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Procedures for Quantification, Reporting, and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with the Production of Domestic Agricultural Commodities Used as Biofuel Feedstocks DEADLINE July 25, 2024

(U.S. Department of Agriculture)  The U.S. Department of Agriculture is seeking public input on procedures for the quantification, reporting, and verification of the effect of climate-smart farming practices on the greenhouse gas (GHG) net emissions estimates associated with the production of

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Models on the Runway: Is SAF Ready for Take-off?

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) ... So, at EUBCE, you ask, what is the buzz on the floor? To paraphrase Monty Python:, it is SAF, SAF, SAF, SAF, carbon price on chemicals, eSAF, SAF, SAF and eSAF. So many people had so many

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Unlocking New Zealand's Green Energy Future: Short Rotation Forestry Holds Key to Lowering Fossil Fuel Dependency

(Scion) A two-year research project has shed light on the promising opportunities for regional New Zealand to adopt short rotation forestry (SRF) for bioenergy production. The findings show that leveraging short rotation forestry will not only diversify regional economies, but also contribute to

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For Sustainable Aviation Fuel, Researchers Engineer a Promising Microorganism for Precursor Production

(U.S. Department of Energy) Pseudomonas putida is a useful microorganism for producing the sustainable aviation fuel precursor isoprenol due to its ability to use renewable sources of carbon. -- Sustainable aviation fuels made from renewable sources of carbon could reduce carbon dioxide

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Modeling GHG Emissions from Source Separated Organics

by Romy Carpenter and Andrew Carpenter (BioCycle Magazine) New study assesses greenhouse gas emissions from five management options for SSO collected from residential, commercial, and institutional sources in New York City. -- The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYC DEP) worked

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RFA Welcomes 40B Sustainable Aviation Fuel Guidance, But Says Additional Work Needed

(Renewable Fuels Association) The 40B tax credit guidance and modified GREET model released today by U.S. Treasury begin to unlock the door for U.S. ethanol producers and farmers to participate in the emerging market for sustainable aviation fuels (SAF). However, more work

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Argonne’s Decarbonization Scenario Model Analyzes Ambitious Pathways to Net-Zero Carbon Emissions

(Argonne National Laboratory/Business Wire) -While the world would love to have a quick fix, there is no one specific pathway to stop or slow the rate of climate change. “The approach must take into account the transitioning energy demands across the economy,

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2023 Billion-Ton Report: An Assessment of U.S. Renewable Carbon Resources

(U.S. Department of Energy)  The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technology Office's (BETO) 2023 Billion-Ton Report (BT23) is the 4th in a series of assessments of potential biomass resources available in the United States. BT23 explores these resources in

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BV Research Confirms Central Role of Operationa and Energy Efficiency in Meeting Shipping's 2050 Carbon Budget

(Bureau Veritas) Decarbonization simulations reveal the cumulative impact of operational and technical efficiency measures and showcase the importance of energy insetting in bridging the price gap between conventional and new fuels. -- Bureau Veritas (BV), a world leader in testing, inspection and

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Computational Models Can Accelerate and Scale Up Biomass Conversion

(U.S. Department of Energy) Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Computational Science Center are hard at work enabling the conversion of biomass to fuels and products at industrial scale. Computational tools can model biomass conversion at scales ranging from small lab beakers to

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BV Research Confirms Central Role of Operational and Energy Efficiency in Meeting Shipping's 2050 Carbon Budget

(Bureau Veritas) Decarbonization simulations reveal the cumulative impact of operational and technical efficiency measures and showcase the importance of energy insetting in bridging the price gap between conventional and new fuels.  Bureau Veritas (BV), a world leader in testing, inspection and certification,

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On the Ground in Colorado, NREL Is Simulating Sustainable Aviation Fuel Combustion during Flight

by Erik F. Ringle (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Laboratory Supports Industry in Fine-Tuning Sustainable Aviation Fuel Chemistry Ahead of Seeking Approval for Widespread Airplane Use -- ... But changes are coming for jet fuel, and the aviation industry is actively inviting

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UK MPs Welcome Government’s Jet Zero Ambitions but Have Concerns over Deliverability

by Christopher Surgenor (GreenAir Online) Cross-party MPs on the UK Parliament’s Environmental Audit Committee have welcomed government policy steps to scale up and support new technologies, zero carbon aircraft and domestic sustainable aviation fuel production in efforts to reach a sectoral

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RFA Welcomes Recognition of GREET Model in SAF Tax Credit Guidance

(Renewable Fuels Association) The U.S. Treasury Department today released guidance regarding the implementation of the Inflation Reduction Act’s sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) tax credit. The guidance clarifies that a soon-to-be-updated version of the Department of Energy’s GREET model will be among the methodologies used

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EIA's Next-Generation Modeling Webinar --- November 15, 2023 --- ONLINE

(U.S. Department of Energy) The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) invites you to join us as we share EIA’s plans to develop a next-generation energy model, which will eventually be used to produce EIA’s long-term projections.  During this webinar, we will lay

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House Biofuels Caucus Introduces GREET Act

by Cindy Zimmerman (Energy.AgWired.com) House Biofuels Caucus Co-chairs Dusty Johnson (R-SD) Adrian Smith (R-NE), Angie Craig (D-MN), and Mark Pocan (D-WI) this week introduced the Adopt Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Act to direct the Environmental Protection Agency

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel Industry Leaders Call on Biden Administration to Immediately Recognize Argonne GREET Model

(Renewable Fuels Association)  As President Biden kicks off a series of events focused on rural investment, 70 industry leaders covering nearly the entire supply chain for Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) – including major airlines – called on the Biden Administration to unleash progress in

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New Study Questions Accuracy of EU’s Biofuel Impact Assessments

by Sean Goulding Carroll (EURACTIV.com)  Skewed data was used to determine the impact of the EU’s renewable energy directive, a scientific paper has claimed, raising questions about the model and process employed by the European Commission to assess policy options for

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Ethanol Still Makes Sense for Climate, Rural Communities

