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Biden-Harris Administration Releases First-Ever Blueprint to Decarbonize America’s Transportation Sector

Aviation Fuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)), Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Federal Regulation, Funding/Financing/Investing, Housing and Urban Development/HUD, Marine/Boat Bio and Renewable Fuel/MGO/MDO/SMF, Opinions, Policy, Sustainability, Transportation, White House
January 10, 2023

(U.S. Department of Transportation) Landmark Blueprint Will Advance the President’s Clean Transportation Agenda, Slashing Consumer Costs, Improving Public Health, and Increasing the Nation’s Energy Security — The Biden-Harris Administration today released the U.S. National Blueprint for Transportation Decarbonization. Developed by the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and the Environmental Protection Agency, the Blueprint is a landmark strategy for cutting all greenhouse emissions from the transportation sector by 2050. It exemplifies the Biden-Harris Administration’s whole-of-government approach to addressing the climate crisis and meeting President Biden’s goals of securing a 100% clean electrical grid by 2035 and reaching net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. The Blueprint builds on President Biden’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and Inflation Reduction Act, which together represent historic investments in the future of our nation that will transform how we move and live while we build the backbone of a safer and more sustainable transportation system. 

Jointly announced by U.S. Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm, U.S. Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg, U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Marcia Fudge, and Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Michael S. Regan, the Blueprint is the first milestone deliverable of the historic memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed by the agencies in September of last year. The Blueprint will be followed by more detailed decarbonization action plans, to be developed and implemented by these agencies in cooperation with governments at the State, local, and Tribal level, philanthropic organizations, the private sector, and global partners.

“The domestic transportation sector presents an enormous opportunity to drastically reduce emissions that accelerate climate change and reduce harmful pollution,” said U.S. Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm. “DOE is prepared to implement this Blueprint alongside our partners within the Biden-Harris Administration to ensure all Americans feel the benefits of the clean transportation transition: good-paying manufacturing jobs, better air quality, and lower transportation costs.”

“Transportation policy is inseparable from housing and energy policy, and transportation accounts for a major share of US greenhouse gas emissions, so we must work together in an integrated way to confront the climate crisis,” said U.S. Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg. “Every decision about transportation is also an opportunity to build a cleaner, healthier, more prosperous future. When our air is cleaner; when more people can get good-paying jobs; when everyone stays connected to the resources they need and the people they love, we are all better off.”

“Under the leadership of President Biden, EPA is working with our federal partners to aggressively reduce pollution that is harming people and our planet – while saving families money at the same time,” said U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Michael S. Regan. “At EPA, our priority is to protect public health, especially in overburdened communities, while advancing the President’s ambitious climate agenda. This Blueprint is a step forward in delivering on those goals and accelerating the transition to a clean transportation future.” 

“The people HUD serves deserve clean, affordable transportation options,” said U.S. Housing and Urban Development Secretary Marcia Fudge. “HUD is proud to join our federal partners at Energy, DOT, and EPA to ensure that clean transportation investments are made equitably and include communities and households that have been most harmed by environmental injustice. We look forward to working together to better align transportation, housing, and community development investments in these and other communities across the country.”

The transportation sector—which includes all modes of travel through land, air, and sea to move people and goods—accounts for a third of all domestic greenhouse gas emissions, negatively affecting the health and well-being of millions of Americans, particularly those in disadvantaged communities. Transportation costs are the second largest annual household expense in our country and for the poorest Americans, the financial burden of transportation is disproportionately and unsustainably high. 

A well-planned transition to a decarbonized transportation system can address these and other inequities and provide equitable, affordable, and accessible options for moving people and goods. Further developing and deploying clean-energy technologies such as electric vehicles and hydrogen and sustainable fuels, while also building out the supporting infrastructure for clean transportation, will create good-paying jobs in all segments of the transportation sector while strengthening America’s energy independence.  

