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Biogas in Europe: Current Situation and Perspectives

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March 4, 2016

by Dan Quadros* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  This article is the result of a technical trip to Germany and the UK to participate in strategic meetings and visit labs; to attend seminars, an expo, a short course and a symposium.  Posted after the article are two interviews with important researchers in this area: Professor Hans Oechsner of the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy and Dr. Michael Köttner from IBBK – Internacionales Biogas & Bioenergy Kompetenzzentrum.

Danilo Gusmao at the AD adn BIOGAS expo

Danilo Gusmao at the AD and BIOGAS expo in the UK

To be more didactic, the article is in three parts:

  • Part I: An overview of biogas in Europe, using available literature and Internet sources to describe the importance and possibilities of biogas plants on the old continent;
  • Part II: Personal experiences, which describe the events in which I participated and my personal feelings about the theme; and
  • Part III: Final thoughts.

Part I: Biogas in Europe

Biogas is a renewable energy source that is technically fully established, producing heat, steam, electricity and vehicle fuel. It is produced during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates, such as manure, sewage sludge, the organic fractions of household and industry waste, as well as of energy crops.

It is produced in large scale digesters found primarily in industrial countries for sewage sludge treatment and stabilization purposes, as well as in small scale digesters on individual farms. Biogas is also produced during anaerobic degradation in landfills and it is then referred to as landfill gas.

The interest in biogas has increased due to global efforts to displace fossil fuels used for energy production and due to the necessity of finding environmentally sustainable solutions for the treatment and recycling of animal manure and organic wastes. The digestate, the product obtained after the treatment of organic matter, is a source of nutrients and its application in agriculture has improved soil properties and crop yields.

In line with other biofuels, biogas from AD is an important part of the European transport and energy policy. As an affordable and CO2-neutral source of renewable energy, it offers the possibility of treating and recycling a wide range of agricultural residues and by-products in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. At the same time, biogas brings along a number of socio-economic benefits for the economy, environment, society and security of energy supply.

Biogas is produced by bacteria through anaerobic digestion of organic substrates in the absence of oxygen. The chemical composition of raw biogas includes 50%-75% methane and 25%-50% carbon dioxide; with the rest composed of water vapour and traces of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide.

To allow injection of biogas into the natural gas grid or for use as a vehicle fuel, it must be upgraded. This means that carbon dioxide is removed so that the proportion of methane is increased to usually above 96% so that it meets the quality standards for natural gas.

Biogas is seen to be one of the key technologies both to reach EU member states’ targets for renewable energies in 2020 and to meet their requirements within the European organic waste management directive.

Regulatory restrictions on waste management and the introduction of dedicated support schemes for renewable energies made the biogas sector a booming market in many European countries. Governments have set up incentive systems for paying for electricity (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, tenders). In a number of countries, the biogas market is stimulated by additional payments for the use of energy crops. They aim to promote the increase in renewable energy production, while the policy also enables farm holdings to reduce their energy dependency and diversify their incomes in the event of falling cereal, milk or meat prices. Other countries question the environmental soundness of using energy crops such as maize for methanization, preferring to convert already existing waste feedstock (European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners, 2012).

According to the European Biogas Association, there are more than 14,500 biogas plants in Europe and the number is still growing (Figure 1). Probably today the total energy generated is more than 8,000 MWe.

Figure 1 – Number of biogas plants according to country.  Source: EBA, http://european-biogas.eu/2014/12/16/4331/

In recent years, central European countries like Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland increased by 18% the number of biogas plants in the region. Countries, such as the UK, France and Sweden, continue to develop on a steady rate. The Czech Republic and Cyprus already ceased support for biogas plants, while German and Austrian biogas plant operators are facing local caps.

Policy changes have been mainly responsible for stimulating or suppressing biogas initiatives. 

The main focus on biogas has been electricity (Figure 2) or electricity-heat conversion using big generators.