(Solutions from the Land)  ... Renewable corn energy seems a no-brainer compared to nonrenewable petroleum-based gasoline. Oil does not—and cannot—foster life like agriculture. And once oil is gone, it’s gone. But a working group of the EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) is

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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Systems Development and Integration – Scale-Up Portfolio

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) SDI directly supports BETO’s strategic goal to decarbonize the transportation sector through R,D, &D to produce cost-effective, sustainable aviation and other strategic fuels – By 2030, SDI aims to support scale-up of multiple biofuel production pathways

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A Model System for Microalgae Production Forecasting

by Karthikeyan K. Ramasamy (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  In the world of biofuels over the past decade, the eyes of industry have increasingly focused on the potential for domestic microalgae to provide alternative energy with reduced carbon emissions. However, to use these

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Overhauling Carbon Accounting

by Brad Pleima (EcoEngineers/Biomass Magazine)  Improved carbon accounting methodology for biogas projects will be a game-changer for the industry. -- Currently, the biogas industry lacks a comprehensive accounting methodology that enables a standardized, stable market environment for carbon reduction and removal resulting

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Protecting the Future of Low-Carbon Aviation

by Emily Skor (Growth Energy/Ethanol Producer Magazine) Launched in 2021, the Biden administration’s Sustainable Aviation Fuel Grand Challenge aims to produce enough low-carbon jet fuel to slash aviation emissions in half by 2050. Thanks to new incentives created by the Inflation Reduction Act,

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Representatives to Treasury: Adopt GREET Model for SAF Tax Credit

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) A bipartisan group of 21 federal lawmakers on July 28 sent a letter to U.S. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen urging the Treasury Department to adopt the U.S. Department of Energy’s GREET model as the secondary

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Advocates Blast EPA Modeling of ICE Vehicle GHG ‘Backsliding’

(Inside EPA) Environmentalists are strongly criticizing EPA modeling suggesting that combustion vehicles’ efficiency will erode under the agency’s light-duty vehicle emissions proposal, findings that are bolstering their calls to strengthen the plan, though the dynamic could also enable less ambitious electric

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FEW General Session Panelists Discuss the Future of Ethanol; Awards Presented

by Katie Schroeder (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Representatives of the Renewable Fuels Association, Growth Energy and the American Coalition for Ethanol on June 13 discussed the future of the U.S. ethanol industry during a general session panel at the 39th annual International Fuel

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Duckworth, Fischer, Ernst, Klobuchar, Grassley Introduce Bipartisan Bill to Solidify Future of American-Grown Sustainable Aviation Fuels

(Office of Senator Tammy Duckworth (D-IL))  U.S. Senator and pilot Tammy Duckworth (D-IL)—member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation (CST) and Chair of the Subcommittee on Aviation Safety, Operations and Innovation—and U.S. Senator Deb Fischer (R-NE) along

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Renewable Fuels from Green Refineries

(Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) Consortium of Science and Industry Develops Processes and Demand Scenarios for the Mass Production of Synthetic Fuels – Federal Funding of around EUR 7 Million Synthetic fuels from renewable energy sources are needed to reach the climate

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Is Corn Ethanol Really Sustainable? Researchers Analyze the True Cost of Biofuel Production

by Anne Manning (Colorado State University/TechXplore)  ... "I think my subjective takeaway is that the biofuels industry is good from an emissions point of view, but it could be much better," (the paper's first author, Jack) Smith said. "The emissions reductions we're

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Brooge Energy Announces Completion of Technical Study by thyssenkrupp Uhde for Green Ammonia Plant

(Brooge Energy/Globe Newswire) Brooge Energy Ltd, (“Brooge Energy” or the “Company”) (NASDAQ: BROG), a Cayman Islands-based infrastructure provider, which is currently engaged in clean petroleum products and biofuels and crude oil storage and related services, announced today that the technical study

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RFA Provides Input on IRA’s Clean Fuel Production and CCUS Credits, Biofuels Infrastructure Grants

(Renewable Fuels Association) As federal agencies continue to work on implementation of the Inflation Reduction Act, the Renewable Fuels Association on Saturday filed two sets of comments to the Internal Revenue Service, related to credits for carbon sequestration and clean fuel

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NASEM Finds More Research Necessary to Improve Methods for Estimating Life Cycle of GHG Emissions of Low-Carbon Transportation Fuels

by Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton (Bergeson & Campbell) The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) announced on October 19, 2022, the release of a report finding that life cycle assessments (LCA) of transportation fuels are valuable tools for

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2022 Scoping Plan for Achieving Carbon Neutrality

(California Air Resources Board) This Scoping Plan lays out the sector-by-sector roadmap for California, the world’s fifth1 largest economy, to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045 or earlier, outlining a technologically feasible, cost-effective, and equity-focused path to achieve the state’s climate

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Growth Energy Sends Letter to Treasury on Action to Slash Aviation Emissions

(Growth Energy) Today, Growth Energy sent a letter to the U.S. Department of the Treasury on implementation of Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (IRA) tax credits for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). In her letter, Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor calls on regulators to

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The Limits to Technology-Neutrality or How to Exclude Biofuels from Future Mobility Renewable Solutions

by Philippe Marchand (Bioenergy Steering Committee Member, European Technology and Innovation Platform (ETIP)/Transport Energy Strategies) One of the basic advocacy lines for the promotion of bioenergy in transport, biofuels or biogas, is calling for technology neutrality when comparing solutions to reduce the carbon

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Ethanol: A Pathway to Reward Climate Smart Agriculture

by Brian Jennings (American Coalition for Ethanol/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  A few years ago, ACE began alerting our industry that it would be a matter of if, not when, Congress would enact legislation designed to address climate change and reduce greenhouse

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DOE Announces $178 Million to Advance Bioenergy Technology

(U.S. Department of Energy) 37 Projects Will Develop New Technologies That Engineer Plants and Microbes into Bioenergy and Improve Carbon Storage  --  The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $178 million for bioenergy research to advance sustainable technology breakthroughs that

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Brown Announces $2.5 Million for Biofuel Research at The Ohio State University

