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Plug-in Cars Are the Future. The Grid Isn’t Ready.

Business News/Analysis, California, Colorado, Energy, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Federal Legislation, Federal Litigation, Funding/Financing/Investing, Louisiana, New York, Opinions, Policy, Sustainability, Texas, White House
October 13, 2021

by Will Englund (Washington Post) … Seventy-four times last year, the wind across Upstate New York dropped so low that for stretches of eight hours or more barely any electricity was produced. Nearly half the year, the main transmission line feeding the metropolitan area was at full capacity, so that no more power could be fed into it. Congestion struck other, smaller lines, too, and when that happened some of the wind turbine blades upstate fell still.

And in New York City this summer, the utility Con Edison appealed to customers to cut back on their electricity usage during the strain of five separate heat waves, while Tropical Storms Elsa, Henri and Ida cut power to thousands.

Converting the nation’s fleet of automobiles and trucks to electric power is a critical piece of the battle against climate change. The Biden administration wants to see them account for half of all sales by 2030, and New York state has enacted a ban on the sale of internal combustion cars and trucks starting in 2035.

But making America’s cars go electric is no longer primarily a story about building the cars. Against this ambitious backdrop, America’s electric grid will be sorely challenged by the need to deliver clean power to those cars. Today, though, it barely functions in times of ordinary stress, and fails altogether too often for comfort, as widespread blackouts in California, Texas, Louisiana and elsewhere have shown.

By 2030, according to one study, the nation will need to invest as much as $125 billion in the grid to allow it to handle electric vehicles. The current infrastructure bill before Congress puts about $5 billion toward transmission line construction and upgrades.

By 2050, the state (New York) projects, electric cars, trucks and buses will use 14 percent of New York’s total output. That’s equivalent to half of all the electricity used in New York City in 2019 — so it’s like powering a new city of four million people. Overall demand could grow by as much as 50 percent.

(Vaughn) Moser points out that he can plant his crops right up to the bases of the wind turbines standing in his fields. “To see good farmland covered with solar, it’s disappointing,” he said.

But wind farms aren’t welcome everywhere. Wind has meant money for Lewis County, though it still has the second-lowest median household income of New York’s 62 counties after the Bronx. Elsewhere — up near the Thousand Islands along the St. Lawrence River, for instance — wealthy part-time residents have had the means to fight off proposed wind farms.

And even in Lewis County, Roaring Brook met opposition. The Tug Hill Land Trust, a private nonprofit, objected to its placement on forest land, instead of farmers’ fields, said Linda Garrett, the executive director of the group. She cited concerns about water pollution and the loss of a wilderness feeling in the state’s third-largest forest. Avangrid has cut more than 10 miles of roads through the tract to connect the turbines. 

Nationally, wind accounts for about 8.4 percent of power production, and the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects some growth of onshore wind in the years ahead, especially in the Midwest.

Additional growth will occur offshore, at least for the East Coast.

But generating all that power will be one thing. Even assuming the goal can be met, that clean power still has to make its way to where the electric cars will be.

One main transmission line connects the two grids, carrying power from the north and west to where it’s needed downstate,which uses about two-thirds of the state’s overall energy. Running roughly between Utica and Albany, that line is called the Central East Constraint, and it is congested about half the year, meaning no more power can flow along it.

And at least 11 pockets within the two regions have their own local constraints: high-tension lines that don’t have enough capacity even today.

It is not a problem specific to New York state. Similar constraints exist in Texas, California, Maryland, Illinois and elsewhere. 

A different workaround to the transmission problem involves numerous new small but local power generators. Hochul (Gov. Kathy Hochul (D)) announced a plan in September to build vast numbers of rooftop installations.

If you plugged in 50 cars at once to 50 chargers, it would draw as much electricity as a high-rise office building for as long as the cars were being refueled.