Gross Electricity Generation EU GWh

Figure 2. Energy generation from biogas by country; Source: Ramanauskaite (2011)

Biogas can provide both base load and peak load electricity, which makes it a valuable option to balance fluctuating renewable energy systems (RES) energies, like wind power and photovoltaic power.

Some countries are supporting the utilization of combined heat and power production (CHP) due the efficiency of conversion.

The possibilities include biomethane production. In this way, biomethane can be injected in the gas grid or be used as vehicular fuel. Biomethane industry followed the growing trend of biogas, reaching almost 300 plants with a total production over 1,3 billion m3 (Figure 3).  With the increase of biomethane production, the continuing challenges are more investment in infrastructure and flex-fuel fleet to distribute and use the biomethane in the transportation system. The number of biomethane filling stations doubled in 2013 increasing the share of biomethane used in transport to 10% of the total biomethane produced in Europe.

Figure 3. Number of biomethane plants according to the country.

Figure 3. Number of biomethane plants according to the country. Source: EBA, http://european-biogas.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Biomethane-graph-20131.png

Developing use of biomethane for transport is the focus of several projects such as BIOMASTER, MADEGASCAR, GasHighWay, BioGas Max, Urban Biogas, Green Gas Grids and Baltic Biogas Bus, which aim to increase its use in the market.

Biomethane for transport was also one of the options supported by the European Green Cars Initiative (a €5 billion PPP boost to the European car industry).

The most concrete reference for 2020 estimates are national renewable action plans which contain ambitions for the different renewable energy sources to meet the 20% RES in energy supply.

Biogas production is not separately reported, but is estimated in relation to the end use. Biogas-related electricity is estimated to be 64TWh (5.5 Milion tonne oil equivalent, Mtoe) in 2020. The gross production of heating and cooling from biogas is estimated at 5.1 Mtoe in 2020. The share of biogas in transport is approximately 6TWh (0.5 Mtoe). The total estimate for final energy consumption sourced from biogas in 2020 is more than 11 Mtoe. Adjusting for conversion efficiencies, this corresponds with approximately 28 Mtoe of primary biogas production (Foreest, 2012).

Calculations made recently by AEBIOM, the European Biomass Association, show a biogas potential of around 460 TWh (1,700 PJ) by 2020 in the EU-27. For this production, agricultural products (for instance energy crops and manure) and waste (biodegradable waste and sewage sludge) are to be used as substrates. Recovery of landfill gas is also included in this projection. The potential production would be equivalent to a third of the natural gas production in Europe and to 10% of the consumption.

The feedstock used for biogas production can impact not only the gas production, but also the perception of society regarding the technology. Germany relies on energy crops, mainly corn silage, to produce biogas. Other countries, with less arable land and/or concerns about food vs. fuel issues, have restricted feedstock to manure or other residues.

Different types of waste from society are of great importance when studying biogas systems. By utilizing organic waste for biogas production it could be regarded as a resource instead of as a problem, but this change in perception takes time, and large amounts of organic residues are still being disposed of in other ways, such as composting or landfilling.

In the EU regulation known as Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 or the ABP-regulation, the proper handling of animal by-products is described, and the residues are categorized. This, in order to prevent the spreading of animal diseases, such as BSE and foot and mouth disease. The regulation affects biogas production since residues such as slaughterhouse waste, which is an energy-rich substrate, in many cases needs pre-treatment according to the directives.

Biogas production per se is not mentioned in the reformed CAP (Common Agricultural Policy). However, a key element of the new CAP is a rural development strategy, in which renewable energy production from agricultural products is advocated. Included in the CAP is an obligation for the Member States to set up agri-environment schemes, and farmers are then granted support.

Biogas production at ecological farms is an interesting field which could have great potential as it may bring about positive synergy effects (Engdahl, 2010).


Part II: Personal experiences

Dr. Hans Oechsner of the University of H

Dr. Hans Oechsner in his lab at the University of Hohenheim


Everything started at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart, an agricultural-focused University founded around 200 years ago. There I met Professor Hans Oechsner in his advanced biogas research lab at the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy.

