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Biogas in Europe: Current Situation and Perspectives

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March 4, 2016

by Dan Quadros* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  This article is the result of a technical trip to Germany and the UK to participate in strategic meetings and visit labs; to attend seminars, an expo, a short course and a symposium.  Posted after the article are two interviews with important researchers in this area: Professor Hans Oechsner of the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy and Dr. Michael Köttner from IBBK – Internacionales Biogas & Bioenergy Kompetenzzentrum.

Danilo Gusmao at the AD adn BIOGAS expo

Danilo Gusmao at the AD and BIOGAS expo in the UK

To be more didactic, the article is in three parts:

  • Part I: An overview of biogas in Europe, using available literature and Internet sources to describe the importance and possibilities of biogas plants on the old continent;
  • Part II: Personal experiences, which describe the events in which I participated and my personal feelings about the theme; and
  • Part III: Final thoughts.

Part I: Biogas in Europe

Biogas is a renewable energy source that is technically fully established, producing heat, steam, electricity and vehicle fuel. It is produced during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates, such as manure, sewage sludge, the organic fractions of household and industry waste, as well as of energy crops.

It is produced in large scale digesters found primarily in industrial countries for sewage sludge treatment and stabilization purposes, as well as in small scale digesters on individual farms. Biogas is also produced during anaerobic degradation in landfills and it is then referred to as landfill gas.

The interest in biogas has increased due to global efforts to displace fossil fuels used for energy production and due to the necessity of finding environmentally sustainable solutions for the treatment and recycling of animal manure and organic wastes. The digestate, the product obtained after the treatment of organic matter, is a source of nutrients and its application in agriculture has improved soil properties and crop yields.

In line with other biofuels, biogas from AD is an important part of the European transport and energy policy. As an affordable and CO2-neutral source of renewable energy, it offers the possibility of treating and recycling a wide range of agricultural residues and by-products in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. At the same time, biogas brings along a number of socio-economic benefits for the economy, environment, society and security of energy supply.

Biogas is produced by bacteria through anaerobic digestion of organic substrates in the absence of oxygen. The chemical composition of raw biogas includes 50%-75% methane and 25%-50% carbon dioxide; with the rest composed of water vapour and traces of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide.

To allow injection of biogas into the natural gas grid or for use as a vehicle fuel, it must be upgraded. This means that carbon dioxide is removed so that the proportion of methane is increased to usually above 96% so that it meets the quality standards for natural gas.

Biogas is seen to be one of the key technologies both to reach EU member states’ targets for renewable energies in 2020 and to meet their requirements within the European organic waste management directive.

Regulatory restrictions on waste management and the introduction of dedicated support schemes for renewable energies made the biogas sector a booming market in many European countries. Governments have set up incentive systems for paying for electricity (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, tenders). In a number of countries, the biogas market is stimulated by additional payments for the use of energy crops. They aim to promote the increase in renewable energy production, while the policy also enables farm holdings to reduce their energy dependency and diversify their incomes in the event of falling cereal, milk or meat prices. Other countries question the environmental soundness of using energy crops such as maize for methanization, preferring to convert already existing waste feedstock (European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners, 2012).

According to the European Biogas Association, there are more than 14,500 biogas plants in Europe and the number is still growing (Figure 1). Probably today the total energy generated is more than 8,000 MWe.

Figure 1 – Number of biogas plants according to country.  Source: EBA, http://european-biogas.eu/2014/12/16/4331/

In recent years, central European countries like Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland increased by 18% the number of biogas plants in the region. Countries, such as the UK, France and Sweden, continue to develop on a steady rate. The Czech Republic and Cyprus already ceased support for biogas plants, while German and Austrian biogas plant operators are facing local caps.

Policy changes have been mainly responsible for stimulating or suppressing biogas initiatives. 

The main focus on biogas has been electricity (Figure 2) or electricity-heat conversion using big generators.

Gross Electricity Generation EU GWh

Figure 2. Energy generation from biogas by country; Source: Ramanauskaite (2011)

Biogas can provide both base load and peak load electricity, which makes it a valuable option to balance fluctuating renewable energy systems (RES) energies, like wind power and photovoltaic power.

Some countries are supporting the utilization of combined heat and power production (CHP) due the efficiency of conversion.

The possibilities include biomethane production. In this way, biomethane can be injected in the gas grid or be used as vehicular fuel. Biomethane industry followed the growing trend of biogas, reaching almost 300 plants with a total production over 1,3 billion m3 (Figure 3).  With the increase of biomethane production, the continuing challenges are more investment in infrastructure and flex-fuel fleet to distribute and use the biomethane in the transportation system. The number of biomethane filling stations doubled in 2013 increasing the share of biomethane used in transport to 10% of the total biomethane produced in Europe.