Rooftop solar panels will need to be sprouting everywhere. Enthusiasts believe that microgrids could one day be powered by long-elusive hydrogen fuel, or small, next-generation nuclear reactors. All these sources would be local but deeply interconnected, supporting each other.    READ MORE

Will electric vehicles short-circuit California’s clean-power future? (North Bay Business Journal)

Why Small Towns Are Fighting Renewable Energy Development (Wall Street Journal; includes VIDEO)

Clean Energy Means More Electricity, Can US Cities Meet the Demand? (Our Daily Planet)

Fact check: Biden says electric cars are the future. But when?  (Houston Chronicle)

THE MAINE LINE: Maine voters go to the polls today to vote on a new transmission project (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Nothing To Fear for High-Renewable Systems: NREL Shows Scalable, Resilient, and Secure Systems With Communication-Less Controls (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

One of the biggest obstacles to America’s energy transition is its woeful power grid, says Iberdrola CEO (Fortune/Yahoo!)

Federal Judge Issues Preliminary Injunction Against Cardinal-Hickory Creek Transmission Line (Environmental Law and Policy Center)

REWIRING THE COUNTRY:  (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Secretary of Commerce: chip shortage threatens Biden EV plans (ExBulletin)

U.S. will miss electric-vehicle targets without big investments in semiconductor manufacturing, commerce secretary warns — Electric cars require 2,000 chips each, but chips are already in short supply globally, adding urgency for Congress to endorse subsidies for semiconductor production, Gina Raimondo says  (Washington Post)

GIRDING FOR GRID COMMENTS: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

 BIP PRODS THE GRID: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

NEW ENGLAND’S PRECARIOUS POWER POSITION: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Shining a Light on Reliability: WHAT’S AT STAKE FOR THE GRID (Politico’s Morning Energy)

TRANSMISSION GROUP TOUTS LOCAL PLANNING: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Here’s Why EV Charging Stations Might Not Be as Convenient as Gas Stations Anytime Soon (Green Car Reports)

Can EV chargers act like gas stations? That won’t be easy(E&E News)

Value of Local Transmission Planning (Charles River Associates/WIRES Group)

An Energy Transition Needs Lots of Power Lines. This 1970s Minnesota Farmers’ Uprising Tried to Block One. What Can it Teach Us? As the country moves toward a massive build-out of transmission lines, a decades-old rebellion offers a way through potential opposition.  (Inside Climate News)

Biden’s push for American-made EV ports hits supply snag (E&E News)

Overwhelmed by Solar Projects, the Nation’s Largest Grid Operator Seeks a Two-Year Pause on Approvals — “It’s a kink in the system,” says one developer trying to bring solar jobs to coal country. “The planet does not have time for a delay.” (Inside Climate News)

The long road to electric cars (Reuters Graphics)

California’s electrical grid has an EV problem (Yahoo! Finance)

Scalable probabilistic estimates of electric vehicle charging given observed driver behavior (Applied Energy/Science Direct)

 

Excerpt from North Bay Business Journal:  Planning to meet the lofty goals, in June, the California Public Utilities Commission called on suppliers to the California Integrated System Operator-managed grid to bring on line at least 11,500 megawatts (11.5 gigawatts) of additional net qualifying capacity from zero-emissions sources paired and the battery capacity to store it over the next five years: 2,000 megawatts in 2023, 6,000 in 2024, 1,500 in 2025 and 2,000 in 2026. That’s on top of 1,070 and 1,505 megawatts called for in a 2019 commission decision. Overall, the state hopes to increase generating capacity by just over 13,000 additional megawatts by 2026.

Net qualifying capacity is a metric that energy planners can use to compare how various sources will contribute to meeting demand over the day. A California Energy Commission mid-term reliability analysis released in September on the CPUC decisions found that 43 megawatts of nameplate solar capacity — the stated size of the system at installation — would be required to equal 1 megawatt of net qualifying capacity in 2022 and 53 megawatts would be necessary by 2026. Wind power would require 3.5 megawatts of rated capacity per 1 megawatt that could be used in planning.

The energy commission report found that about 10,000 nameplate megawatts of battery storage would be needed by 2026, allowing energy produced during peak solar and wind hours to be stored and discharged during peak demand times. Battery energy storage systems, or BESS, plugged into the Cal ISO grid grew from 550 megawatts at the end of last year to 1,500 megawatts last month and an estimated 3,000 megawatts by the end of this year, according to the energy agency.

“Reliability in the mid-term and beyond will be highly dependent on BESS deployment at a sustained rate and BESS operational performance,” the report said.