(Office of Senator Sherrod Brown (D-OH))  Today (September 13, 2022), U.S. Senator Sherrod Brown (D-OH) announced that the Department of Energy has awarded a $2.5 million grant to The Ohio State University (OSU) for research on the creation of new biofuel

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RFA, Growth Energy Slam Inaccurate Reuters Report on Ethanol GHGs

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The Renewable Fuels Association and Growth Energy are slamming a Reuters article published on Sept. 8 that recycles highly misleading claims about the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of U.S. ethanol plants. The Reuters article, in part, cites the

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New Algorithm Uncovers Secrets of Cell Factories

by Karin Wik and Susanne Nilsson Lindh (Chalmers University of Technology/Phys.Org) Drug molecules and biofuels can be made to order by living cell factories, where biological enzymes do the job. Now, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have developed a

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2021 Project Peer Review Report

(U.S. Department of Energy) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) hosted its virtual 2021 Project Peer Review on March 8‒12, 15‒16, and 22‒26, 2021. During the event, 271 projects in BETO’s research portfolio were presented, representing a total

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Make Greenhouse-Gas Accounting Reliable — Build Interoperable Systems -- Global Integrated Reporting Is Essential if the Planet Is to Achieve Net-Aero Emissions.

by Amy Luers , Leehi Yona , Christopher B. Field , Robert B. Jackson , Katharine J. Mach , Benjamin W. Cashore , Cynthia Elliott , Lauren Gifford , Colleen Honigsberg , Lena Klaassen , H. Damon Matthews , Andi

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Growth Energy Sets Expectations for Landmark EPA Proposal

(Growth Energy/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Growth Energy celebrated the 17th anniversary of the Renewable Fuel Standard, signed into law on Aug. 8, 2005, by outlining the biofuel sector’s top priorities for the U.S. EPA’s fast-approaching update to the program. Under a consent decree agreement reached with

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RFA Provides Input on Future of California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard

(Renewable Fuels Association)  In comments filed with the California Air Resources Board today, the Renewable Fuels Association stressed that the next iteration of the state’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard must be technology-neutral and allow low-carbon renewable fuels to compete fairly as

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ANL: Can Farms Produce to the Max and Still Reduce GHG Emissions?

by Kristen Mally Dean (Argonne National Laboratory/Ethanol Producer Magazine) ... With new practices, farmers can make farms a net sink of CO2, helping the U.S. reach its goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2050. Sustainable intensification is a two-prong approach many think

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Biofuel, Ag Groups Comment on SEC Climate Disclosures Rulemaking

by Erin Voegele (Biomass Magazine) ...  Growth Energy’s comments focused on the calculation of biofuel GHG emissions. “The proposed rule would require many public companies to calculate and disclose GHG emissions from throughout their entire supply chain and production cycle,” Growth Energy

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The Biofuel Folks Might Like a Word about Your Corn Stover

by Brian O'Connor (No-Till Farmer)  ... A study published in the Journal of Cleaner Production found that harvesting up to 30% of corn stover on a field for use in fuel products could increase revenues for growers and decrease the negative impact on the environment,

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WWF-SA Launches Report on Potential of SAF Production in South Africa

(RSB) RSB member and long-term partner WWF South Africa has published an excellent report on the potential for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) production in South Africa, across 7 feedstock/technology combinations. The report, entitled ‘Fuel for the future: A blueprint for the production of sustainable

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Thune, Klobuchar Urge EPA to Update Biofuel Emissions Modeling

(KLGR) Two Senate Ag Committee members recently urged the Environmental Protection Agency to update its greenhouse gas modeling for biofuels.  Senators John Thune, a South Dakota Republican, and Amy Klobuchar, a Minnesota Democrat, asked the EPA to adopt the Argonne National Lab’s

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ACE to EPA: Adopt GREET Model and Recognize Ethanol’s Low Carbon Value

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest)  In South Dakota, The American Coalition for Ethanol submitted feedback to the Environmental Protection Agency’s request for comment on the current scientific understanding of greenhouse gas modeling of land-based crop biofuels. ACE CEO Brian Jennings and ACE Board

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Two Studies Show Lower Carbon Intensity from Replacement of Aromatics in Gasoline with Ethanol

(Transport Energy Strategies) Two studies conducted by Transport Energy Strategies (TES) and THiggins Energy Consulting show that gasoline blended with ethanol lowers carbon intensity (CI) even more than what is modeled today and what is shown in recent studies. The first

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Under Pressure to Revise Estimates, EPA Mulls Lifecycle Biofuel GHGs

(Inside EPA) As EPA comes under growing pressure to increase its estimates of how much greenhouse gas emissions biofuels save over their lifetime, the agency is holding consultations that could result in changes that may boost programs encouraging biofuels use

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Dev Shrestha: Real-World Data Shows No Food Insecurity or ILUC from Biofuels

by Tammy Klein (Transport Energy Strategies)  On this episode of the Fueling the Future podcast, I spoke with Dr. Dev Shrestha of the University of Idaho about the recent paper he co-authored, “Biofuel Impact on Food Prices Index and Land Use Change.” The

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RFA Supports EPA’s Proposed 2022 RFS Volumes, Urges Agency to Abandon Retroactive Cut to 2020 Volume

(Renewable Fuels Association) In comments submitted today (February 4, 2022) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Renewable Fuels Association expressed strong support for the agency’s proposed 2022 renewable volume obligations (RVO) while opposing the proposed retroactive reduction of the previously finalized

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ACE, Industry Groups Encourge CARB to Recognize Climate-Smart Farming Practices in Low Carbon Fuel Standard

(American Coalition for Ethanol) In a cosigned letter, the American Coalition for Ethanol (ACE), along with the Great Plains Institute, Low Carbon Fuels Coalition, the National Biodiesel Board, and Canadian Oilseed Processors Association, recommended the California Air Resources Board (CARB) recognize the

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Workshop on Biofuel Greenhouse Gas Modeling --- February 28-March 1, 2022 --- ONLINE Public Comments DEADLINE: April 1, 2022

EPA is hosting a virtual public workshop on biofuel greenhouse gas (GHG) modeling February 28 - March 1, 2022. This is a virtual meeting and open to the public. The purpose of this workshop is to solicit information on the current