The Institute is responsible for new research, advising farmers and industry partners, and other outreach activities about biomass. In the past, it focused on oil crops for biodiesel and biomass for electricity generation, while currently the focus is on biogas.

Prof. Oechsner has many years of experience in biogas production from agricultural feedstocks. His research lines include growing and breeding energy crops to obtain better varieties, and studying harvest time and storage methods to maximize biogas production. Also, he has researched a way to run biogas plants without manure. Normally, manure provides bacteria, buffer capacity and trace elements. He identified which trace elements and how much of them are necessary for higher biogas production. You can listen to my interview with him at the end of this article.

Germany is the most advanced country in biogas. The German government aims to reach a share of renewable energy sources of around 20% in the final energy consumption, and of 35% in the electricity sector by 2020. In addition to the proposed targets and measures for biogas electricity, the German government also aims to feed 6 billion Nm3 biomethane into the natural gas grid in 2020 (European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners, 2012).

According to Prof. Oechsner, today around 12% of energy and 20% electricity is from renewable sources; thus in the next 5 years there is a need to increase these amounts to reach Germany’s goals. In the past 10 years there was a great desire, stimulated by special policy and regulations like Renewable Energy Law that permits farmers to produce electricity from biogas and obligates the owners of the energy grid to buy it for exclusive prices. This enables farmers to invest in this sector.

He explained that as Germany is a small country compared to America, they have to intensify production to get the most out of it. In this way, energy crops like corn have greater potential as a biogas feedstock than manure. Manure is used as single feedstock in small plants or mixed with wastes or energy crops in bigger plants. The average biogas plant in Germany has a size of 2,500 m3 and produces 450 KW. It can provide electricity for 500 to 700 houses.  Each hectare of corn in the form of silage, which is used to feed the digester day by day, produces biogas enough to be converted in 3 KW.  Today, around 10% of arable land is used to grow energy crops for biogas plants.

Germany is one of the strongest economies in Europe. In this context, buying electricity with more expensive fares, when compared with other sources, to reach the goals, has been seen as positive. With the feed-in law in Germany, the government introduced an excellent support scheme with fixed feed-in tariffs for different feedstocks and capacities, long-term payment periods and guaranteed grid access and regulated grid connection rules (European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners, 2012).

Prof. Oechsner highlighted the possibility of flexible production and storage of biogas.  Unlike other sources of energy, biogas can be stored for use when the demand for electricity is greatest; at peak demand or in certain times of the year when demand is greater. However, he mentioned that successful biogas systems are also possible due to the policy that guarantees high prices to the producers. Inevitably, this higher cost has been passed to the consumers. Thus, today the numbers of biogas plants stopped increasing and emphasis changed  to investment in efficiency. The solution, according to Prof. Oechsner, will be to unify all the renewable possibilities in an energetic mix. An example of this is the injection of hydrogen from photovoltaic into biogas systems, which is object of his research, along with injecting biomethane into the grid.


AD and BIOGAS Expo

AD and BIOGAS Expo

United Kingdom

UK AD & Biogas

From Germany, I went to Birmingham for UK AD & Biogas 2015, a two day event full of seminars and a big expo.

In this big expo, specific to biogas, there were new technologies for biogas production and conversion. Biogas industry and academia showed cutting-edge research applicable to commercial scale.

Among many systems for biogas production, automated all-controlled systems give the perfect conditions for bacterial fermentation to occur. Once biogas is made, it should be filtered to remove harmful substances that could damage engines.

After that, big engines convert methane into electricity.

AD and BIOGAS expo

AD and BIOGAS expo

Highlights of the expo were the many companies demonstrating different models of engines.

Once purified, biomethane can be used in fleets of cars and buses as were shown there.

As a researcher, I found interesting the lab digesters, which can simulate internal conditions of a commercial digester to test many substrates and treatments and the machines which process normal trash from supermarkets and separate the fermentable fraction from the recyclable part such as plastic and foil.

