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U.S. Department of Energy Invests $35 Million to Dramatically Reduce Carbon Footprint of Biofuel Production

Aviation Fuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)), California, Colorado, Delaware, Energy, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Government Resources, grants, Illinois, Marine/Boat Biofuel/MGO/MDO, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Ohio, Process, R & D Focus, Resources, University/College Programs, Washington, Wisconsin
May 17, 2021

(U.S. Department of Energy) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today (May 14, 2021) announced $35 million in funding that will help slash carbon emissions and scale up the volume and efficiency of renewable biofuel. The 15 awarded research projects are housed at colleges, universities, and labs across nine states and will advance new technologies to decarbonize biorefining processes used across the energy, transportation, and agriculture sectors. The funding awards are supported by DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). These investments in advancements in clean energy technology, will help America achieve the Biden-Harris administration’s goal of 100% clean energy economy and net-zero emissions by 2050.

“Biofuel is a powerful tool in the clean energy toolkit that has immense potential to power our ships and airlines with zero carbon emissions,” said Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm. “DOE is investing in research to reduce emissions and maximize the availability of efficient biofuel as we strive to reach President Biden’s net-zero carbon goals.”  

Biofuel, including ethanol, biodiesel and other products derived from organic material (biomass), is almost exclusively produced via a conversion process called fermentation. These fermentation processes create carbon as a byproduct, with some processes wasting more than 1/3 of this carbon as CO2 emissions. As a result, there is a critical need to create new pathways for biofuel conversion that reduces carbon waste, prevents the loss of CO2 emissions, and in turn, maximizes the amount of renewable fuel a conversion process yields.

The 15 teams receiving awards through ARPA-E’s “Energy and Carbon Optimized Synthesis for the Bioeconomy” (ECOSynBio) program will work on the following methods to optimize biofuel manufacturing:  

  • Carbon-optimized fermentation strains that avoid CO2 waste;
  • Engineered organisms that can use a mix of different sources of energy and carbon, and avoid evolving CO2;
  • Biomass-derived sugar or carbon oxide gas fermentation with internal CO2 recycling;
  • Cell-free carbon-optimized biocatalytic biomass conversion and/or CO2 use; and
  • Cross-cutting carbon-optimized bioconversion methods that have the potential for high-impact emissions reductions.

“California is home to many of the world’s leading research institutions, and their innovations will be critical to building a clean energy economy,” said U.S. Senator Alex Padilla. “As we work to mitigate the impacts of climate change, we need to keep investing in the next generation of clean fuel technology. I’m proud to see California’s continued leadership in the development of these clean energy technologies and applaud the Biden administration for their ongoing commitment to combat climate change.”

“Like the Biden Administration, I am committed to investing in the technologies of tomorrow to drive us toward a more eco-friendly and sustainable future. Today’s announcement that The Ohio State University will receive over $1.6 million from the Department of Energy’s cutting-edge ARPA-E program is further proof that President Biden and Vice President Harris are determined to make this dream a reality,” said U.S. Representative Joyce Beatty. “As Representative of Ohio’s Third Congressional District, I will continue to work with the White House to address the impact of climate change—and I am confident that the groundbreaking research being done by Central Ohio scientists will go a long way in pushing that important work forward.”

“The University of Washington is building on its distinguished record of being a local, national, and global leader on developing the scientific innovations necessary to aggressively take on climate change,” said U.S. Representative Pramila Jayapal. “I am grateful that the Biden-Harris Administration is prioritizing bold climate action while immediately centering environmental justice and investing in our institutions of higher education so they can lead the way in protecting our planet for generations to come. I look forward to continuing to work with the new Administration to create green jobs, achieve a renewable energy future, and guarantee clean air, safe drinking water, and public lands for all.”

“I am proud of today’s announcement to support the National Renewable Energy Lab’s continued work to improve efficiency in the development of alternative fuels,” said U.S. Representative Ed Perlmutter. “NREL is the world’s premier lab for developing clean and renewable energy technologies and their work is helping mitigate the causes of climate change and move toward a net-zero emissions future.”