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Argonne National Laboratory Releases 2021 GREET Update

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) Argonne National Laboratory’s Systems Assessment Center on Oct. 11 announced the 2021 release of the suite of GREET models, an analytical tool that stimulates the energy use and emissions output of vehicle and fuel combinations. Major

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In the Race to Reduce Car Emissions, Don't Forget Longevity

(Kyushu University)  Extending car lifetime and first-owner possession length can reduce overall emissions more than accelerating replacement according to new study -- As countries race to reduce emissions and mitigate climate change, the debate on green vehicles often focuses on

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Matching For More: The Defour Group's Dean Drake's Plan Involves Match Blending Mid-Level Blends

by Melissa Anderson (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The Defour Group's Dean Drake, a former GM public policy analyst, says liquid fuels have a shared future with electric vehicles if ethanol blending methods, engine technology and policy can align. His plan involves

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U.S. Farm & Biofuel Leaders Seek Immediate Aviation Fuel Fix to Budget Bill

(Renewable Fuels Association) America’s top biofuel and farm advocates called on Democratic leaders to fix a major flaw in the House Ways & Means Committee text released Friday night for tax provisions of the budget reconciliation, which is set for consideration Tuesday. As

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Not so Fast: But Biofuel and Agriculture Advocates Are Sounding the Alarm

by Matthew Choi (Politico's Morning Energy)  Not so fast: But biofuel and agriculture advocates are sounding the alarm over the language of a proposed $1.25-$1.75 sustainable aviation fuel tax credit, which they argue would make the administration's new SAF targets extremely difficult to achieve.

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Fact Sheet: Biden Administration Advances the Future of Sustainable Fuels in American Aviation

(White House) New Actions Aim to Produce Three Billion Gallons of Sustainable Fuel, Reduce Aviation Emissions by 20% by 2030, and Grow Good-Paying, Union Jobs  --  Today (September 9, 2021), President Biden is taking steps to coordinate leadership and innovation across

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To Limit Warming, Most Fossil Fuel Must Remain Untapped: Study

by Rachel Frazin (The Hill) The majority of the planet’s oil, gas and coal must remain in the ground to provide just a 50 percent chance of limiting the amount the Earth has warmed to 1.5 degrees Celsius, according to a

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Biofuels Offer a Cost-Effective Way to Lower Shipping Emissions

(Argonne National Laboratory/Tech Xplore)  Marine shipping traffic has grown steadily over the past decade—and so have the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon emissions from ships grew almost 10% between 2012 and 2018, and the industry is a large consumer of

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Advanced Biofuels Canada Launches Interactive Map of Member’s Canadian and Global Operations

(Advanced Biofuels Canada/EIN Newswire)  Advanced Biofuels Canada’s (ABFC) website now includes an interactive Sector Map that showcases its members’ North American and global facilities with a focus on locations, services provided, feedstock and technology used, as well as the different

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Air Board Should Expand Use of Biofuels

by Mike Gatto (CalMatters)  ... If we know a solution exists to begin cleaning our air while we work toward a zero-tailpipe-emissions future, then there is no reason to wait. The California Air Resources Board should work quickly to expand

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RFA Founder Calls for Correction of EPA Transportation Office’s “Shocking Miscarriage of Environmental Justice”

(Dakota Ag Energy)  Speaking to the 14th Annual Bioenergy Conference hosted by Brazilian government and industry stakeholders, the founder of the U.S. Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) charged U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) bureaucrats with a “shocking

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Unlock the Power to Predict: NREL Model Benefits Biomass-to-Fuel Reactor Design

by Zia Abdullah (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers can accurately predict reaction rates and optimal conditions for making biofuels. Their secret? Complex math to sketch the intricate chemistry and physics that drive catalytic fast pyrolysis. Catalytic

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Thune, Farm-State Colleagues to Biden: Biofuels Noticeably Absent From Your Agenda

(Office of Senator John Thune R-SD) U.S. Sen. John Thune (R-S.D.) today led several of his colleagues in sending a letter to President Biden requesting a meeting with him and representatives of his cabinet to discuss the Renewable Fuel Standard and promote biofuels

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Meeting Paris Goals Will Create Green Jobs

(Our Daily Planet) Researchers recently conducted an analysis of how trying to meet the Paris Agreement targets would affect energy jobs in 50 countries. They found that action to reach the targets would increase net jobs by about 8 million

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Modeling for Biorefineries: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Red Rock Biofuels De-Risking Feedstock

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)Optimizing and de-risking the deployment of biomass gasification processes by implementing physics-based simulations of feed handling and transportation unit operations was NREL’s goal as they did modeling and simulations to support Red Rock Biofuels during design

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Iowa Lawmakers Urge Biden to Prioritize Biofuels

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) Sens. Joni Ernst, R-Iowa, Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, and Reps. Randy Feenstra, R-Iowa; Ashley Hinson, R-Iowa; and Mariannette Miller-Meeks, R-Iowa, sent a letter to President Biden on May 25 urging him to uphold his promise to

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Biofuels Industry Wary of Tech-Neutral Tax Credit Absent CI Model Changes

by Patrick Newkumet (OPIS)  Alternative low-carbon fuel producers would receive tax credits for reaching net-zero emissions under a U.S. Senate bill introduced last month, but biofuel industry stakeholders are concerned they will find it difficult to reach that target by 2030

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Enhancing Land Surface Models to Grow Perennial Bioenergy Crops

(U.S. Department of Energy/EurekAlert!) High-yield miscanthus and switchgrass are promising alternatives to traditional annual crops for biofuels. --  ... To understand the effects of this trend, scientists must accurately represent biofuel crops in land surface models. Using observations from biofuel

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2021 Project Peer Review—Presentation Database

(U.S. Department of Energy)  The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) hosted its 2021 Project Peer Review virtually on March 8‒12, 2021; March 15‒16, 2021; and March 22‒26, 2021. Presentations for all sessions can be found in the searchable database below. For more information,

