (Renewable Fuels Association)

Climate panel urges sweeping change, deep carbon cuts: Report endorses a carbon tax, but offers no estimate of the cost to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 (Roll Call)

Climate Justice Coalition’s National Network Supports House Dems’ Climate Crisis Action Plan (Our Daily Planet)

As Democrats Unveil Ambitious Climate Goals, House Lawmakers Press For Green Stimulus: At least 59 congressional Democrats are calling on party leaders to add green provisions to a $1.5 trillion infrastructure bill. (Huffington Post)

“We are at a crossroads”: House Democrats release plan to address climate crisis (CBS News)

EESI recommendations to the House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis. (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)

“EESI Submits Recommendations to House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis,” November 22 press release. (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)

Pro DataPoint’s Patterson Clark shows in a new graphic how House Democrats’ plan would target fossil fuels. (Politico’s Morning Energy)

House Select Committee releases climate report with energy, ag provisions (Fence Post)

Report: Ethanol, LCFS can help US meet net-zero goal (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

House GOP under pressure from allies to support planks of Democratic climate plan (Washington Examiner)

 

Excerpt from Solving the Climate Crisis: The Congressional Action Plan for a Clean Energy Economy and a Healthy, Resilient, and Just America  (House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis):

PRODUCE LOWER-CARBON FUELS FOR VEHICLES
The transition to a zero-emission vehicle fleet will not happen overnight. Even after every car sold is zero-emission, it would still take 10 years for the fleet to reach 70% ZEV and 15 years for the fleet to reach 90% ZEV.263 Some parts of the transportation sector may rely on alternative fuels for the long term. Congress should consider opportunities to use low-carbon fuels, with appropriate guardrails to prevent conversion of non-agricultural lands into cropland, to shrink the carbon footprint of internal combustion engine vehicles.

Building Block: Build on the Renewable Fuel Standard with a Transition to a Low Carbon Fuel Standard
Congress established the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in 2005 and amended it in 2007 to reduce the country’s oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector. The program requires U.S. transportation fuels to contain minimum volumes of conventional biofuels, such as corn ethanol, and advanced biofuels. Federal statute outlines specific volumetric requirements through the year 2022 for total renewable fuels, advanced biofuels, cellulosic biofuels, and biomass-based diesel. After that date, the EPA must determine the required volumes.264

The 2022 date offers an opportunity to build on the RFS and transition to a program that encourages the development and production of liquid fuels that meet certain carbon emissions standards. The California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), for example, assesses fuels based on a lifecycle carbon intensity benchmark—the amount of emissions per unit of energy output—that declines over time. The lifecycle assessment considers the direct greenhouse gas emissions associated with producing, transporting, and using the fuel and indirect emissions associated with changes in land use for some biofuels. Fuels with a carbon intensity below the benchmark generate credits, while fuels with a carbon intensity above the benchmark generate deficits.265

To comply with the California LCFS, transportation fuel suppliers, such as refiners, must demonstrate that the mix of fuels they supply for use in California meets the carbon intensity benchmarks. They can blend low-carbon fuels into the petroleum-based fuels they sell, buy credits generated by producers and users of low-carbon fuels, or both.266 In both 2018 and 2019, biodiesel, renewable diesel, and ethanol generated about 75% of the state’s LCFS credits.267

California’s LCFS policy has supported the growth of electricity as a transportation fuel and reinforced the states ZEV sales mandate. Electric utilities, for example, can generate credits for residential electric vehicle charging based on the difference between California’s average grid carbon intensity and average gasoline carbon intensity. California requires utilities to use revenue from selling these credits to provide rebates to residential customers who own or lease EVs. Owners of fueling supply equipment for non-residential EV charging, including public, workplace, and fleet charging, also can generate LCFS credits. For off-road transportation modes, electric forklifts, electric cargo handling equipment, electric transportation refrigeration units, and shore power at-berth oceangoing vessels can generate credits for equipment owners.268

In addition to California, a broad coalition of agriculture, environmental, renewable liquid fuel, and electricity stakeholders have developed a framework for a Midwest Clean Fuel Standard to significantly reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions and generate economic benefits for the region.269

As the U.S. economy moves toward a net-zero by 2050 goal, low-carbon liquid fuels will have an important role to play in reducing oil consumption in the transportation sector and averting greenhouse gas emissions. The conversion to electric or other zero-emission vehicles will not happen overnight. Harder-to-decarbonize sectors where electrification may not be cost-effective, such as shipping, aviation, and long-haul trucking, could look to low-carbon liquid fuels as a potential solution. Highly efficient engines also could drive new demand for high-octane, low-carbon fuels.