Using the organic fraction of urban wastes is a great approach for the biogas industry, solving two issues at the same time.

During the seminars, we were informed about the current situation of biogas production in the UK. New policies can stimulate this industry and regulation should be debated and modernized, mainly about digestate utilization. There are some concerns that because digestate comes from manure and urban waste its utilization on edible crops could cause health problems. More studies are necessary to modernize old thoughts.

One innovation was a space specific for personal consultation, putting together customers and consultants to discuss planning, technical points, and feasibility.


Biogas Operator and Planner course in Dundee

Biogas Operator and Planner course at Abertay University in Dundee, Scotland

Biogas Operator  & Planner Course and University of Dundee, plus Visiting Labs

After that, I participated in a Biogas Operator & Planner course at Abertay University, Dundee, Scotland. The successful course was organized by the Renewable Energy Association (REA) and the International Biogas and Bioenergy Center of Competence (IBBK Fachgruppe Biogas). The participants were not just from UK, but from many places, such as Austria, Africa, Italy and elsewhere.

Despite staying just one day, I could participate in deep discussions with specialists and  trainee professionals for biogas plants establishment and management.

While there, I visited the biogas lab of the university, where interestingly seaweed has been studied as a new substrate for biogas.


Danilo Gusmao presenting in Scotland

Danilo Gusmao presenting about small scale digesters in Aberdeen, Scotland

International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics

Finally, I went to Aberdeen, Scotland in order to participate in the 3rd International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics (ECM3) – towards a big picture. The symposium included the presence of delegates from 52 countries, mainly from UK, Germany, USA and Asia. It was not specificly about biogas as were the others, but biogas was included in some presentations.

My presentation was about small scale digesters for cooking and electricity generation in poor communities in developing countries.


Part III: Final considerations

Policies challenges

As is the case for most renewable energy sources, biogas production is still dependent on subsidies to attract investors and establish a substantial scale. On the EU level, there is no specific policy on biogas, but it is addressed in multiple policy documents and Directives that are related to renewable energies and bioenergy.

Biogas is included in three EU regulatory frameworks: the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC), the Directive on Waste Recycling and Recovery (2008/98/EC) and the Directive on Landfill (1999/31/EC).

The incentives schemes are subject to changes due to changing political climates or progressive modification by policy makers. Support programs have been closed or changed following, for example, a change of government or imposition of stricter application criteria. This creates a certain regulatory risk for investors and uncertainty with respect to the feasibility of renewable energy targets (Foreest, 2012).

The biogas industry is facing tremendous policy changes. The dramatic change which started with the German Renewable Energy Act EEG 2012 continues to hamper the industry. On the other hand, the biogas industry is increasing in the other parts of Europe – UK, Italy and Denmark, and we hope that the rest of Europe will follow these positive developments.

The  Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC   is a sustainability scheme for energy uses of biomass and biogas other than biofuels, and to provide analysis on biofuel sustainability with respect to indirect land use change (iLUC). The iLUC corresponds to the carbon stock release from the conversion of natural land such as rainforest or grassland into cropland that is alleged to result from an increased production of biofuels/bioenergy in Europe.

For the transport sector, the current sustainability criteria aim at ensuring minimum greenhouse gas (GHG) savings when compared to fossil fuels as well as defining land criteria, e.g. avoid high biodiversity areas for raw material production.

The Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC sets criteria under which certain specified waste shall cease to be waste. This mechanism was introduced to further encourage recycling in the EU by creating legal certainty and a level playing field as well as removing unnecessary administrative burdens. There are proposals for the end of waste criteria.

Digestate is an excellent organic fertilizer which contains nearly all the nutrients that were in the feedstock used in the process. The EU wants to become sustainable and independent from foreign raw materials. Today, in some countries, there are a lack of regulation and safety concerns as well as misunderstanding about digestate advantages for agriculture.