“I want to congratulate a company in my district, LanzaTech, who has been awarded funding by the Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy. The award will help this woman-led small business advance their development of innovative technologies to fight climate change. Through a competitive selection process, this project was chosen for its potential to transform the way energy is used through technology that can be meaningfully advanced with a small amount of funding over a defined period of time,” said U.S. Representative Jan Schakowsky. “Specifically, LanzaTech will create technology to enable direct conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to ethanol, a building block for low carbon intensity fuels and chemicals, at 100% carbon conversion efficiency to products. Our nation’s history is defined by discovery, ingenuity, and innovation, which leads to job growth, economic development, and technology that has the potential to improve the world. Supporting small businesses like LanzaTech and other innovators in my district and around the Chicagoland area will always be a top priority for me.”

The awardees are:

  • INvizyne Technologies, Inc. (Monrovia, CA)
  • LanzaTech, Inc. (Skokie, IL)
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA)
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, CO)
  • Ohio State University (Columbus, OH)
  • Stanford University (Stanford, CA)
  • The Wyss Institute at Harvard University (Boston, MA)
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison (Madison, WI)
  • University of Delaware (Newark, DE)
  • University of California, Davis (Davis, CA)
  • University of California, Irvine (Irvine, CA)
  • University of Minnesota (Minneapolis, MN)
  • University of Washington (Seattle, WA)
  • ZymoChem, Inc. (San Francisco, CA)* Two awards

Read more about the winning projects HERE.

Find more information on the ECOSynBio funding opportunity HERE. Details on how to apply for funding through ARPA-E programs can be found on ARPA-E eXCHANGEREAD MORE

 

ARPA-E invests $35M to slash biofuels carbon intensity as the Drive to Zero continues (Biofuels Digest)

LanzaTech Gets $4.1M in DOE Funding for Carbon Conversion (Natural Gas Intelligence)

LanzaTech awarded $4.1 million from ARPA-E (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

 

Excerpt from Biofuels Digest: The Projects and Awards

LanzaTech: Carbon-Negative Chemical Production Platform – $4,160,262.57

LanzaTech, Inc., will create transformative technology to enable direct conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to ethanol, a building block for low carbon intensity fuels and chemicals, at 100% carbon conversion efficiency to products. The LT team will develop a gas fermentation process that leverages affordable, renewable hydrogen (H2) to capture and fix CO2 directly into valuable fuels and chemicals. At commercial scale, the inputs to the proposed “carbon refinery” process are carbon-free renewable energy, water, and CO2. The carbon- optimized conversion technology developed under this project can be integrated with multiple CO2 sources, such as corn grain ethanol refining (near-term) and direct air capture (mid-long term).

 

National Renewable Energy Laboratory– Formate as an Energy Source to allow Sugar Fermentation with no net CO2 Generation: Integration of Electrochemistry with Fermentation – $2,838,575.64

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) working with industrial partners (Genomatica and DeNora) will develop a biorefining concept that uses electrochemically generated formate as a universal energy carrier to facilitate a carbon optimized sugar assimilation fermentation to synthesize fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) without release of CO2. This process allows all the carbon within the sugar to be converted to FAME, which will allow these lipids—used to produce sustainable aviation jet fuel (SAF)—to be generated at lower cost and with fewer feedstock, resource, and land requirements.

University of Wisconsin-Madison – Acetate as a Platform for Carbon-Negative Production of Renewable Fuels and Chemicals- $3,421,197

The University of Wisconsin-Madison aims to eliminate CO2 release in the production of chemicals by integrating the unique and efficient capabilities of two microorganisms. The first produces acetate from CO2 and H2 while the second upgrades acetate to higher-value chemical products. The CO2 released in the upgrading process is recycled internally to produce more acetate. Thus, this carbon utilization process is designed to operate with zero carbon dioxide release. The process avoids photosynthesis and bypasses the barriers created by using biomass as primary chemical feedstock. Further, this platform can be scaled to match existing sources of CO2 emissions and can be located anywhere renewable H2 can be provided.

Stanford University. Disruptive Technology for Carbon Negative Commodity Biochemicals– $2,582,672.23

Stanford University seeks to replace carbon- and energy-inefficient fermentation unit operations for commodity chemical production with innovative cell-free processes. Instead of releasing CO2 into the

atmosphere, this new approach will enable utilization of atmospheric CO2 as well as glucose obtained from cornstarch to produce renewable fuels and chemicals. Succinic acid will be the first product, but the technology can easily be adapted to produce a broad range of other biochemical products. The new cell-free technology introduces a biosynthesis platform that increases process yield, conversion rate, and energy efficiency to encourage investment in distributed production facilities located in rural communities.