The Blueprint is a critical step in the ongoing partnership between DOE, DOT, EPA, HUD, and stakeholders and will be followed by more detailed sector-specific action plans to create a comprehensive suite of strategies to realize an improved and sustainable transportation future. Learn more about the MOU and Blueprint. READ MORE

Biden admin releases plans to cut CO2 from transportation — The blueprint takes aim at local zoning laws that push residents into their cars. (Politico Pro)

Biden lays out strategy to decarbonize transportation (Houston Chronicle)

Blueprint for Transportation Decarbonization: Biden Administration Takes Action (NGT News)

DOE releases blueprint to decarbonize US transportation (Ethanol Producer Magazine)


Biden officials lay out road map for net-zero transportation by 2050 (The Hill)

The U.S. National Blueprint for Transportation Decarbonization (Biofuels Digest)

Fuel-retailer groups call out Biden blueprint for favoring SAF over biodiesel, renewable diesel (Biobased Diesel Daily)

What is sustainable aviation fuel? Some say it’s the key to a greener airline industry (USA Today)

Blueprints for the Future Include ICE and Sustainable Fuels (Diesel Technology Forum)


THE U.S. NATIONAL BLUEPRINT FOR TRANSPORTATION DECARBONIZATION: A Joint Strategy to Transform Transportation (U.S. Departments of Transportation, Energy, Housing and Urban Development and Environmental Protection Agency)

U.S. National Blueprint for Transportation Decarbonization Fact Sheet (U.S. Departments of Transportation, Energy, Housing and Urban Development and Environmental Protection Agency)

Excerpts from the Blueprint:


I. Executive Summary 2
1. Introduction 12
a. Context & Vision 12
b. Plan & Strategy 14
2. A Whole-of-Government Approach 21
a. The Agencies 21
b. Guiding Principles 23
c. The Levers 24
3. Transportation Challenges Today 28
a. Current Status 28
b. Changing Mobility Needs 30
c. Mobility Costs and Impact of Fuel Prices 32
4. Strategies to Decarbonize Transportation 34
a. Increasing Convenience by Implementing System-Level and Design Solutions 36
b. Improving Efficiency through Mode Shift and More Efficient Vehicles 43
c. Transitioning to Clean Options by Deploying Zero-Emission Vehicles and Fuels 49
5. Applying the Strategies by Transportation Mode 56
a. Light-Duty Vehicles 58
b. Medium- and Heavy-Duty On-Road Trucks and Buses 61
c. Off-Road Vehicles and Mobile Equipment 64
d. Rail 66
e. Maritime Vessels 68
f. Aviation 71
g. Pipelines 74
6. Conclusion – A Call to Action 76

Priority actions and levers to decarbonize maritime include:
1. Research and innovation on viable alternative fuels and new technologies to determine the most promising paths to decarbonizing the maritime sector. Additional research can identify and expedite effective solutions for different vessel types and applications. Extensive performance and operations data on the total life-cycle emissions from new shipping technologies and alternative fuels should be collected from real-world settings and shared widely with stakeholders. New models and tools need to be developed to characterize and
forecast critical aspects of the maritime industry, including emissions, energy use, costs, or other impacts and externalities to inform decisions and investments. Promising fuels and technologies that can support maritime decarbonization include:

a. Sustainable liquid and gaseous fuels. These include certain types of biofuels, ammonia, hydrogen, and methanol. Some biofuels and
biofuel blends are drop-in replacements for traditional fossil fuels and offer the most substantial immediate GHG emissions reductions, as well as the opportunity to complement sustainable aviation fuel production and associated investments. Hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol are other promising fuel alternatives, but more research is needed to use and supply these fuels, ensure that they have low life-cycle emissions, and verify that they do not increase criteria pollutant emissions.

Infrastructure, Industrial Investments, and Financing: Investments in infrastructure are critical to enable decarbonization, including supporting a transition to zero-emission vehicles, the production and delivery of sustainable fuels, and operational improvements through travel demand management. Investments in these areas are crucial and will encompass projects that help spur mode shift and all its benefits, including increasing the share of trips made using low- to no-carbon travel options. Example areas for financing are:

Manufacturing of zero-emission vehicles, batteries, fuel cells, and production of sustainable fuels such as hydrogen and sustainable biofuels, including industrial investments to strengthen supply chains and improve access to critical minerals.

GHGs emitted from transportation sources during vehicle use are predominantly (more than 97%) in the form of CO2 released as a byproduct of combusting fossil fuels and biofuels. Combustion processes also create smaller amounts of methane and nitrogen oxides
(NOx), which are potent GHGs. Additionally, various hydrofluorocarbons used in vehicle air conditioners contribute to the overall GHG emissions from transportation. Aviation emits soot and induces cirrus cloudiness, which also contribute to aviation’s global warming impact and is an active area of study.

In addition to GHG emissions, the transportation sector is responsible for other emissions that impact our environment and public health and that disproportionately affect disadvantaged communities.