Recommendation: Congress should develop a Low Carbon Fuel Standard to build on the Renewable Fuel Standard. The standard should set a technology- and feedstock-neutral benchmark for liquid and non-liquid fuels tied to a lifecycle assessment of the carbon intensity of the fuels. The carbon intensity standard should become more stringent (lower) over time. The lifecycle assessment should reflect the best-available science about the carbon intensity of fuel production, farming practices, land use changes, and crop productivity. The standard should include guardrails to prevent conversion of any non-agricultural lands into cropland, particularly sensitive lands with high carbon sequestration and biodiversity value. For renewable liquid fuels, the LCFS should reward entities in the value chain, including farmers and producers, that use climate-smart practices that reduce carbon emissions, store soil carbon, and reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

As described in more detail later in this section, an LCFS should allow low-carbon shipping and aviation fuels that meet the carbon intensity standards to qualify for credits. These sectors could become potential growth areas for low-carbon fuel demand.

Congress should ensure the LCFS complements the national ZEV program and greenhouse gas emissions standards for on-road vehicles, as they do in California.

Committee of Jurisdiction: Energy and Commerce

Building Block: Direct EPA to Credit Electricity Generated From Renewable Biogas and Used to Power Electric Vehicles
The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) expanded the RFS to include any form of renewable fuel “produced from renewable biomass.”270 The EISA also directed EPA to study the feasibility of issuing credits, called Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs), under the RFS to electric vehicles powered by electricity produced from renewable energy sources.271

Ultimately, EPA did not complete a study but instead established a process for credit generation as part of the 2010 RFS rule. In that rule, EPA decided to allow “fuel producers, importers and end users to include electricity, natural gas, and propane made from renewable biomass as a RIN-generating renewable fuel in RFS.”272 In 2014, EPA finalized pathways for compressed gas, liquefied gas, and renewable electricity derived from biogas and used as a transportation fuel to qualify under the RFS.273 Despite this history, EPA has yet to approve any applications from biogas-to-electricity producers to generate credits under the RFS, also known as eRINs.

Recommendation: Unless and until Congress creates an LCFS, Congress should direct EPA to complete any necessary rulemakings or other administrative steps necessary to allow the generation of eRINs for biogas-derived electricity used as a transportation fuel.

Committee of Jurisdiction: Energy and Commerce

Building Block: Increasing Funding for DOE RD&D in Next-Generation Biofuels and Other Alternative Fuels
Several factors—particularly the slow turnover of existing internal combustion engine vehicles and challenges posed by electrification of aviation and long-haul trucking—demonstrate the need for continued scientific exploration of biofuels and other petroleum substitutes to reduce the carbon intensity of liquid fuels burned in the United States.

Recommendation: Congress should increase funding for DOE research, development, demonstration, and commercialization of biofuels—particularly next-generation biofuels made from non-food (cellulosic and algae-based) resources—and other petroleum substitutes. In the section below titled “Build a Cleaner and More Resilient Aviation Sector,” this report outlines a companion recommendation to increase RD&D for sustainable aviation fuels, a central component of decarbonizing airline travel.

Committee of Jurisdiction: Science, Space, and Technology

Building Block: Provide Tax Incentives and Grant Support for Low-Emission Aviation Technology and Sustainable Aviation Fuels That Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
The aviation industry has told ICAO that sustainable aviation fuel production “at a level and price to allow widespread adoption by airlines can be a game-changer in terms of aviation’s [carbon dioxide] emissions and will be a major factor in the industry meeting its 2050 goal.”345

To serve as a true alternative to jet fuel, sustainable aviation fuel needs to meet strict aviation safety standards, emit significantly less carbon dioxide when burned as measured on a lifecycle basis, including both potential direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions (including resulting in changes from land use), and be produced cost-effectively in large volumes. Commercial airlines are starting to use small amounts of sustainable aviation fuel as drop-in fuels. In 2019, for example, United Airlines agreed to purchase up to 10 million gallons of sustainable aviation biofuel over two years from Boston-based World Energy.346