University of Delaware. Bioenergy production based on an engineered mixotrophic consortium for enhanced CO2 fixation –$2,752,577.08

The University of Delaware aims to develop a platform technology based on synthetic syntrophic consortia of Clostridium microbes to enable fast and efficient use of renewable carbohydrates to produce targeted metabolites as biofuels or chemicals. In this syntrophic microbial consortium, two or more microbes are co- cultured, allowing the different species to divide individual bioconversion steps and reduce their individual metabolic burden. The goal is to achieve complete utilization of glucose substrate carbon and electrons, while also using additional CO2 and electrons from H2 to generate improved yields of products such as isopropanol.

University of California, Davis.  A Microbial Consortium Enables Complete Feedstock Conversion – $1,574,966.00

The aviation industry requires energy-dense, carbon-based fuels, which are difficult to achieve biologically because of poor carbon conversion efficiency and low yields. To reach near 100% carbon conversion efficiency, the University of California, Davis, will engineer a novel microbial consortium approach. Single organism can be limited by CO2 loss from core metabolic reactions; thus, coupling a heterotroph with an autotroph will enable CO2 recycling and complete feedstock conversion. The proposed systems will use a heterotrophic production strain to convert sugar substrates into biofuels via a carbon conserving synthetic metabolism and will be co-cultured with a phototrophic strain engineered to be chemotrophic to enable CO2 utilization and recycle CO2 released during the sugar fermentation.

INvizyne Technologies, Inc. Carbon Negative Chemicals with Synthetic Biochemistry- $1,657,763.25

Existing technologies can efficiently capture CO2 by converting it into simple chemicals such as formate (via electroreduction) and ethanol (via fermentation)—molecules that could become carbon-neutral feedstocks to replace petroleum-derived fuels and chemicals. To realize the potential of CO2 capture and conversion, INvizyne Technologies, Inc., will demonstrate the usefulness of a cell-free biocatalytic platform for carbon- neutral production of several platform compounds that could be cost-competitive with petrochemicals. In the short term, INvizyne’s approach can diversify existing bio-ethanol markets while the carbon-neutral CO2 utilization technologies ramp up. If successful, this project will provide a springboard for additional cell-free developments, creating a robust carbon-neutral utilization capacity for the chemical industry.

University of California, Irvine. Carbon-Efficient Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Fuels and Chemicals- $1,841,394.00

Compared with grain-derived sugars, carboxylic acids could be produced in large quantities from food and industrial wastes, serving as a more scalable and economical feedstock for biofuel and biochemical production. But natural biological pathways for carboxylic acid conversion suffer from a low carbon yield. The University of California, Irvine, proposes a cell-free enzymatic process to address this challenge. The system uses a unique, stronger-than-nature reducing equivalent carrier to overcome a thermodynamic hurdle in carboxylic acid utilization and product upgrading using a novel C1 elongation pathway. If successful, it will be

the first biological platform to convert carboxylic acids into a broad range of fuels and commodities with greater than 100% carbon efficiency.

The Wyss Institute at Harvard University. CIRCE: Circularizing Industries by Raising Carbon Efficiency – $2,985,025.23

Some of the most economical and sustainable feedstocks for commodities such as fuels are gases (H2, O2, CO, CO2). Gaseous feedstocks are far less land-intensive and could potentially be more cost effective for biorefining than traditional biomass feedstocks. Further, gaseous feedstocks have fewer restrictions to delivery in large volumes and overall can have much smaller carbon footprints. Harvard University seeks to produce carbon-neutral fuels and related chemicals by integrating externally derived reducing power with precision fermentation. Harvard’s technical approach will enhance, direct, and modify the capabilities of its microbial chassis with sophisticated genetic engineering and adapted fermentation technology. The goal is to shift the bioproduction paradigm and generate highly reduced carbon compounds from simple, inexpensive feedstocks.