Transportation is responsible for about half of all U.S. emissions of NOx, as well as emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and various air toxics REF, REF. Air toxics are compounds such as benzene and formaldehyde that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health and environmental effects. Most emissions from transportation are due to the combustion and evaporation of fossil fuels. Brake and tire wear are also significant sources of particulate emissions.

The health effects of air pollution affect millions of people, especially those who live near highways; ports; rail yards; or petroleum extraction, refinery, storage or transport infrastructure. These effects can include asthma, decreased lung function, cancer, and premature death. Children, older adults, people with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease, people of low socioeconomic status, and racial and ethnic minorities are among those at higher risk for health impacts from air pollution due to disproportionate exposure. Nationally, these impacts

The transportation sector depends heavily on petroleum fuels, and is responsible for more than 70% of the total U.S. petroleum consumption. More than 95% of transportation energy use comes from petroleum-based fuels, making it the least energy-diverse sector and subjecting the American economy to the volatility of global markets

Sustainable Fuels Supply

Sustainable fuels offer an opportunity to replace petroleum and reduce GHG emissions. They provide the same advantages and flexibility of petroleum fuels, making them well-positioned to decarbonize applications like long-haul aviation and international maritime shipping that require energy-dense liquid fuels. Sustainable fuels can also be used with existing infrastructure and vehicles, helping to reduce emissions of legacy vehicles. Multiple production pathways exist to create sustainable fuels using renewable resources including corn, vegetable oils and animal fats, forestry and agriculture residues, wastes, and purpose-grown energy crops and algae, as well as from renewable electricity. However, the full environmental impact from scaling up feedstocks for sustainable fuels must be part of the full life-cycle emissions analysis, and the amount of available biomass, its geographic distribution, and technologies to sustainably convert that waste carbon into fuel are limited REF. The scale-up of sustainable fuel production requires developing and deploying advanced
technologies to reduce cost and improve performance, while ensuring that life-cycle emissions and overall environmental and societal impacts are minimal. DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) estimates that over 50 billion gallons of sustainable biofuels (80% or
more GHG emissions reduction) can be cost-effectively produced domestically by leveraging multiple production pathways REF. In a future in which on-road transportation will largely rely on EVs, 50 billion gallons of sustainable fuels would be enough to fully supply aviation, maritime, and rail demand in 2050, as shown in Figure 9.

Although it is uncertain if all pathways will become cost effective, there is a significant effort to demonstrate that SAF can fully replace fossil fuels in aviation. Moreover, synthetic e-fuels (liquid fuels produced using captured carbon and hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water with renewable electricity) could also provide a viable pathway to produce sustainable fuels and increase supply. Depending on the final fuel product, sustainable fuels could address some local air pollution issues and offer a solution for transportation applications that lack other clean alternatives. Moreover, some sustainable fuel production pathways offer the opportunity to leverage carbon capture and storage (CCS) to further reduce GHGs and even achieve carbon-negative emissions REF. Finally, a robust bioenergy industry could
also produce chemicals and products for the petroleum industry with significantly lower emissions. Sustainable fuels must be produced in a way that considers climate change, land use, water, and ecosystems implications, and planning will require cross-sectoral expertise and broad collaborations.

Achieving 2050 net-zero-emissions goals will require transitioning new LDV sales to zero-emission EVs by the mid-2030s, and then rapidly replacing the legacy stock of higher-polluting fossil-based vehicles with zero-emission EVs. Ensuring that fossil fuel vehicles sold in the interim are as efficient as possible will further reduce energy needs and emissions during the transition. The rate of EV adoption and speed of vehicle replacement will affect the degree to which LDVs use liquid fuels in the decades to come. Thus, sustainable fuels provide an additional opportunity to reduce the emissions of legacy internal combustion engine vehicles still on the road in 2050 and beyond.

Sustainable fuels may also be an option for some MHDVs (Medium duty and heavy-duty vehicles), particularly for remote applications and for legacy vehicles relying on internal combustion engines. The historically slow turnover rate for many MHDVs means that new technologies may not replace diesel engines for several decades and that disseminating new technology across the MHDV fleet will be a slow process if market forces or policy decisions do not accelerate vehicle turnover. Sustainable fuels could help alleviate this turnover challenge by providing low-carbon solutions that are compatible with existing vehicles. To achieve 2030 and 2050 goals, the current
MHDV reliance on diesel and gasoline must shift to zero-emission vehicles and sustainable fuels. This shift can be achieved in part through decisive and coordinated actions, including:

1. Fund research and innovation to develop viable technologies to replace fossil-fuel vehicles for all MHDV applications. It is vital to continue to support research, design, and development toward lowercost and higher-energy-density batteries and fuel cell applications, as well as the use of clean hydrogen and sustainable fuels to fully decarbonize the MHDV sector.