This subject is very interesting, isn’t it? Are you thirsty for more information about it? You can hear more details from the experts in the interviews below.

Also, for additional information here is a list of useful links available which I have  thanks to the  European Biogas Association (EBA) website (http://european-biogas.eu):







Maps of biogas plants

Map of biomethane plants




Engdahl, K. Biogas policies, incentives and barriers – a survey of the strategies of three European countries. Master thesis. Department of Technology and Society Environmental and Energy Systems Studies. Lund University , SWEDEN.  2010. 60p. http://www.miljo.lth.se/svenska/internt/publikationer_internt/pdf-filer/exjobb%20imes%20Kristina%20Engdahl.pdf

European Biogas Association website http://european-biogas.eu

European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners. EU Handbook – Biogas Markets. 2012. http://www.crossborderbioenergy.eu/fileadmin/crossborder/Biogas_MarketHandbook.pdf

European Biofuels Technology Platform http://www.biofuelstp.eu/biogas.html

Foreest, F. Perspectives for Biogas in Europe. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. 53p. 2012. http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/NG-70.pdf

Ramanauskaite, R. European Biogas Association. In: BiogasIN Project, High Level Conference Athens,Greece, 2011. http://www.biogasin.org/files/pdf/HLC_athens/03_R.Ramanauskaite_PresentationBiogasIN.pdf

Danilo G. de Quadros; André de P. M. Oliver; Ueliton Regis; Renata Valladares and Edivaldo de J. Ferreira; Technical and economic analysis of plug-flow anaerobic digester to take advantage of goat manure in smallholder farms  http://nscj.co.uk/ecm3/sessions/156_DaniloGdeQuadros.pdf


To learn much more about biogas, listen to this exclusive Dan Quadros’ interview with Dr. Hans Oechsner of Universität Hohenheim, discussing the history of anaerobic digestion in Germany and the future of biogas in the world.


1 – Could you summarize the main research lines of your lab?

2 – Could you tell us the history of anaerobic digestion in Germany?

3 – Why is Germany a leader on biogas production and utilization?

4 – What will be the future of biogas in the World?



Take the opportunity to understand the current situation of biogas in Europe with Dr. Michael Köttner, interviewed by Dan Quadros. Dr. Köttner is from IBBK – Internacionales Biogas & Bioenergy Kompetenzzentrum (http://ibbk.fachgruppe-biogas.de/index.php?id=1&L=1&id=151).


1 – What is the situation of biogas production in European countries nowadays?

2 – What is the importance of policies on biogas utilization?

3 – What is the potential of biomethane use in fleets?


*Former research scholar at University of Florida, Professor at Bahia State University, Brazil and Volunteer correspondent for Advanced Biofuels USA

 Photos by or courtesy of Dan Quadros


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Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel diesel with renewables digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E0 E0 price E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E40 pumps E50 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electroly electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) Environmentalists environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) esg ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylbenzene ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service forklifts fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium games gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasificatio gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Gerrmany Ghana ghg GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo gliricidia sepium global warming glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grease Great Green Fleet Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy Green Jobs Greenland Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana gypsum Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras Honge tree nuts Hong Kong horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO20 HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogen aircraft hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export India Indiana Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesi Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA Jamaica Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education kalanchoe Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logist logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg M3 M15 M100 macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mandate mandates manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/ methane/biomethane methane leaks methani methanization methanol-to-jetfuel Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microo microorganisms/microbes Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural g natural gas natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherland Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakora North Dakota Northeast Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Noth Dakota Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil ref oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree peaches peach shell peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests pet food petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine needles 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Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pipelines Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/RED III) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia rutabaga Rwanda rye Rye grass s saccharification SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower SAF pipeline sago pond weed SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush salt water Sanctions Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver simarouba Singapore Singpore SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solaris solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South K South Korea South Sudan SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka standards start-up State Department steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcan sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Surface Transportation Board Suriname sustain Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal 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