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Getting the Most from Sustainable Aviation Fuel

by Lloyd Ritter (Green Capitol LLC/Biofuels Digest) The aviation industry is currently responsible for less than 3% of total global carbon emissions, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). But with air travel expected to increase by more than 60 percent

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American Coalition for Ethanol Commends Scientists For Evidence Ethanol Must Be Part Of The Climate Solution

(American Coalition for Ethanol/GrainNet)  American Coalition for Ethanol (ACE) welcomed more scientifically credible evidence provided by Department of Energy Argonne National Lab scientists that explicitly states, “Corn ethanol plays an important role in enhancing energy security and the rural economy while contributing to

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RFA to USDA: Ethanol Fuels Climate-Smart Agriculture, Energizes Rural Communities

(Renewable Fuels Association) In separate comment letters submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Renewable Fuels Association explained how expanded ethanol production and use can support the administration’s “climate-smart” agriculture goals and encouraged USDA to use the Rural Energy Pilot

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Green Hydrogen (Simple Electrolysis Financial Model)

(eFinancial Models Templates)  The Model Incorporates data provided by different available sources to Model an Electrolysis financial model. It includes Electrolyzer cost, Dispenser, Storage Compression & Transport Cost. The Model has a ticker to include the cost of the transport

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Senators Ask USDA to Update Biodiesel Emissions Study

by Erin Voegele (Biodiesel Magazine) A group of 10 senators led by Sens. John Thune, R-S.D., and Amy Klobuchar, D-Minn., on March 18 sent a letter to Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack urging the USDA to complete a full lifecycle assessment of

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Feedstock Development, Production, Management: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to USDA’s Feedstock Innovations

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  From switchgrass, sorghum or sugarcane, feedstock development, genomics, and crops improvement abound with USDA’s help at the Biomass Research Center. Rob Mitchell, Research Leader and Research Agronomist at USDA ARS, shares all about the latest

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Aviation Leaders Launch First in-Flight 100% Sustainable Aviation Fuel Emissions Study on Commercial Passenger Jet

(Neste) A team of aerospace specialists has launched the world’s first in-flight emissions study using 100% sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) on a wide-body commercial passenger aircraft. Airbus, German research centre DLR, Rolls-Royce and SAF producer Neste have teamed up to start the

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Biofuel Supported Bills Introduced on Capitol Hill

by Jacqui Fatka (Farm Progress)  House climate proposal includes RFS integrity provisions and Adopt GREET Act recognizes ethanol’s improved environmental benefits.  -- Legislators are looking to expand access and acceptance of biofuels with the introduction of several bills this week on

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POET Urges Biden Climate Team to Grasp E15 Philosophy

(Biofuels International)  POET has urged the new Biden administration to embrace E15. The world’s largest biofuels producer, based in Sioux Falls in South Dakota, has also welcomed the new President’s leadership in making climate a top priority. ... Rob Walther, vice president of

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EH&E Study Shows Corn Ethanol Emits 46% Less Greenhouse Gases Than Gasoline – Finding Differs from Conventional Wisdom Suggesting Only 20% 

(Environmental Health & Engineering Inc.) Research from EH&E shows that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for ethanol, a biofuel made from corn, are 46% lower than gasoline. Conventional wisdom based on a prior analysis done by EPA had pegged the difference to

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Thune, Klobuchar Reintroduce Bill to Recognize Environmental Benefit of Biofuels, Efficient Farming

(Office of Senator John Thune (R-S.D.)) U.S. Sens. John Thune (R-S.D.) and Amy Klobuchar (D-Minn.) today reintroduced the Adopt GREET Act, legislation that would require the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to update its greenhouse gas modeling for ethanol and biodiesel. Specifically, the bill would require

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Clean Fuel Standard Model Demonstrates Biofuel Demand, Signals Need to Expand Production Capacity in Canada

(Advanced Biofuels Canada/EIN Presswire)  WAEES incorporates Canada’s CFS into their global model to profile impacts on supply chains, biofuels, and compliance credit markets -- Advanced Biofuels Canada (ABFC) announced the release of detailed expert modelling of Canada’s Clean Fuel Standard (CFS). The

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Growth Energy Outlines 2021 Biofuel Policy Priorities

(Growth Energy/Ethanol Producer Magazine) Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor today outlined the biofuels industry’s top federal priorities for 2021, highlighting key measures that elected leaders must take to protect the climate, revitalize rural communities, and offer more consumers clean, affordable options

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Study Confirms Contribution of Bioenergy to Climate Change Mitigation

by Elton Alisson (Agência FAPESP) ... Some argue, for example, that biofuels are not sustainable because the conversion of non-agricultural land to grow energy crops could lead to a significant initial decrease in carbon storage, creating what is known as a

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ANL Releases 2020 Updates to GREET Models

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) Argonne National Laboratory’s Systems Assessment Center on Oct. 9 announced the 2020 release of the suite of Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Technologies (GREET) models. GREET is a life-cycle analysis tool that can

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Study Predicts Climate Benefits Stemming from the Use of Advanced Biofuels

(AZO CleanTech/Colorado State University) Biofuel and bioenergy systems are integral to scenarios for displacing fossil fuel use and producing negative emissions through carbon capture and storage. But the net greenhouse gas mitigation benefit of these systems has been controversial, due to

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Phenotyping and Trait Predictions: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Sorghum as Energy Crop

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Take genotype + environment + management practices and you’ve got phenotyping, a measurable characteristic or trait of a plant. In this case, we look at sorghum from Purdue University’s Dr. Melba Crawford and how they are

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New Soil Models May Ease Atmospheric CO2, Climate Change

(North America Climate Smart Agriculture Alliance)  ... In an article published in Nature Geoscience, Cornell University's Johannes Lehmann and others wrote that scientists should develop new models that more accurately reflect the carbon-storage processes beneath our feet in order to effectively

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ACE: Legislation Would Require EPA to Update GREET

(American Coalition for Ethanol/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Today (August 6, 2020), Sen. John Thune, R-S.D., introduced the Adopt GREET Act, which would require U.S. EPA to update its decade-old greenhouse gas lifecycle modeling for ethanol and biodiesel. American Coalition for Ethanol