Strategies for decarbonizing the off-road sector will leverage technologies similar to other sectors, including battery electric and fuel cell
EVs and sustainable fuels.

The rail industry is currently exploring opportunities to maintain its comparative energy-use advantage on a ton-mile basis by transitioning to direct use of electricity (e.g., overhead catenary charging, third-rail systems), batteries, hydrogen fuels, sustainable fuels, or hybrid solutions. Full electrification via catenary systems used in other countries has been hindered by the long distances and relatively low traffic on U.S. railways.

Diesel alternatives for use in the U.S. freight rail industry are primarily in demonstration stages and not yet widely available, although there are interim opportunities to advance fleet technologies by retrofitting locomotives and using modular hybridization. For example, there are battery-powered locomotives in use (primarily in switch yards), and additional pilot projects using battery-powered locomotives or hydrogen fuel cells are underway REF.

Sustainable fuels can play a key role in reducing rail emissions, especially in the near and medium terms, but they are currently not cost competitive.

Other investments that will maximize emissions reductions include building strong domestic rail equipment supply chains for electric and alternatively fueled locomotives and railcars and supporting the development and deployment of sustainable fuels.

Freight rail research should be prioritized to determine the most promising paths to decarbonization, including a focus on sustainable fuels and the design and manufacture of new locomotive propulsion and fueling systems.

Additional research efforts should focus on safety and environmental mitigation improvements associated with an increase in the transport of sustainable fuels, hydrogen, and CO2 for CCS via pipelines. It will be critical to focus on the safety, reliability, resiliency, and emissions associated with pipelines used for sustainable fuel and CO2 as we transition to a decarbonized economy.

Before 2030 – Turning the Tide on Transportation GHGs: Research and Investments to Support Deployment

Set clear, ambitious but achievable targets across all travel modes (e.g., sales shares of zero-emission vehicles, volumes of sustainable fuels, emissions reduction targets)
Work with international partners to define targets and implementation plans to encourage international shipping and aviation to rapidly decarbonize those modes
Demonstrate a suite of aircraft technologies by 2030 that achieve a 30% improvement in fuel efficiency compared to today’s best-in-class aircraft
Reduce aviation emissions by 20% when compared to a business-as-usual scenario
Invest in research and innovation to further develop and demonstrate clean technologies necessary for a decarbonized transportation sector
• Keep lowering battery costs to close purchase price gap with conventional vehicles
• Develop and demonstrate pathways to produce clean hydrogen and sustainable fuels affordably
• Increase production of sustainable aviation fuels to 3 billion gallons a year by 2030

Transition all new vehicles sales to zero-emission technologies and scale-up sustainable fuels
• Transition light-duty vehicle sales to zero-emission EVs by the mid-2030s
• Achieve 100% zero-emission medium- and heavy-duty vehicle sales by 2040. Ensure that 100% of all federal fleet vehicle acquisitions are zero-emissions vehicles by 2035
• Continue to scale-up use of sustainable fuels for aviation and maritime

Investments and Financing: All levels of government and the private sector can support decarbonization through strategic investments
to deploy infrastructure and support manufacturing that accelerate the transition to cleaner, active, and more efficient modes of transportation and vehicles and facilitate the transition to zero-emission vehicles and sustainable fuels.

Set clear, ambitious but achievable targets across all travel modes (e.g., sales shares of zero-emission vehicles, volumes of sustainable fuels, emissions reduction targets)

2030-2040 – Accelerating Change: Scaling Up Deployment of Clean Solutions

Transition all new vehicles sales to zero-emission technologies and scale up production and use of sustainable fuels

2040-2050 – Completing the Transition: A Sustainable and Equitable Future

Continue to support the Zero-Emission Shipping Mission (ZESM) goals to ensure that 5% of the global deep-sea fleet are capable of using zero-emission fuels by 2030, at least 200 of these ships primarily use these fuels across the main deep sea shipping route, and 10 large trade ports covering at least three continents can supply zero-emission fuels by 2030 REF
• Support the U.S. domestic maritime sector by performing more RD&D into sustainable fuels and technologies and incentivize U.S. commercial vessel operators to move towards lower GHG emissions.

