You Can Help Expand Access to Development Capital & Federal Funding to Advance Game-Changing Bioeconomy Projects, … and Mitigate the Climate Crisis

Agriculture (USDA)Defense (DOD)Energy (DOE)Environmental Protection AgencyFederal Agency/Executive BranchFederal LegislationFunding/Financing/InvestinggrantsInterior DepartmentOpinionsPolicyTransportation (DOT)What You Can Do
February 27, 2024

by CJ Evans  (Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition/Project Financing Assistance/Biofuels Digest) You can make a difference. You can raise your voice and make your voice heard … you can help create a grant program within the federal government to provide development capital … and you can help expand opportunities to advance game-changing projects which do not fit within the confines of current government funding programs.

The Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition (AFCC) has drafted language to do this for inclusion in the fiscal year (FY) 2025 appropriations bills for seven federal agencies, which Congress is just now beginning to consider.

AFCC has, since it was founded in 2019, and with considerable success, made funding requests to maintain, when threatened, and increase funding for close to 50 federal government funding programs. This year, it also is making two additional requests:

  1. AFCC has drafted language for inclusion in the FY2025 Department of Energy appropriation for its Title 17 Clean Energy Financing Loan Guarantee Program to establish a $500 million 50/50 matching grant program to provide development capital.

There currently is no federal grant program that provides the funding necessary for innovative, game-changing projects to advance through their final Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and front-end loaded (FEL) 1-3 and pre-construction steps so they can meet the application requirements for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Section 9003 Biorefinery, Renewable Chemicals, and Biobased Products Manufacturing Assistance Loan Guarantee Program and the Title 17 program so these projects can be built, placed in operation, and deployed.

  1. AFCC also has drafted language for inclusion in the FY2025 appropriations for the Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Interior, and Transportation and the Environment Protection Agency to increase emphasis on and expand funding opportunities for projects that are unable to fit within the limits of federal agency grant programs … and, thus, are far too often left by the wayside.

The federal government requires that every federal agency accept unsolicited proposals for projects that do not fit within an agency’s funding opportunity announcements.

The ability to obtain funding through an unsolicited proposal is not well known. There also are limitations on the submission of these proposals that preclude their use by many worthwhile projects.

The focus of this article is on the steps that you can take to support these two initiatives.

...

AFCC has to convince as many offices as possible to include AFCC’s requests among those that the offices select and submit to each of appropriations subcommittees.

This is where you can make a difference. A big difference.

As successful as AFCC has been in advancing its annual appropriations requests, nothing is as effective … nor has as much impact … as outpourings of support for specific requests from a Representative’s and Senator’s constituents.

AFCC, therefore, is asking for your support, to become involved, to raise your voice and make it heard, by reaching out to your Members of Congress.

Taking action in the next two weeks to support AFCC’s initiatives will be extremely helpful. This is where you can have the greatest impact.  READ MORE

Related articles

Excerpt from Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition/Project Financing Assistance/Biofuels Digest:  Here are some talking points to help the  Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition (AFCC) create a $500 million development capital grant program in the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Loan Programs Office (LPO) and obtain more funding for worthwhile projects through unsolicited proposals.

This is the very best way in which you can help advance these requests. The more offices in the House and Senate that submit these requests to the appropriations committees and subcommittees, the more likely the request will succeed.

Hence, the more offices that you contact and other Biofuels Digest readers contact, the more likely these requests will succeed.

You can make a difference, a big difference, by taking the time to call the offices of the Members of Congress who represent you. You can make an even bigger difference if you are able to speak to or email someone in the office using the talking points below.

The more time you are willing to devote to this, the more impact you will have, and the greater the chance that the request to create a capital development grant program will succeed.

The talking points for creating a development capital grant program and opening up opportunities for more projects to be funded through unsolicited proposals are different. Talking points for both are provided below.

The way in which you can go about getting Congressional support for the two requests is the same. That begins with the first set of talking points.