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Growth Energy Encourages California to Embrace More Biofuels

(Growth Energy/Ethanol Producer Magazine) This week, Growth Energy submitted comments to the California Air Resources Board following a July 15th workshop on Fuels and Infrastructure for a Carbon Neutral Economy. In his written submission, Growth Energy Senior Vice President of Regulatory Affairs Chris Bliley

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Bustos Secures Agriculture Wins for Rural America in $152 Billion Appropriations Bill

(Office of Congresswoman Cheri Bustos (D-IL)) Today, Congresswoman Cheri Bustos (D-IL) helped pass a comprehensive Agriculture and Rural Development funding bill out of the powerful House Appropriations Committee that would deliver more than $152 billion in agriculture and rural support. “Democrats are building up

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Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter on Behalf of the Urban Air Initiative (UAI)

(Urban Air Initiative)  On behalf of the Urban Air Initiative (UAI), we appreciate the opportunity to comment on the above Proposed Rulemaking (Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2015-0072). UAI is a not for profit technical organization with a particular focus on automotive emissions

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Can Techno-Economic Models and Environmental Impact Analysis Help You?: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Techno-Economic Modeling for Bioprocess Tech

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) During last week’s DigestConnect discussion, Chris Burk from Burk Engineering and Lee Enterprises shared this slide guide on what exactly is techno-economic modeling, why it’s important, how techno-economic models work, how it’s used in real life

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Transparency At EPA Still Missing

(Urban Air Initiative) The EPA is working on another emission testing program, one that will cost $25 million and last five years. This comes on the heels of a previous emissions study funded by the EPA. When the Urban Air Initiative

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EPA Loses Case Seeking Modeling behind Obama Mileage Rollback

by Rebecca Beitsch (The Hill) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was wrong to withhold information about how it devised its new fuel efficiency standards, a panel of judges ruled just a day after the Trump administration rolled back Obama-era mileage standards. The

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All the Wrong MOVES: EPA's MOVES Model Contains Serious Flaws

by Dave VanderGriend  (Urban Air Initiative/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  EPA's MOVES model contains serious flaws and could heavily impact the industry as EPA conducts anti-backsliding study.  --  What is playing out in front of the ethanol industry is the reality of

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Northeast/Mid-Atlantic Regional Cap-and-Invest Modeling Lacks Consideration of Renewable Fuel Adoption and Infrastructure

by Joanne Ivancic (Advanced Biofuels USA)  Modeling by Georgetown Climate Center's Transportation and Climate Initiative of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States released Tuesday showed potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction, pollution reduction, job creation and public health benefits.  The anticipated

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Green Dreams: Agilyx and GE Enter Agreement to Advance the Circular Economy for Plastics

(Agilyx/PR Newswire) Bringing artificial intelligence, machine learning and predictive modeling to chemical recycling; Aiming to improve recycling of post-use plastics to >95%  -- Imagine a world where plastic materials would never go to waste. Agilyx Corporation ("Agilyx"), the leader in chemical recycling of

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Argonne Collaboration Shows Benefits of Better Corn Residue Management Strategies

(U.S. Department of Energy) As the global population swells, boosting the demand for both food and energy, land management has never been more important. Now, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory are conducting pivotal research that

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The New Science Fossil Fuel Companies Fear

by Zack Coleman (Politico)  Researchers can now link weather events to emissions – and to the companies responsible. A string of lawsuits is about to give “attribution science” a real-life test.  --  Richard Heede spent a decade digging through “disheveled, dusty”

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Want More Miles per Gallon? Start Planting Some Trees

by Beth A. Russell (Idaho National Laboratory) It turns out that trees (or as researchers refer to them, woody biomass) can be refined to produce a carbon-rich wood alcohol that is excellent for use in high-octane fuel blends. Lest one imagine a

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American Coalition for Ethanol : ACE Calls on EPA to Rely on the GREET Model as It Considers Future RFS Volumes

(American Coalitin for Ethanol/Market Screener)  American Coalition for Ethanol (ACE) CEO Brian Jennings highlighted the important role corn ethanol could have in further reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if properly valued under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in a letter to Environmental Protection

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Alternative Oxygenate Effects on Emissions

(Urban Air Institute)  The Urban Air Initiative (UAI) would like to thank the Coordinated Research Council (CRC) for its recent study that shows simply adding an oxygenate lowers tailpipe emissions. This recent CRC study, Report No. E-129, titled ALTERNATIVE OXYGENATE EFFECTS ON EMISSIONS,

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Senators Urge EPA to Update Science on Ethanol

(Feedstuffs)  EPA has rejected calls to update GHG calculations based on technological advancements in ethanol production. -- A bipartisan group of senators led by Sens. Chuck Grassley (R., Iowa) and Dick Durbin (D., Ill.), both members of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition &

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Argonne Releases Updated Computer Model to Help Bioenergy Developers Conserve Water

(Argonne National Laboratory)  Critical updates to WATER tool help the bioenergy industry manage resources.   --  The U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory recently released an updated version of an online computer model meant to help bioenergy developers preserve critical resources. The model, called

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Pathways to 2050: Scenarios for Decarbonizing the U.S. Economy

(Center for Climate and Clean Energy Solutions)  Climate change is among the most profound challenges of all time, confronting individuals, businesses, and governments across the globe. Meeting this challenge requires a sweeping, sustained effort over the coming decades. To successfully orient

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Presentation Slides Now Available for Transportation and Climate Initiative Webinar, May 23

(Transportation and Climate Initiative of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States)  This interactive presentation will discuss modeling methods that TCI states are considering to inform the design of a regional low-carbon transportation policy. Presenters reviewed data inputs and assumptions that may be

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GREET Advances Understanding of the Sustainability of Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biopower

(U.S. Department of Energy)  The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is a tool that examines the life-cycle impacts of vehicle technologies, fuels, products, and energy systems. It provides a transparent platform through which energy and vehicle producers,

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New Study: Renewable Fuel Standard Saves Consumers 22 Cents on Every Gallon of Gas

by Kelsey Quargnenti (Renewable Fuels Association)  The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) has lowered gas prices by an average of 22 cents per gallon in recent years and saved the typical American household $250 annually, according to a study published today by economist