Eliminate leakages and enable use of pipelines for clean sustainable fuels

By 2030, BIL and IRA will drive substantial adoption of new zero-emission vehicles and sustainable fuels and support large-scale GHG emissions reductions.

This Blueprint focuses on continued, coordinated RD&D and deployment efforts from multiple stakeholders to enable widespread and equitable deployment of solutions that are viable, affordable, and that have sufficient resources to scale. It also allows for the
development of missing solutions via innovation and demonstration. We identify several enabling catalysts, such as policies that encourage increased convenience in our communities, transit and efficient mobility, vehicle electrification, and availability of sustainable fuels

Policy and Regulation: The federal government, along with regional, state, local, and Tribal governments, can use a variety of policy and
regulatory levers to help enable transportation sector decarbonization. These levers can support the transition to zero-emission vehicles and fuels, enable access to clean transportation options, improve the efficiency of systems and vehicles, and support increased production of sustainable fuels.

Policies and regulations may include, but are not limited to: market incentives (e.g., vehicle purchase credits or production tax credits for sustainable fuels); GHG and fuel economy standards; …. Economy-wide policies, such as carbon pricing, sustainable fuel standards, or
renewable fuel standards, would also affect carbon reduction efforts.

Infrastructure, Industrial Investments, and Financing: Investments in infrastructure are critical to enable decarbonization, including supporting a transition to zero-emission vehicles, theproduction and delivery of sustainable fuels, and operational improvements through travel demand management. Investments in these areas are crucial and will encompass projects that help spur mode shift and all its benefits, including increasing the share of trips made using low- to no-carbon travel options.  READ MORE


Excerpt from Ethanol Producer Magazine: The blueprint shows that the production of sustainable liquid fuels offers strong long-term opportunities for aviation and maritime transportation. Sustainable liquid fuels also offer strong potential for reducing emissions in rail, heavy trucking, and off-road applications. According to the blueprint, the DOE and its partner agencies have not yet determined the potential long-term opportunities for the use of sustainable liquid fuels in light duty vehicles or pipeline applications.

The blueprint also points out that sustainable liquid fuels also have the potential to help decarbonize the plastics/chemicals sector while creating opportunities for biobased products. Research, development and demonstration (RD&D) priorities for sustainable liquid fuels include multiple cost-effective drop-in sustainable fuels, reduced ethanol carbon intensity, and bioenergy scale-up, according to the blueprint.

Withing the blueprint, the DOE and its partner agencies stress that sustainable liquid fuels provide the same advantages and flexibility as petroleum fuels, making them particularly well-positioned to decarbonizing aviation and international maritime shipping, as well as legacy vehicles. The DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office estimates that more than 50 billion gallons of sustainable fuels (80 percent or more GHG emission reduction) can be cost-effectively produced domestically by leveraging multiple production pathways. That volume would be enough to fully supply aviation, maritime and rail demand in 2050, according to the DOE. READ MORE


Excerpt from Biofuels Digest: 

The Specifics: Looking beyond the waffle and kerfuffle

OK, so you think the bullet points are vague. Good news, there’s more meat in the sections.


Light duty

Achieving 2050 net-zero-emissions goals will require transitioning new LDV sales to zero-emission EVs by the mid-2030s, and then rapidly replacing the legacy stock of higher-polluting fossil-based vehicles with zero-emission EVs.

Medium Vehicles

At COP27 on November 16, 2022, the United States joined the Global Memorandum of Understanding on Zero-Emission Medium- and Heavy- Duty Vehicles REF. First introduced at COP26, the Global MOU puts countries on a path to 100% new zero-emission MHDV sales by 2040 at the latest, with an interim goal of at least 30% new sales by 2030 REF.


“Promising fuels and technologies that can support maritime decarbonization include:

a. Sustainable liquid and gaseous fuels. These include certain types of biofuels, ammonia, hydrogen, and methanol. Some biofuels and biofuel blends are drop-in replacements for traditional fossil fuels and offer the most substantial immediate GHG emissions reductions, as well as the opportunity to complement sustainable aviation fuel production and associated investments. Hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol are other promising fuel alternatives, but more research is needed to use and supply these fuels, ensure that they have low life-cycle emissions, and verify that they do not increase criteria pollutant emissions. “


“Sustainable aviation fuels will be critical to the long-term decarbonization of aviation. SAFs are fully interchangeable, drop-in liquid hydrocarbon fuels with the same performance and safety as conventional jet fuels produced from petroleum. They can be deployed in existing infrastructure, engines, and aircraft. SAF can be created from renewable or waste materials and have been shown to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by at least 50% relative to conventional jet fuel and potentially 100% if low-carbon technologies such as climate-smart agricultural practices, low-carbon electricity and hydrogen usage, or CCS are used. Efforts are ongoing to approve the use of 100% SAF in today’s fleet of aircraft, thus enabling the decarbonization of aviation without a change in its underlying infrastructure.”