Figure 3. Number of biomethane plants according to the country.

Figure 3. Number of biomethane plants according to the country. Source: EBA, http://european-biogas.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Biomethane-graph-20131.png

Developing use of biomethane for transport is the focus of several projects such as BIOMASTER, MADEGASCAR, GasHighWay, BioGas Max, Urban Biogas, Green Gas Grids and Baltic Biogas Bus, which aim to increase its use in the market.

Biomethane for transport was also one of the options supported by the European Green Cars Initiative (a €5 billion PPP boost to the European car industry).

The most concrete reference for 2020 estimates are national renewable action plans which contain ambitions for the different renewable energy sources to meet the 20% RES in energy supply.

Biogas production is not separately reported, but is estimated in relation to the end use. Biogas-related electricity is estimated to be 64TWh (5.5 Milion tonne oil equivalent, Mtoe) in 2020. The gross production of heating and cooling from biogas is estimated at 5.1 Mtoe in 2020. The share of biogas in transport is approximately 6TWh (0.5 Mtoe). The total estimate for final energy consumption sourced from biogas in 2020 is more than 11 Mtoe. Adjusting for conversion efficiencies, this corresponds with approximately 28 Mtoe of primary biogas production (Foreest, 2012).

Calculations made recently by AEBIOM, the European Biomass Association, show a biogas potential of around 460 TWh (1,700 PJ) by 2020 in the EU-27. For this production, agricultural products (for instance energy crops and manure) and waste (biodegradable waste and sewage sludge) are to be used as substrates. Recovery of landfill gas is also included in this projection. The potential production would be equivalent to a third of the natural gas production in Europe and to 10% of the consumption.

The feedstock used for biogas production can impact not only the gas production, but also the perception of society regarding the technology. Germany relies on energy crops, mainly corn silage, to produce biogas. Other countries, with less arable land and/or concerns about food vs. fuel issues, have restricted feedstock to manure or other residues.

Different types of waste from society are of great importance when studying biogas systems. By utilizing organic waste for biogas production it could be regarded as a resource instead of as a problem, but this change in perception takes time, and large amounts of organic residues are still being disposed of in other ways, such as composting or landfilling.

In the EU regulation known as Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 or the ABP-regulation, the proper handling of animal by-products is described, and the residues are categorized. This, in order to prevent the spreading of animal diseases, such as BSE and foot and mouth disease. The regulation affects biogas production since residues such as slaughterhouse waste, which is an energy-rich substrate, in many cases needs pre-treatment according to the directives.

Biogas production per se is not mentioned in the reformed CAP (Common Agricultural Policy). However, a key element of the new CAP is a rural development strategy, in which renewable energy production from agricultural products is advocated. Included in the CAP is an obligation for the Member States to set up agri-environment schemes, and farmers are then granted support.

Biogas production at ecological farms is an interesting field which could have great potential as it may bring about positive synergy effects (Engdahl, 2010).

 

Part II: Personal experiences

Dr. Hans Oechsner of the University of H

Dr. Hans Oechsner in his lab at the University of Hohenheim

Germany

Everything started at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart, an agricultural-focused University founded around 200 years ago. There I met Professor Hans Oechsner in his advanced biogas research lab at the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy.

The Institute is responsible for new research, advising farmers and industry partners, and other outreach activities about biomass. In the past, it focused on oil crops for biodiesel and biomass for electricity generation, while currently the focus is on biogas.

Prof. Oechsner has many years of experience in biogas production from agricultural feedstocks. His research lines include growing and breeding energy crops to obtain better varieties, and studying harvest time and storage methods to maximize biogas production. Also, he has researched a way to run biogas plants without manure. Normally, manure provides bacteria, buffer capacity and trace elements. He identified which trace elements and how much of them are necessary for higher biogas production. You can listen to my interview with him at the end of this article.

Germany is the most advanced country in biogas. The German government aims to reach a share of renewable energy sources of around 20% in the final energy consumption, and of 35% in the electricity sector by 2020. In addition to the proposed targets and measures for biogas electricity, the German government also aims to feed 6 billion Nm3 biomethane into the natural gas grid in 2020 (European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners, 2012).

According to Prof. Oechsner, today around 12% of energy and 20% electricity is from renewable sources; thus in the next 5 years there is a need to increase these amounts to reach Germany’s goals. In the past 10 years there was a great desire, stimulated by special policy and regulations like Renewable Energy Law that permits farmers to produce electricity from biogas and obligates the owners of the energy grid to buy it for exclusive prices. This enables farmers to invest in this sector.