Here’s how you can make a difference:

First:

  • Decide whether you want to focus on the development capital grant program or unsolicited proposal request first. You can do both. But it is best if you focus on one at a time. The first set of talking points are nearly the same, as provided below, it is only when you get to Second, below, that they diverge.
  • Go to https://www.congress.gov/members/find-your-member and enter your address in the field provided to find the names, Washington DC phone numbers, and links to the websites of the Members of Congress who represent you.
  • Call each of these three offices.
  • Begin by saying “I am calling in support of creating a development capital grant program in the Department of Energy”

Add: “This has been proposed by the Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition as an addition to the fiscal year 2025 appropriations for the Department of Energy.”

  • The likely response, since AFCC only submits its appropriation requests to the Members of the House and Senate appropriations subcommittees that prepare the legislation to enact these requests, will be: “We’re not aware of it/We haven’t heard about it.”

If your Representative or Senator is one of the Members to whom AFCC has sent its capital development grant or unsolicited proposal request (a list of these Members is posted on AFCC’s FY2025 Appropriations webpage), you can say, “I know AFCC sent it to the person in your office who handles appropriations, can I speak with that person?”

  • If your Representative or Senate is not one of these Members, respond by saying, “I’ll send it to you.”

Add, “Who should I send it to?” so you can get the name and email address of the staff person who is handling appropriations requests for the office.

You can view and download the language proposed for these requests, along with AFCC’s rationale and explanation for the requests by clicking on the following links:

“A call was received on [date and time of call] in support of creating a development capital grant program in the Department of Energy as proposed by the Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition.”

Ask the person to add that:

“The caller also is supporting the request for greater access to funding through unsolicited proposals.”

Ask that the note contain your name, address, and contact information, or if that is too much for the person to write down, the city or town in which you live (so the office will know that you are a constituent).

  • You may be told that, “Due to the volume of quests we receive, everyone must fill out our formal request form in order for the request to be considered.”

If so, ask four questions:

First, “How do I submit a request?” Most likely, you will be given a link on the Member’s website to do this. If the link is not yet available, or the office accepts requests by email,  you will be asked for your email address so you can submit an appropriations request. .

Second: “Do I need to submit a separate request if AFCC already has submitted the request and I only want to support it?”

Third, if the answer to #2 is “yes,” which is likely, ask if you can submit a form with your name and address that simply states that the appropriations request you are submitting is in support of the requests submitted by AFCC. It is likely you will be able to do this.

Fourth, if the answer to #2 is “no,” ask if your support for AFCC’s request will be counted by the note that you have asked the person to whom you are speaking to pass on to the person who is handling appropriations for the office.

  • AFCC already has sent these requests to the relevant House and Senate appropriation subcommittee Members. AFCC also will be following up with appropriations request forms for each office.

If one or more of the Members who represent you is not on the list of the Members  posted on AFCC’s FY2025 Appropriations webpage who have received AFCC’s requests (which includes 54 House members and 32 senators representing 26 states), please email cj@altfuelchem.org to let me know that you are submitting an appropriations request form and the office to which it is being submitted.

 

Here are the Talking Points for the Unsolicited Proposal Request

Second:

If you are transferred to a staff person and are able to speak with that staff person, or if you are sending an email, provide a brief description of how the request will be funded. This is going to be the first question that a staff person or Member will ask.  Explain that:

  • This is an already established program that was enacted in 1984.
  • It does not require any new funding.
  • It uses the funds that already have been appropriated to the program whose mission will be advanced by accepting an unsolicited proposal.
  • If someone wants to know the statutory citation, it is 46 FAR 15.6

Third:

Provide a brief description of the request:

  • The Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition is proposing that language be included in the FY2025 appropriations bills of six agencies: Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Interior, Transportation, and the Environmental Protection Agency.

These are the agencies that are the most involved and important in advancing new initiatives from their middle level development stages up through completion and deployment, thus they are the most important agencies for expanding access to funding through unsolicited proposals.

  • The reason for adding this language is to:
  • Draw attention to the availability of unsolicited proposals as a means of funding new, innovative projects that do not fit an agency’s grant and funding opportunities.
  • Provide greater access to the use of unsolicited proposals.
  • Provide greater flexibility in unsolicited proposal requirements so that worthwhile projects that can benefit the Nation are less likely to be excluded.
  • Facilitate the acceptance and approval of unsolicited proposals.