Sustainable aviation fuel developers will need support to scale up the production of these alternative fuels. Sustainable aviation fuels are eligible for the biodiesel and renewable diesel tax credit in Section 40A of the tax code.347 On December 20, 2019, President Trump signed the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020, into law. This bill retroactively extended the tax credit, which had expired, through 2022.348

The House Ways and Means Democrats GREEN Act of 2020 (H.R. 7330) extends the 40A tax credit through the end of 2025 (Section 201). In addition, the House Democrats introduced a comprehensive infrastructure bill, the Moving Forward Act (H.R. 2). Section 10201 of this bill authorizes $200 million in funding for fiscal years 2021 through 2025 for DOT to award grants or enter into cost-sharing arrangements with state and local governments, airports, air carriers, and other entities for projects to develop, demonstrate, or apply low-emission aviation technologies or produce, transport, blend, or store sustainable aviation fuels to reduce aircraft greenhouse gas emissions.

Recommendation: Before the tax credit expires in 2022, Congress should strengthen the sustainable aviation fuels tax credit to include a life-cycle carbon intensity requirement and extend it for at least five years to provide market certainty. Congress should consider the potential benefits of separating the sustainable aviation fuel tax credit from the broader biodiesel tax credit.

Recommendation: Congress should create a new competitive grant program and/or cost-sharing program at DOT and/or DOE to support projects to develop, transport, or store sustainable aviation fuels that are less carbon-intensive than jet fuel. DOT and DOE should coordinate with USDA and EPA in designing and implementing any grant program.

Committees of Jurisdiction: Ways and Means; Transportation and Infrastructure; Energy and Commerce

Building Block: Provide Additional Credit for Sustainable Aviation Fuels Under the Renewable Fuel Standard or a Future Federal Low Carbon Fuel Standard
Under the existing RFS, sustainable aviation fuel generates fewer credits per gallon than biodiesel. Similarly, the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard does not cover aviation, but users of sustainable aviation fuel can opt in and obtain credits. Neither program currently mandates the production or consumption of certain volumes of sustainable aviation fuel.

Recommendation: Congress should amend the Renewable Fuel Standard or craft a future federal Low Carbon Fuel Standard to provide a credit multiplier for sustainable aviation fuels that meet an ambitious emissions reduction threshold. This will provide fuel manufacturers additional market certainty and financial incentive to scale up production of sustainable aviation fuels.

Committee of Jurisdiction: Energy and Commerce

Building Block: Significantly Increase Federally Supported Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment to Reduce Emissions in the Shipping Sector
Some maritime vessels, such as passenger ferries, can use battery-electric technology instead of fossil fuels because they are relatively light and travel short, fixed routes. Other vessels, such as cargo ships, are too heavy and travel great distances across the ocean, making electrification impossible within the constraints of today’s technologies. The industry needs additional research and development to identify zero-emission solutions for all vessel types.

The DOT’s Maritime Environmental and Technical Assistance (META) Program, administered by the Maritime Administration (MARAD), “promotes the research, demonstration, and development of emerging technologies, practices, and processes that improve maritime industrial environmental sustainability.”372 It largely has focused its RDD&D on preventing the transport of aquatic invasive species and reducing vessel and port air emissions, but it also has investigated biofuels and fuel cells as alternative power sources for vessels.

In June 2020, Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA) introduced the Expanding Maritime Environmental and Technical Assistance Program Act (S. 4025), which authorizes an additional $3 million for the META Program to research on zero-emission port and vessel technologies.

Recommendation: Congress should increase funding for META to make decarbonization of the U.S. shipping sector and seaports a top priority. MARAD could use META to research innovative hull designs, advanced propulsion systems and materials, alternative liquid fuels, and other zero-emission vessel technologies.

Committees of Jurisdiction: Transportation and Infrastructure; Science, Space, and Technology

Building Block: Ensure Low-Carbon Shipping Fuels Are Eligible for Credits Under the Renewable Fuel Standard or a Future Low Carbon Fuel Standard
Electrification of large vessels traveling across the ocean may prove technologically impossible or cost prohibitive. As a result, low-carbon liquid fuels, in combination with other technological advancements, may play an important role in decarbonizing the maritime sector. Currently, renewable fuels used in oceangoing vessels are ineligible for credits under the RFS.