He explained that as Germany is a small country compared to America, they have to intensify production to get the most out of it. In this way, energy crops like corn have greater potential as a biogas feedstock than manure. Manure is used as single feedstock in small plants or mixed with wastes or energy crops in bigger plants. The average biogas plant in Germany has a size of 2,500 m3 and produces 450 KW. It can provide electricity for 500 to 700 houses.  Each hectare of corn in the form of silage, which is used to feed the digester day by day, produces biogas enough to be converted in 3 KW.  Today, around 10% of arable land is used to grow energy crops for biogas plants.

Germany is one of the strongest economies in Europe. In this context, buying electricity with more expensive fares, when compared with other sources, to reach the goals, has been seen as positive. With the feed-in law in Germany, the government introduced an excellent support scheme with fixed feed-in tariffs for different feedstocks and capacities, long-term payment periods and guaranteed grid access and regulated grid connection rules (European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners, 2012).

Prof. Oechsner highlighted the possibility of flexible production and storage of biogas.  Unlike other sources of energy, biogas can be stored for use when the demand for electricity is greatest; at peak demand or in certain times of the year when demand is greater. However, he mentioned that successful biogas systems are also possible due to the policy that guarantees high prices to the producers. Inevitably, this higher cost has been passed to the consumers. Thus, today the numbers of biogas plants stopped increasing and emphasis changed  to investment in efficiency. The solution, according to Prof. Oechsner, will be to unify all the renewable possibilities in an energetic mix. An example of this is the injection of hydrogen from photovoltaic into biogas systems, which is object of his research, along with injecting biomethane into the grid.

 

AD and BIOGAS Expo

AD and BIOGAS Expo

United Kingdom

UK AD & Biogas

From Germany, I went to Birmingham for UK AD & Biogas 2015, a two day event full of seminars and a big expo.

In this big expo, specific to biogas, there were new technologies for biogas production and conversion. Biogas industry and academia showed cutting-edge research applicable to commercial scale.

Among many systems for biogas production, automated all-controlled systems give the perfect conditions for bacterial fermentation to occur. Once biogas is made, it should be filtered to remove harmful substances that could damage engines.

After that, big engines convert methane into electricity.

AD and BIOGAS expo

AD and BIOGAS expo

Highlights of the expo were the many companies demonstrating different models of engines.

Once purified, biomethane can be used in fleets of cars and buses as were shown there.

As a researcher, I found interesting the lab digesters, which can simulate internal conditions of a commercial digester to test many substrates and treatments and the machines which process normal trash from supermarkets and separate the fermentable fraction from the recyclable part such as plastic and foil.

Using the organic fraction of urban wastes is a great approach for the biogas industry, solving two issues at the same time.

During the seminars, we were informed about the current situation of biogas production in the UK. New policies can stimulate this industry and regulation should be debated and modernized, mainly about digestate utilization. There are some concerns that because digestate comes from manure and urban waste its utilization on edible crops could cause health problems. More studies are necessary to modernize old thoughts.

One innovation was a space specific for personal consultation, putting together customers and consultants to discuss planning, technical points, and feasibility.

 

Biogas Operator and Planner course in Dundee

Biogas Operator and Planner course at Abertay University in Dundee, Scotland

Biogas Operator  & Planner Course and University of Dundee, plus Visiting Labs

After that, I participated in a Biogas Operator & Planner course at Abertay University, Dundee, Scotland. The successful course was organized by the Renewable Energy Association (REA) and the International Biogas and Bioenergy Center of Competence (IBBK Fachgruppe Biogas). The participants were not just from UK, but from many places, such as Austria, Africa, Italy and elsewhere.

Despite staying just one day, I could participate in deep discussions with specialists and  trainee professionals for biogas plants establishment and management.

While there, I visited the biogas lab of the university, where interestingly seaweed has been studied as a new substrate for biogas.

 

Danilo Gusmao presenting in Scotland

Danilo Gusmao presenting about small scale digesters in Aberdeen, Scotland

International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics

Finally, I went to Aberdeen, Scotland in order to participate in the 3rd International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics (ECM3) – towards a big picture. The symposium included the presence of delegates from 52 countries, mainly from UK, Germany, USA and Asia. It was not specificly about biogas as were the others, but biogas was included in some presentations.

My presentation was about small scale digesters for cooking and electricity generation in poor communities in developing countries.

 

Part III: Final considerations

Policies challenges

As is the case for most renewable energy sources, biogas production is still dependent on subsidies to attract investors and establish a substantial scale. On the EU level, there is no specific policy on biogas, but it is addressed in multiple policy documents and Directives that are related to renewable energies and bioenergy.

Biogas is included in three EU regulatory frameworks: the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC), the Directive on Waste Recycling and Recovery (2008/98/EC) and the Directive on Landfill (1999/31/EC).