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The Case for a Credit

by  Steffen Mueller and Sam Rushing (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The role of ethanol-based carbon dioxide is often underappreciated, both as an important source for the nation’s carbon dioxide market and for its carbon-reduction impact. Fermentation CO2  is captured, cleaned and condensed

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Comparison of Biofuel Life-Cycle GHG Emissions Assessment Tools: The Case Studies of Ethanol Produced from Sugarcane, Corn, and Wheat

by L.G.Pereira, O.Cavalett, A.Bonomi, Y.Zhang, E.Warner, H.L.Chum (Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews)  Highlights:  Emissions ranged from 16 to 45 for sugarcane and 43–62 g CO2eq MJ−1 for corn ethanol. LCA tools produce similar results when harmonized to the maximum possible extent. Models are sensitive to methodology,

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Worcester Polytechnic Institute Helps Develop a Novel Extraction Process that May Provide a More Economical Way to Make a Promising Biofuel

(Worcester Polytechnic Institute/PR Web)  Isobutanol has been hailed as a possible green replacement for fossil fuels like gasoline, but producing it has proven difficult and costly. In a paper in Nature Communications, a research team that includes a WPI chemical engineer

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Technical Report Comparison of Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Tools

(Task 39 – Commercializing Liquid Biofuels/International Energy Agency (IEA Bioenergy))  ... Bioenergy plays an important role in the decarbonization of the transportation sector. Its medium and long-term benefits depend on the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions brought forth by the conversion

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One Fish Model Study Leads to Three Wins for the Environment

by Tim Theiss (Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Department of Energy) Over the past two years, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) have been modeling to understand the costs and benefits of

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QUOTE OF THE WEEK

"The GHG emissions of petroleum are higher than the baseline estimates originally projected by EPA"  That's one finding in a new study by Life Cycle Associates. It's also one reason biofuels entering the marketplace thanks to the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) exceed

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New Study: RFS2 Has Reduced GHG Emissions by 600 Million Metric Tons, Beating EPA Expectations

(Renewable Fuels Association)  A new study released today finds that the expanded Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) has been a tremendous success in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with nearly 600 million metric tons of GHG reduction since 2007. Actual GHG reductions under the

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Brazil May Boost Ethanol Production without Deforestation

by Rodrigo de Oliveira Andrade (SciDev.net) Ethanol sugarcane by-products serve to feed cattle with highly nourishing forage; Requires adapting US system; Recovery strategies for deforested areas also required  --  By integrating the cultivation of sugarcane for ethanol with beef cattle breeding on the same

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Potential Trade‐Offs of Employing Perennial Biomass Crops for the Bioeconomy in the EU by 2050: Impacts on Agricultural Markets in the EU and the World

(ResearchGate)  Perennial biomass crops (PBC) are considered a crucial feedstock for sustainable biomass supply to the bioeconomy that compete less with food production compared to traditional crops. However, large‐scale development of PBC as a means to reach greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation

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Empirical Evidence Suggests Negligible Indirect Land Use Effect of Corn Ethanol in the U.S.

(Agriculture & Applied Ecoomics Association/CISION/PR Web) AAEA Members release research that finds corn ethanol production and crop price changes had negligible impact on cropland -- Since 2007 corn ethanol production has doubled and there was also a sharp upturn in corn prices

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Review Finds No Consensus Among Fuel Studies – Major Implications for Health, Air Quality

by Jessie Stolark (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)  A recent review of nearly 100 different peer-reviewed vehicle emission studies, by the independent consulting group Future Fuel Strategies, found that there is no consensus in the literature regarding the health effects of

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UAI: Test Fuels Are Not Representative of Real-World Fuels

by Matt Thompson (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  An analysis commissioned by the Urban Air Initiative raises questions about studies used by U.S. EPA to model ethanol’s emissions. The independent analysis, completed by Future Fuel Strategies, looked at nearly 100 vehicle emissions studies, and

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Independent Study Finds Vehicle Emission Testing Is Not Reliable

(Urban Air Initiative)  A new study finds that many of the test fuels used in emissions research studies do not reflect the makeup of consumer fuels, limiting the ability of ethanol to be used to reduce emissions and improve vehicle

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Immediate Fossil Fuel Phaseout Could Arrest Climate Change – Study

by Damian Carrington (The Guardian)  ... Climate change could be kept in check if a phaseout of all fossil fuel infrastructure were to begin immediately, according to research. ... The study found that if all fossil fuel infrastructure – power plants, factories, vehicles, ships and

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More Designer Peptides, More Possibilities

(U.S. Department of Energy) With their tiny scaffolds of atoms, peptides hold the promise of creating catalysts for biofuels, capturing hazardous waste, and delivering new therapies to improve health. While nature offers a few peptides with the perfect characteristics for such

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Assessing Bioenergy Sustainability: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide ABLC Guide to IEA Bioenergy

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  IEA Bioenergy conducted work on sustainability assessments of bioenergy systems and the carbon balance of forest-based bioenergy. Annette Cowie and Göran Berndes from Chalmers University of Technology and IEA Bioenergy gave this illuminating overview of the methods

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Commercializing Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass: Task 39 Update

(IEA Bioenergy Task 39)  ... Task work that has recently been completed and will soon be posted on the “publically available” sections of the Task 39 website (http://task39.ieabioenergy.com/) includes the final report entitled, “Survey of Advanced Fuels for Advanced Engines” which Task 39 carried

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More Bioplastics Do Not Necessarily Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation

(University of Bonn)  Study from the University of Bonn assesses potential implications of transitioning to plant-based plastics  --  Bioplastics are often promoted as an environmentally and climate-friendly alternative to conventional petroleum-based plastics. However, a recent study from the University of Bonn suggests

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The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide ABLC Guide to ARPA-E’s Agro-Energy Programs

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) advances high-potential, high-impact energy technologies that are too early for private-sector investment. ARPA-E awardees are unique because they are developing entirely new ways to generate, store, and use energy. ARPA-E