University of Minnesota. Cell-free bioelectrocatalytic platform for carbon dioxide reduction – $1,110,526.00

Renewable electricity is now competitive with and in many instances less expensive than fossil fuel-derived electricity, but its storage remains challenging. Energy storage in chemical bonds through electricity-driven carbon reduction offers higher energy densities and greater safety and transportability than batteries. But the efficient use of electricity to reduce kinetically and thermodynamically stable CO2 into a range of chemicals requires significant innovation. The University of Minnesota will design a cell-free biocatalytic system that will reduce CO2 efficiently into formate, a C1 feedstock, with energy supplied from electricity. This project aims to develop a robust bioelectrocatalytic technology platform that will deliver a portable CO2 capture technology and formate as a stand-alone chemical or for integration into longer chain chemical products.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Zero-Carbon Biofuels: An Optimized Two-Stage System for High Productivity Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Fuels – $2,108,532.00

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce biodiesel-like lipids and alkanes. MIT proposes to reduce or eliminate CO2 generation during lipid production by (1) engineering Y. lipolytica with the enzymes necessary to generate reducing equivalents from hydrogen, formic acid, or methanol, and (2) installing a carbon conserving equivalent to glycolysis, called non- oxidative glycolysis. When combined, these modifications will enable almost stoichiometric conversion of glucose and acetate to lipids and alkanes. The system’s commercial competitiveness is currently limited by the rate of CO2 fixation in the first stage. MIT recently showed that synergistic substrate co-feeding drastically enhances CO2 fixation rates and will explore additional co-substrate pairs.

Ohio State University – Columbus, OH

A Novel Integrated Fermentation Process with Engineered Microbial Consortia for Butanol Production from

Lignocellulose Sugars without CO2 Emission – $1,611,940.63

Ohio State University is designing, modeling, and constructing synthetic microbial consortia consisting of three bacterial species to maximize carbon conversion and butanol production with a 100% theoretical product yield from glucose and zero or negative CO2 emissions, aided by the addition of electrochemically reduced formate. With a 50% higher product yield from glucose compared with current acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with corn, biobutanol can be produced at prices that compete with gasoline, bioethanol, and the existing ABE fermentation technologies, but by a more carbon-efficient method.

ZymoChem. Development of a Bio-electrochemical Hybrid Fermentation Technology for the Carbon Conserving Production of Industrial Chemicals – $1,053,000.00

Many consumer goods and high-performance materials are manufactured with polymers made from precursors that derive from petroleum. ZymoChem, Inc., has created fermentation processes that convert sugars into polymer precursors using microorganisms with novel enzyme-based pathways that avoid the loss of the sugar’s carbon as CO2. During this project, ZymoChem aims to develop next-generation bioprocesses that combine (1) inexpensive metal catalysts for converting electricity and CO2 into formate, and (2) electricity- compatible fermentation systems that enable microbes to co-utilize formate and sugars for the production of valuable chemicals.

ZymoChem. Development of Carbon-Conserving Biosynthetic Systems Co-Utilizing C1 and Biomass Derived Feedstocks- $3,177,642

ZymoChem, Inc., aims to develop carbon- and energy-efficient biocatalysts capable of co-conversion of C1- and biomass-derived substrates to a high-volume platform fuel and chemical intermediate. The team will demonstrate a carbon-conserving process decoupling growth and production. The process will enable improved carbon efficiency during the growth phase and 100% carbon-efficient production of bioproducts during the production phase, using biomass-derived sugars and methanol as a reducing equivalent carrier. If successful, this project will demonstrate the improvement of carbon efficiencies beyond current theoretical maximums during the growth and production phases of a bioprocess.

University of Washington. Self-Assembling Cell-Free Systems for Scalable Bioconversion – $1,664,297.00

The University of Washington aims to develop cell-free platforms that produce functional multi-enzyme systems that will enable the cost-effective bioconversion of CO2 into industrial chemicals. Rather than incurring the high costs and process inefficiencies associated with producing and purifying multiple enzymes in separate steps, the team will engineer technologies to de-risk approaches for producing complex, multi- enzyme systems in situ with stoichiometries optimized for CO2 bioconversion. The team will create a self- assembling system that electrochemically regenerates formate-reducing equivalents in real time and assimilates formate into malate, an industrially-relevant di-acid, without carbon loss. The proposed system will capture CO2 in the process of making malate at a cost competitive with more carbon-intensive microbial bioproduction.

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Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio- Renewable Fuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New York Michigan New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD80 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Fuels Policy; carbon removal Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow 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