The incentives schemes are subject to changes due to changing political climates or progressive modification by policy makers. Support programs have been closed or changed following, for example, a change of government or imposition of stricter application criteria. This creates a certain regulatory risk for investors and uncertainty with respect to the feasibility of renewable energy targets (Foreest, 2012).

The biogas industry is facing tremendous policy changes. The dramatic change which started with the German Renewable Energy Act EEG 2012 continues to hamper the industry. On the other hand, the biogas industry is increasing in the other parts of Europe – UK, Italy and Denmark, and we hope that the rest of Europe will follow these positive developments.

The  Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC   is a sustainability scheme for energy uses of biomass and biogas other than biofuels, and to provide analysis on biofuel sustainability with respect to indirect land use change (iLUC). The iLUC corresponds to the carbon stock release from the conversion of natural land such as rainforest or grassland into cropland that is alleged to result from an increased production of biofuels/bioenergy in Europe.

For the transport sector, the current sustainability criteria aim at ensuring minimum greenhouse gas (GHG) savings when compared to fossil fuels as well as defining land criteria, e.g. avoid high biodiversity areas for raw material production.

The Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC sets criteria under which certain specified waste shall cease to be waste. This mechanism was introduced to further encourage recycling in the EU by creating legal certainty and a level playing field as well as removing unnecessary administrative burdens. There are proposals for the end of waste criteria.

Digestate is an excellent organic fertilizer which contains nearly all the nutrients that were in the feedstock used in the process. The EU wants to become sustainable and independent from foreign raw materials. Today, in some countries, there are a lack of regulation and safety concerns as well as misunderstanding about digestate advantages for agriculture.

This subject is very interesting, isn’t it? Are you thirsty for more information about it? You can hear more details from the experts in the interviews below.

Also, for additional information here is a list of useful links available which I have  thanks to the  European Biogas Association (EBA) website (http://european-biogas.eu):

 

Biogas

 

Biomethane

Digestate

Statistics

Maps of biogas plants

Map of biomethane plants

EU

 

References

Engdahl, K. Biogas policies, incentives and barriers – a survey of the strategies of three European countries. Master thesis. Department of Technology and Society Environmental and Energy Systems Studies. Lund University , SWEDEN.  2010. 60p. http://www.miljo.lth.se/svenska/internt/publikationer_internt/pdf-filer/exjobb%20imes%20Kristina%20Engdahl.pdf

European Biogas Association website http://european-biogas.eu

European Biomass Association, AEBIOM and partners. EU Handbook – Biogas Markets. 2012. http://www.crossborderbioenergy.eu/fileadmin/crossborder/Biogas_MarketHandbook.pdf

European Biofuels Technology Platform http://www.biofuelstp.eu/biogas.html

Foreest, F. Perspectives for Biogas in Europe. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. 53p. 2012. http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/NG-70.pdf

Ramanauskaite, R. European Biogas Association. In: BiogasIN Project, High Level Conference Athens,Greece, 2011. http://www.biogasin.org/files/pdf/HLC_athens/03_R.Ramanauskaite_PresentationBiogasIN.pdf

Danilo G. de Quadros; André de P. M. Oliver; Ueliton Regis; Renata Valladares and Edivaldo de J. Ferreira; Technical and economic analysis of plug-flow anaerobic digester to take advantage of goat manure in smallholder farms  http://nscj.co.uk/ecm3/sessions/156_DaniloGdeQuadros.pdf

Interviews

To learn much more about biogas, listen to this exclusive Dan Quadros’ interview with Dr. Hans Oechsner of Universität Hohenheim, discussing the history of anaerobic digestion in Germany and the future of biogas in the world.

 

1 – Could you summarize the main research lines of your lab?

2 – Could you tell us the history of anaerobic digestion in Germany?

3 – Why is Germany a leader on biogas production and utilization?

4 – What will be the future of biogas in the World?

 

 

Take the opportunity to understand the current situation of biogas in Europe with Dr. Michael Köttner, interviewed by Dan Quadros. Dr. Köttner is from IBBK – Internacionales Biogas & Bioenergy Kompetenzzentrum (http://ibbk.fachgruppe-biogas.de/index.php?id=1&L=1&id=151).

 

1 – What is the situation of biogas production in European countries nowadays?

2 – What is the importance of policies on biogas utilization?

3 – What is the potential of biomethane use in fleets?

 

*Former research scholar at University of Florida, Professor at Bahia State University, Brazil and Volunteer correspondent for Advanced Biofuels USA

 Photos by or courtesy of Dan Quadros

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EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed e-diesel e-LNG e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) French fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility green Jo Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kero kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulation regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable d Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustai Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra 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paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsi Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

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