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WEBINAR: Biomass Production and Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin --- December 6, 2018

Join the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office on Dec. 6, 2018, at 1 p.m. CST for a webinar on “Biomass Production and Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin.” In this webinar, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge

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The Case for Properly Valuing the Low Carbon Benefits of Corn Ethanol

(American Coalition for Ethanol)   The Renewable Fuel Standard has successfully driven the production and use of low carbon fuels in the U.S. transportation fleet. Corn ethanol has replaced 10 percent of climate change causing petroleum. The RFS was enacted, in

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Perfectly Planned

by Lisa Gibson (Ethanol Producer Magazine)   With proper planning, expansions can go relatively smoothly. Without it, large, unforeseen obstacles can increase costs, delay startups and derail projects. Ryan Brock, technical services manager for Lallemand Biofuels & Distilled Spirits, has horror stories about

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Understanding the Emissions Benefits of Higher Ethanol Blends: EPA Modeling Fails to Tell the Whole Story.

by Steve Vander Griend (Clean Fuels Development Coalition)  Adding ethanol to gasoline improves it in every way. It lowers carbon, reduces common air pollutants for smog formation, lessens CO2 emissions, reduces sulfur content, and provides clean octane as a replacement

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Complex Networks Identify Genes for Biofuel Crops

(U.S. Department of Energy Newswise)  Systems biology leads the way to exascale computing on Summit supercomputer. --  ... To improve biofuel production, scientists must understand the fundamental interactions that lead to the expression of key traits in plants and microbes. To understand

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Catalysts for Better Biofuel Production

(CORDIS/Phys.Org)  ... The EU-funded FASTCARD project used two different routes to meet European commitments to the production of advanced biofuels. The first involved the 'liquefaction' of biomass and is the closest to competing economically with fossil fuels, while the second employed gasification of

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Deeper into the Biomass: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to the DOE’s Billion Ton Report, Vol. 2

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The US Department of Energy’s Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy says that 1.2 billion tons of biomass would be available at $40 or less per ton by 2040, and 1 billion tons would be available

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Six Transformations Needed to Achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals: Major Report Launched

(International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis)  The World in 2050 (TWI2050) initiative has launched a new report, setting out six key transformations that will enable the world to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The transformations presented in the report, Transformations to

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One Day at the World’s Leading Biomass Technology Conference, EUBCE 2018

by Steve Bi* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  Renaissance-era facades capped with green copper patina and orange clay shingles harmonize seamlessly with imaginative, hallmark-of-Scandinavia, hyper-modern structures in downtown Copenhagen. [caption id="attachment_99349" align="alignleft" width="212"] Setting of the EUBCE 2018 Copenhagen[/caption] The city provided the perfect backdrop

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New Machine Learning Approach Could Accelerate Bioengineering

(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/Biomass Magazine)  Scientists from the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a way to use machine learning to dramatically accelerate the design of microbes that produce biofuel. Their computer algorithm starts with abundant data about the

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Secretary of Energy Rick Perry Announces Integrated Biorefinery Optimization Projects

(U.S. Department of Energy)  Today (September 20, 2017), U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) has selected eight projects to negotiate for up to $15 million in total DOE funding to optimize integrated biorefineries. These projects

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Unraveling the Science Behind Biomass Breakdown

(Oak Ridge National Laboratory)  Researchers at ORNL uncover the chemical reaction that helps break down biomass for biofuel  --  Lignocellulosic biomass—plant matter such as cornstalks, straw, and woody plants—is a sustainable source for production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. However,

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Switching to Switchgrass? Study Models Soil Impact of Biofuel Crops

by Kari Lydersen (Midwest Energy News)  ...  The Argonne modeling shows that when grassland, cropland and pasture in the Midwest are converted to corn for biofuels, the level of carbon sequestration in the soil stays roughly the same, with variation by

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Bentley Research Fellow Planning Algae Commercialization

by Joanna Howarth (Algae Industry Magazine)  Thanks to a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, Michael Walsh, a research fellow in Bentley University’s Center for Integration of Science and Industry, who holds a doctorate in biological and environmental engineering,

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Bioenergy Crop Modeling Predicts Soil Carbon Increases

by Joanna Schroeder (Energy.AgWired.com) Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Argonne National Laboratory are using computational modeling to predict which counties in Illinois could see increases in soil organic carbon from crops such as switchgrass for biofuels. Increasing carbon

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Research Examines Obstacles to Making Biofuel from Perennial Plants

(University of Arkansas)   A University of Arkansas chemistry professor has received a $400,000 award from the National Science Foundation to investigate a roadblock in the harvesting of biomass from perennial plants for the purpose of creating a source of renewable

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Optimizing Biofuel Production from Algae Using CO2 Emissions

(American Chemical Society)  ... Now, a team reports in ACS’ journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research an optimized way of producing biofuel from algae that also removes CO2 emissions from the environment. ... Eusiel Rubio-Castro and colleagues developed a mathematical model to determine the optimal

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waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology Cook Islands cook stoves cooking fuel cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 COP28 COP30 copper coppice cordgrass corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup corn-based products corn/maize Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality county cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D20 (20%DME) D5 (5%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Dehydration Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency egg shell Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrofuels (e-fuels) prices electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts Formate formic acid fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect Global South global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ HDO-SAK (hydro deoxygenated synthetic aromatic kerosene) health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 HVO30 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrid ships hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps/fueling stations hydrogen tax credit hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning machinery macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol benefits methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety 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Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm trunk sap palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peach shell peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests pet food petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pine beetle pine needles pine nut pineapple pinion Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin (PHMSA) pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet platinum Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poand podcasts Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propane/renewable propane pumps propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam 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Repowering Assistance Program Republic of Congo repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment Reverse Water-gas Shift RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron Ricardo rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rubber seeds rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass rye straw s saccharification SAF pipeline SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC sal tree Salicornia salt water salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar Samoa Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater seaweed cultivation Seaweed/Macroalgae second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks seed-to-wheel Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shellfish shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silage silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration Small Business Innovatin 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