Fourth:

Explain why this request is important:

  • Every technology and innovation that can provide benefits to the Nation, and address the problems it faces, needs to be deployed as rapidly as possible.
  • Unfortunately, five obstacles stand in the way of advancing MUCH NEEDED innovations through federal grant programs:
  • The extreme difficulty in securing the development capital that is necessary for innovations to advance … and the lack of a federal grant program to fill this need.
  • The narrow focus and sometimes limited vision of federal agency notices of funding opportunities, which do not accommodate many projects that offer great promise to the Nation.
  • The refusal by some federal agency offices to consider unsolicited proposals.
  • The time required and costs of applying the Department of Energy Title 17 loan guarantee program
  • The limitation placed on the submission of unsolicited proposals when the proposal resembles a previously issued funding opportunity notice, no matter how many years ago the funding notice was issued.

Fifth:

Explain what is at stake and why this request is important:

  • Because of these limitations, far too many projects are lost:
  • as job creators
  • as economic drivers and boosts in tax revenues for local communities, especially for those that are economically depressed
  • as contributors to the National’s global technology leadership

and for Democratic offices only:

  • as means of mitigating the climate crisis

Sixth:

Be sure to conclude your phone call/email/letter by saying, “Thank you for considering  this request and my support for the FY2025 appropriations language being proposed by the Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition. I greatly appreciate it.”

 

Here are the Talking Points for the Development Capital Grant Program

Second:

If you are transferred to a staff person and are able to speak with that staff person, or if you are sending an email, provide a brief description of how the request will be funded. This is going to be the first question that a staff person or Member will ask.

Provide a brief description of how the grant program will be funded. This is going to be the first question that a staff person or Member will ask.

  • The Development Capital grant program will be funded in the same way that Congress funds the administrative expenses for the Title 17 loan guarantee program.
  • Hence, there is an established precedent for this.
  • Funds for the Development Capital grant program will be drawn from the interest generated for the U.S. Treasury by the repayments of the Title 17 loan guarantees, just as each year’s administrative costs are drawn from these repayments.
  • The withdrawals for administrative expenses are subsequently offset by the payments from borrowers for Title 17 fees that are collected by the U.S. Treasury.
  • The same will be true for the Development Capital program.
  • Except there is one big difference: the collections of Title 17 fees have traditionally reimbursed the U.S. Treasury for its administrative costs; in contrast, the Development Capital grant program will make money for the U.S. Treasury.

Here’s how this will work:

  • The interest generated by the Title 17 repayments to the Treasury in FY2022 was $523 million.
  • Hence, the Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition is requesting that $500 million be used in FY2025 to establish the Development Capital grant program.
  • The Development Capital grant program will award grants on a competitive, 50/50 matching basis.
  • The projects that received awards will have the potential, in the estimation of the Loan Programs Office, to qualify for the Title 17 loan guarantee program upon completion of their final Technology Readiness Level (TRL) development and pre-construction steps.
  • These funds will accelerate the development of projects so they can meet the qualifications to apply for a Title 17 loan guarantee.
  • This will:
  • increase the number of projects that receive financing through Title 17
  • increase the number of innovative projects that are deployed
  • increase the number of jobs that are created
  • increase economic growth and tax revenues in local communities
  • increase the Nation’s global competitiveness
  • increase the Nation’s ability to address climate change
  • increase the number of Title 17 repayments to the U.S. Treasury

and

  • increase the amount of interest generated for the U.S. Treasury by these repayments

Third:

Emphasize and further explain this last point:

  • This is one of best parts about the Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition’s request.
  • The Development Capital grant program will become self-sustaining.
  • In fact, it will not only will pay for itself, but it will generate additional revenues for the U.S. Treasury.
  • Here’s how:
  • According to the Loan Program Office annual report, there were 15 active Title 17 projects as of September 30, 2022.
  • These projects represented $36.3 billion in loan and loan guarantee commitments
  • Eight of its previous loans had been repaid in full
  • Interest earnings for the U.S. Treasury on these repayments was $523 million.
  • Here’s an example of how this will grow:
  • At the end of January 2024, the Loan Programs Office had 205 active applications with $263.1 billion in loans requested.
  • If half of these project are deployed within the next two years (by the end of FY2026), they would add $131.5 billion in loan obligations, for a total of $167.8 billion in repayments to the U.S. Treasury
  • The interest earned by the U.S. Treasury on these loan obligations will amount to $2.42 billion in FY2027.
  • Thus, the U.S. Treasury would be able to:
  • Recover the funds that are used to establish and fund the Development Capital grant program in FY2025 and FY2026 ($1 billion)
  • Increase funding for the Development Capital grant program to $1 billion per year in FY2027
  • Earn $420 million in interest in FY2027, and
  • Provide $1 billion for the Development Capital grant program in FY2028 and beyond while earning $1.4 billion in interest with ever increasing collections in subsequent years.
  • Thus, in as little as three years, the establishment, continuation, and expansion of the Development Grant program, combined with the number of projects being funded by Title 17, could triple the amount of interest earned by the U.S. Treasury.