The report noted that 20% of the planned battery installations statewide could be delayed by as much as a year because of supply-chain issues. And ongoing testing of battery systems continues to ensure safety and reliability.

But there commonly is a one- to two-week period in the winter when daylight is its least, and wind blowing by on-shore turbines typically is not as strong.

One of the Golden State’s key replacements for baseline (always producing) power generation from decommissioned nuclear and natural-gas power plants may be in the North Bay’s back yard.

As part of the plan to make up for the 2.5 gigawatts of potentially always running production from Diablo Canyon, the CPUC called for about 1.2 gigawatt additional geothermal power by 2030 — including 1 gigawatt by 2026 — and 2.3 gigawatts by 2045.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Fortune/Yahoo!:Galán (Ignacio Galán, the CEO of Iberdrola) pointed to the collapse of the Texas power system in February, when freakishly cold weather crippled the state’s energy infrastructure, as a good example of the disconnection. The resulting shortages of gas in particular in the state were exacerbated by a lack of interconnection with neighboring states that could have supplied additional energy—a disconnect almost unthinkable in Europe, where the grid is already highly connected between countries and increasingly digitized.

A highly interconnected grid is crucial for the electrification required to decarbonize the economy: not just building renewable energy sources, but building out charging stations for electric cars, for example, and heat pumps to manage energy use in individual homes. That interconnection, experts say, also makes renewable-heavy grids more stable.

While all grids must currently grapple with the issue of intermittency—when the wind doesn’t blow, and the sun doesn’t shine—and the use of stable power sources to underpin those fluctuation, an interconnected grid helps balance the shifting supply and demand of a renewable-heavy grid.

That doesn’t mean there is enough infrastructure in Europe, either, he said, pointing out that without distribution to stitch the continent’s energy together, it risked creating a bottleneck. READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Environmental Law and Policy Center:  The Court finds that Conservation Groups are likely to prevail on the merits, and that federal statutes prevent this huge high-voltage transmission line with 20-story high towers from running through the protected Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge.

Statement by Howard Learner

Attorney on behalf of Plaintiffs Driftless Area Land Conservancy, Wisconsin Wildlife Federation, National Wildlife Refuge Association and Defenders of Wildlife

“The U.S. District Court’s Opinion and Order grants a focused preliminary injunction stopping ATC and the other developers from damaging 114 wetlands on the proposed transmission line path, and the Court finds that Conservation Groups are likely to prevail on the merits.  In particular, the Court finds that Conservation Groups have a strong argument on the merits that federal statutes prevent this huge high-voltage transmission line with 20-story high towers from running through the protected Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge.  

“That will require the Federal government agencies to robustly explore and objectively evaluate better, less expensive and less environmentally damaging alternatives. That should have been done before, and, if the District Court’s final decision is aligned with the preliminary injunction Opinion, then it will be required soon. 

“The Court’s preliminary injunction decision is well-grounded in both law and common sense. It is in the public interest and can better protect both the environment and ratepayers. 

“ATC and ITC should hit the pause button and hold off from creating unnecessary costs and environmental damage while the Court decides the case on the merits over the next 30-60 days. The utilities should stop throwing good money after bad, and stop playing chicken with the people and vital natural resources in Dane, Iowa and Grant Counties in Wisconsin’s scenic Driftless Area landscape, family farms and rural small-town communities.”   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: REWIRING THE COUNTRY: The bipartisan infrastructure bill outlines new federal powers to build out transmission — powers that may become the bane of states’ existence.

Transmission expansion is necessary to allow renewable energy to be more easily connected to consumers in urban locations where demand is heaviest. But transmission is notoriously difficult to build with a tangled web of state and local authorizations as well as ever-present nimbyism in local communities.

The bill gives the Department of Energy authority to deem a power line in the public interest and lay out “National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors.” It also expands FERC authority to overrule states that might oppose a new line through a national interest corridor — opposition from states has stalled many long-distance transmission projects. It’s now up to DOE and FERC to decide how aggressively to implement their new powers, which could be politically tricky with state and local authorities feeling their feet are being trampled on.