The Backstory

Is it indeed historic? It was clear something was afoot last September when DOE, the US Departments of Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and the Environmental Protection Agency, signed an MOU of cooperation in decarbonizing transport. More on that here. https://www.energy.gov/sites/default/files/2022-09/mou-doe-dot-epa-hud-final_09-15-2022.pdf

The agencies wrote last September: “Decarbonizing the transportation sector is a major challenge, and a major opportunity. The U.S. transportation sector generated 33% of US GHG emissions in 2019, generated over 70% of total petroleum demand in the U.S., and is a major cause of poor air quality, particularly affecting low-income populations, populations of color, and overburdened communities. Between 2010

and 2020, transportation has represented the second highest household expense, and is often considered a hidden cost of housing. Transportation allows businesses to receive goods and to transport products to consumers, connects people to jobs, schools, recreation, and health care, and puts Americans to work, as one of the largest industrial and manufacturing sectors in the economy. Creating a robust, clean, and well-functioning transportation system can create jobs, enhance equity, improve air quality, and help secure economic prosperity.”

The Bottom Line


We’re wondering if it’s a blueprint for a building that will ever be built on the timelines outlined in the document. Having noted that, it continues to signal that the growers and technologists now focused on supporting light-duty transport should be seeing their efforts as having reached a long, but emphatic END OF LIFE stage. Efforts should aim to diversify first-gen feedstocks to support maritime, aviation and heavy duty, where lift and range issues are more suited to hydrogen and liquid fuels. And, efforts should point towards providing renewable power, e.g. sustainable methane, that can support the expected numbers of EVs with carbon negative power that makes zero emission vehicles actually have zero emissions.

All of the government, some of the time

The pact is described by the Biden Administration as  exemplifying “the Biden-Harris Administration’s whole-of-government approach to addressing the climate crisis and meeting President Biden’s goals of securing a 100% clean electrical grid by 2035 and reaching net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.” Um, whole of government? We wonder where the Department of Agriculture, Department of the Interior and Department of Defense are, exactly. But, we’ll let that pass.  READ MORE

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(cannabidiol) CBG (compressed biogas) cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program Certificates of Origin (COs) certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 chemical-looping hydrogen method Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chromium chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular e circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel Clean clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel clean fuel production tax credit Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative co-processing co-products CO2 neutral fuels coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt coco cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel Cook Islands cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stov corn stover corn supply corn surplus Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel diesel with renewables digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E0 E0 price E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E40 pumps E50 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electroly electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) Environmentalists environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) esg ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylbenzene ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service forklifts fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium games gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasificatio gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Gerrmany Ghana ghg GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo gliricidia sepium global warming glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grease Great Green Fleet Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy Green Jobs Greenland Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana gypsum Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras Honge tree nuts Hong Kong horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO20 HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogen aircraft hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export India Indiana Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesi Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA Jamaica Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education kalanchoe Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logist logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg M3 M15 M100 macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mandate mandates manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/ methane/biomethane methane leaks methani methanization methanol-to-jetfuel Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microo microorganisms/microbes Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural g natural gas natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherland Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakora North Dakota Northeast Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Noth Dakota Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil ref oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree peaches peach shell peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests pet food petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine needles 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public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement Quebec Quebed Queensland quote of the week r R5 R33 R99/RD99 race radiata pine radish leaves railroad rainforest rain tree ranchers RAND rare earth metal/critical minerals RD3 RD10 RD20 RD30 RD50 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable d Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pipelines Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/RED III) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia rutabaga Rwanda rye Rye grass s saccharification SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower SAF pipeline sago pond weed SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush salt water Sanctions Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver simarouba Singapore Singpore SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solaris solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South K South Korea South Sudan SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka standards start-up State Department steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcan sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Surface Transportation Board Suriname sustain Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal 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