Fourth:

Explain why this request is important:

  • Development capital is the lifeblood of every new initiative.
  • Every new project being developed – [insert here, for democratic offices only: every one that is needed to mitigate the climate crisis; for Republican offices, say: every one that will bring jobs, economic stimulus, and increased tax revenues to the communities in your District/State] – only can advance with development capital.
  • Without this development capital, new initiatives can’t move forward.
  • Development capital is the most difficult money to raise in the private sector
  • It has become even more difficult over the past several years [add if you wish, because of a combination of different economic conditions around the world].
  • There is no federal funding that addresses this specific need.
  • Existing grants don’t do this. They only provide funds to meet the specific objectives of the grant.
  • This is why a development capital grant program needs to be established.
  • AFCC has proposed language to be inserted in the fiscal year 2025 appropriations for the Department of Energy to do this.
  • I support the language proposed by AFCC.
  • It will:
  • meet the specific needs of each project
  • advance disruptive, game-changing projects more quickly and less haphazardly
  • meet the requirements of the Title 17 Clean Energy Financing program
  • be deployed, not in 8 or 10 years, but in 4 or 5 (or fewer) years
  • and, thus, provide their benefits to the American people
  • creating jobs
  • providing economic stimulus to local communities
  • generating tax revenues
  • advancing the Nation’s competitiveness

[do not use the next two lines for Republican offices, only for Democratic offices]

and

  • addressing the climate crisis

 Fifth: [if necessary]

Here are some bullet points to use if you are asked “What is the Title 17 program?”

  • The Title 17 program was established by Congress through the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
  • It was created to assume the risks of first-of-their-kind projects, which have a high failure rate.
  • Private sector lenders are unwilling to undertake this level of risk.
  • As a result, many worthwhile projects that can offer benefits to the American people have been unable to move forward
  • The Title 17 program was created to address this need.

Sixth: [if necessary]

Here are some bullet points to use if you get pushback on the program (i.e., “It’s a failure,” “It doesn’t work,” “It’s costing U.S. taxpayers money.”)  The program, unfortunately, still operates under the cloud of the failure of the $523 million Solyndra (solar power company) loan guarantee. Possible responses are:

  • Yes, the Title 17 program has had failures and losses.
  • That’s because its purpose, from the beginning, has been to undertake the risks inherent in first-of-their-kind projects.
  • Every project it reviews undergoes rigorous due diligence to limit these
  • It has, in fact, been quite successful in limiting its losses.
  • For example:
  • The Loan Programs Office posts annual reports about its performance online.
  • Its FY2022 annual report states that the Title 17 program had $35.16 billion in outstanding loans at the end of FY2022.
  • Its write offs and losses, beginning with its first project deployments in 2019, amount to $1.035.
  • This represents 3% of the Title 17 total disbursements
  • Significantly, these losses represent less than one-quarter of the interest payments generated by the Title 17 program and earned the U.S. Treasury.

Seventh:

Be sure to conclude your phone call/email/letter by saying, “Thank you for considering  this request and my support for the FY2025 appropriations language being proposed by the Alternative Fuels & Chemicals Coalition. I greatly appreciate it.”  READ MORE

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dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency egg shell Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrofuels (e-fuels) prices electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts Formate fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect Global South global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ HDO-SAK (hydro deoxygenated synthetic aromatic kerosene) health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 HVO30 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrid ships hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps/fueling stations hydrogen tax credit hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning machinery macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses 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