Recommendation: Congress should ensure that qualifying shipping fuels are eligible for credits under the RFS or a future Low Carbon Fuel Standard, assuming the fuels meet all applicable standards.

Committee of Jurisdiction: Energy and Commerce

263 Center for American Progress analysis of Trieu Mai et al, Electrification Futures Study: Scenarios of Electric Technology Adoption and Power Consumption for the United States (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2018) available at https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy18osti/71500.pdf. (Specifically, Maximum Technical Potential scenario). As cited in John Podesta, Christy Goldfuss, et al, A 100 Percent Clean Future (Center for American Progress, 2019) at 31.
264 42 U.S. Code § 7545.
265 California Air Resources Board, “Low Carbon Fuel Standard,” available at https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/our-work/programs/low-carbon-fuel-standard/about. Accessed June 2020.
266 Ibid.
267 Analysis of data from California Air Resources Board, “Low Carbon Fuel Standard,” Data Dashboard, available at https://ww3.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/dashboard/dashboard.htm. Accessed June 2020.
268 California Code of Regulations, 17 CA ADC § 95483.
269 Midwestern Clean Fuels Policy Initiative, A Clean Fuels Policy for the Midwest (January 2020), https://www.betterenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Clean-Fuels-Policy-for-the-Midwest.pdf.
270 Energy Independence and Security Act § 201, Pub. L. 110-140 (Dec. 19, 2007).
271 Energy Independence and Security Act § 206, Pub. L. 110-140 (Dec. 19, 2007).
272 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program; Final Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 14669-14904 (March 26, 2010).
273 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: RFS Pathways II, and Technical Amendments to the RFS Standards and E15 Misfueling Mitigation Requirements; Final Rule, 79 Fed. Reg. 42127-42167 (July 18, 2014)

342 ASCENT – the Aviation Sustainability Center, https://ascent.aero/. Accessed June 2020.
343 NASA, “Aeronautics Research: ARMD Programs,” available at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs. Accessed June 2020.
344 U.S. Department of Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office, “Aviation Fuels,” https://www.energy.gov/eere/bioenergy/aviation-fuels. Accessed June 2020.
345 ICAO, Industry Views on the Basket of Measures and a Long-Term Goal. 40th Assembly (September 2019), https://www.icao.int/Meetings/a40/Documents/WP/wp_194_en.pdf.

346 United Airlines, “United Airlines Expands Industry-Leading Commitment to Biofuel, Powering More Flights With More Biofuel Than Any Other U.S. Carrier,” May 22, 2019, https://hub.united.com/united-expands-commitment-biofuel-powering-flights-2637791857.html.
347 26 U.S.C. § 40A.
348 Division Q, Section 121 of H.R. 1865, “Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020,” 116th Congress.

349 8 Pub. L. No. 108-176.

372 Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, “Maritime Environmental and Technical Assistance (META) Program,” https://www.maritime.dot.gov/innovation/meta/maritime-environmental-and-technical-assistance-meta-program. Accessed June 2020.       READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy:  Pro DataPoint’s Patterson Clark shows in a new graphic how House Democrats’ plan would target fossil fuels.

How the House plan to combat climate change would target fossil fuels.

READ MORE

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E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E40 pumps E50 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electroly electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 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Water Invested) esg ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylbenzene ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service forklifts fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium games gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasificatio gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Gerrmany Ghana ghg GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo gliricidia sepium global warming glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grease Great Green Fleet Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy Green Jobs Greenland Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana gypsum Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras Honge tree nuts Hong Kong horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO20 HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogen aircraft hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export India Indiana Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesi Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA Jamaica Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education kalanchoe Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logist logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg M3 M15 M100 macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona mandate mandates manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/ methane/biomethane methane leaks methani methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microo microorganisms/microbes Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural g natural gas natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherland Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakora North Dakota Northeast Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Noth Dakota Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil ref oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid 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pipelines PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poand podcasts Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polysaccharides pomace pome pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propane/renewable propane pumps propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump 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sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver simarouba Singapore Singpore SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solaris solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands 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