“As written now, it’s kind of a ‘site it or else’ statute,” said Anthony Clark, a former FERC commissioner and chair of the North Dakota Public Service Commission, now senior adviser at law firm Wilkinson, Barker, Knauer LLP. Catherine Morehouse dives deep into the issue for Pros.   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: GIRDING FOR GRID COMMENTS: A second round of comments on Tuesday flooded the inboxes of everyone closely following FERC’s proceeding on transmission reform. Nearly 200 stakeholders weighed in with additional thoughts on how the commission should approach the issue, which is seen as critical for enabling the buildout of new renewable energy plants.

Rob Gramlich, president of Grid Strategies and executive director of Americans for a Clean Energy Grid, noted one early trend in an email to reporters: 174 commenters supported proactive transmission planning for the future, i.e. preparing the power grid and transmission system for a wave of new clean energy resources. Of those supporters, 59 were consumer organizations, an important signal as FERC weighs the potential ratepayer costs of ushering in the major expansion of high-voltage, interregional transmission lines experts say is needed to meet President Biden’s clean energy goals.

NYC TRANSMISSION COSTS HOW MUCH?Two new transmission lines for several renewable energy sources in New York are expected to cost utility customers between $6 billion and $11 billion, according to cost details filed by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The projects, which aim to slash electricity generated by New York City fossil fuel plants by 50 percent by 2030 through Canadian hydropower and upstate wind and solar, still need contract approvals from the state’s Public Service Commission.

A cost-benefit analysis in the filing finds that the 25-year contracts would lead to a net benefit of $3 billion to $7 billion, depending on future energy costs. Marie French has more for Pros from New York.     READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy:BIP PRODS THE GRID: Jigar Shah, head of the Energy Department’s loan office, is excited about the new siting authority the bipartisan infrastructure package granted the department, saying it could encourage the private sector to invest more in long-distance transmission. The law grants DOE authority to designate an area a national interest electric corridor, allowing FERC to bulldoze past state agencies to help build out long-distance transmission that could connect renewable generation to urban centers.

“I would say that all the new authorities that we have are enough to really allow the private sector to move with speed and scale” to invest in a new transmission system, said Shah during a Bipartisan Policy Center webinar on Tuesday.

But taking away transmission authority is unsurprisingly deeply unpopular among the states, and Shah acknowledged fear of souring relationships with state authorities could give the private sector pause before backing ambitious interstate projects. He urged the private sector to engage more with DOE to make sure its implementation of the infrastructure package is done effectively. “I’m not going to take responsibility if the private sector doesn’t show up,” he added. Pro’s Catherine Morehouse has moreREAD MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: NEW ENGLAND’S PRECARIOUS POWER POSITION: New England’s grid operator fears the region could be vulnerable to a power crisis akin to February’s blackouts in Texas, Pro’s Catherine Morehouse reports. The region is currently heavily reliant on natural gas, which grid operators warn could be in short supply this year due to global supply crunches and limited pipeline capacity.

Meanwhile, New England is going through a shake up of its energy mix, with state leaders pushing for more clean energy on the grid and a move away from fossil fuels. But numerous factors from cost to local community concerns are complicating plans to ensure reliability. A recent bid to build out transmission carrying Canadian hydropower was rejected by Maine voters last month, and replacing the carbon-free power of the region’s two remaining nuclear plants — which account for more than a quarter of New England’s total electricity supply — remains a challenge.

It’s left the region in a precarious spot for years, and Gordon van Welie, CEO of the New England Independent System Operator, fears an unexpected weather event could be the straw that breaks the camel’s back and cause rolling blackouts this winter. “We have managed to keep the lights on here through a combination of skill and luck,” he told Catherine.

Van Welie said the region shouldn’t wait for a natural disaster to bring attention to issues of fuel security and urged federal help, including potentially stronger regulations around natural gas and its use for electric reliability. “I also recognize there’s no way we can solve this problem on our own. We need help,” he told Catherine. Read more from Catherine here.   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Green Car Reports: The Alliance for Automotive Innovation (AAI) released a policy roadmap earlier this month, but the group’s suggestions don’t fully address current charging problems, as detailed in a recent E&E News blog post.

For starters, charging stations generally don’t display pricing clearly. You won’t find signs showing a specific price, like you get at gas-station pumps, at most charging stations. The AAI has proposed making federal funding for new charging stations contingent on per-kwh pricing, but most consumers aren’t familiar with that metric, E&E News pointed out.

Many charging stations also don’t accept credit cards, often requiring drivers to create an account with the station operator. In the past, this meant drivers had to keep a collection of cards and fobs on hand to use different charging stations. That’s been streamlined somewhat by apps, and the AAI supports universal acceptance of credit cards.

Charging sites will also soon need more space to accommodate vehicles with trailers. That’s been a problem since drivers began towing with the Tesla Model X, and it’s more relevant than ever as a gaggle of electric pickup trucks hits the market.

While the number of public charging stations has grown significantly, charging deserts still exist, particularly in urban areas. Much attention has been given to enabling EV road trips, but the lack of urban charging could hinder electric ride hailing, which has the potential to reduce emissions and improve air quality in populated areas. READ MORE

 

Excerpt from E&E News:  The forum for this debate is a rulemaking by the Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration, in consultation with the Department of Energy. These agencies are seeking comment on the rules that will govern what qualifies to receive the $7.5 billion. The timeline is, by the standards of government, lightning-fast: The first guidance will come in mid-February.

Unlike gas stations, which almost always have at least one working pump, charging stations have a reliability problem. Earlier this year, Plug In America did a survey of over 3,500 EV drivers and found that 54 percent said they had had problems with public chargers, most often finding them broken.

Groups like AAI are asking for the government to create an uptime requirement as a condition for funding. Another coalition of companies and governments earlier this year made a similar request, seeking a baseline for stations to be 99 percent operational.

According to a 2019 study by RMI, the hardware for a 350-kW charger costs up to $150,000, while that for a 150-kW charger topped out at $100,000. Building higher-powered chargers would mean that federal dollars would buy less of them.

That expense would be magnified in far-flung rural areas, where the chargers are needed most. Building the charger is one thing; upgrading the high-voltage distribution lines across miles of forest or farmland to get that power to the charging station would drive prices up still further, said Nicholas (Mike Nicholas, an EV researcher with the International Council on Clean Transportation). READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Yahoo! Finance: And since the state has committed to phase out all new gas-powered vehicles by 2035 — well ahead of federal targets — the additional load from electric vehicle (EV) charging could add more strain to the electric grid.

In Sacramento, officials said California’s grid could face a potential shortfall of roughly 1,700 megawatts, which would affect the power supply of between 1 million and 4 million people this summer. That number would likely be exacerbated by an additional shortfall of 5,000 megawatts in the case of extreme heat and further fire damage to existing power lines.

But as California creates a template for other states to follow, Rajagopal (Ram Rajagopal, an associate professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Stanford University, who authored a recent study looking at the strain electric vehicle adoption is expected to place on the power grid) says it is also exposing some critical gaps that are likely to strain the power grid in the race to net-zero, especially in the transportation sector, where the acceleration of electric vehicle adoption is already underway.

Rajagopal’s team of researchers at Stanford developed a model framework to help utility companies around the world calculate charging patterns to better manage electricity demand. In California, it found that peak charging demand would more than double by 2030 if EV owners opted to charge in the evening at home.

“The use of an electric vehicle is like adding one or two air conditioners to your residence in terms of its energy increase,” Mike Jacobs, Senior Energy Analyst at Union of Concerned Scientists, told Yahoo Finance. “So when the local utility engineer looks at this, he thinks of that air conditioning in the afternoon and the electric vehicle coming home at the same time.”

A study from Boston Consulting Group estimated utility companies with two to three million customers will need to invest between $1,700 and $5,800 in grid upgrades per EV through 2030 in order to reliably meet the surge in energy demand.

Jensen (Tom Jensen, CEO of Norway-based Freyr Battery) cautioned that meaningful decarbonization is unlikely until roughly 80% of the battery supply chain is developed using renewable energy — a goal Freyr plans to reach by 2025.  READ MORE

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cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel diesel with renewables diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylbenzene ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogen aircraft hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper 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Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD55 RD80 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/REDIII) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustain Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin women 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