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An Open Letter to the Ethanol Community from Ethanol Producers

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest) … (T)he overriding objective should be to increase demand, which increases ethanol volume and corn grind.  With that in mind, do we continue to

November 30, 2020 Read Full Article

Modern Alchemy: University of North Dakota Aims to Turn Corn Stalks, Stems and Leaves into Jet Fuel

(University of North Dakota/News Wise)  One of the significant challenges for renewable alternative fuels could be solved if a consortium of research laboratories led by the University of North Dakota can

November 25, 2020 Read Full Article

Trust Me. I’m from the Government and Here to Help

by Dave VanderGriend (ICM/Urban Air Initiative/Ethanol Producer Magazine) … But what we thought we did know was that he (President Donald Trump) was determined to remove regulations that were holding

October 7, 2020 Read Full Article

NAWCWD, Amyris Collaborate to Develop, Test High-Energy Biosynthetic Fuel

(Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division/NAVAIR News) What do bread and liquid jet fuel have in common? Yeast.  At least they can, if you’re talking about the biosynthetic research being done in China

October 7, 2020 Read Full Article

U.S. Department of Energy Report Looks at Best SAF Pathways: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuel

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The 106-billion-gallon global (21-billion-gallon domestic) commercial jet fuel market is projected to grow to over 230 billion gallons by 2050. Cost-competitive sustainable alternative jet fuels

October 7, 2020 Read Full Article

Ag Policy Blog: House Democrats Get Aggressive on Biofuels

by Chris Clayton (DTN Progressive Farmer) …What did become clear was Democrats in both the House and the Senate are paying more attention to biofuels at the moment. And yet,

September 28, 2020 Read Full Article

Bustos Introduces Next Generation Fuels Act

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) Rep. Cheri Bustos, D-Ill., on Sept. 24 introduced the Next Generation Fuels Act, a bill that establishes a minimum octane standard for gasoline and requires

September 25, 2020 Read Full Article

Behind the Smoke: It’s What You Don’t See That Kills

by Doug Durante and Larry Pearce (Morning Consult)  … But a bigger problem has existed for decades in the air we don’t see — air polluted with toxic ultra-fine particles, or UFPs. 

September 23, 2020 Read Full Article

Sustainable Aviation Fuel: Review of Technical Pathways Report

(U.S. Department of Energy)  The Sustainable Aviation Fuel: Review of Technical Pathways report provides an overview of commercial jet aviation fuel and summarizes learnings from three BETO-supported workshops. In addition, the report

September 10, 2020 Read Full Article

A New Research Tool to Help Ensure Accurate Ethanol Data

(Urban Air Initiative) A new tool is available for researchers to help ensure accurate and consistent results when conducting fuel and emission testing. Future Fuel Strategies recently published a Fuel Blending Guide

August 26, 2020 Read Full Article

Tomorrow Arriving Today: 5 Technology Platforms to Watch for the 2020s that Are Materially Advancing Now, Despite COVID-19

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) … New research shows sustainability has moved from a fringe preference into a core imperative across American life. According to a new survey from clean manufacturing

August 11, 2020 Read Full Article

Replacing Toxic Additives in Our Fuel

Emily Skor (Growth Energy/Biofuels International)  As policymakers and public health experts dig deeper into the human costs of air pollution, including heightened risk from COVID-19 among vulnerable communities, a rapidly

July 29, 2020 Read Full Article

Converting Mixed Plastics into Valuable Chemicals: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Anellotech’s Renewable Chemicals

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) At ABLC Digital, Anellotech shared their vision of converting large volumes of mixed waste plastics directly into valuable chemicals using their Plas-TCat technology and they talked

July 29, 2020 Read Full Article

Axens’ Futurol Cellulosic Ethanol Tech: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Overcoming Cellulosic Ethanol Challenges

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Axens has a range of renewable biofuels and biochemicals from renewable diesel and biojet fuel to cellulosic ethanol, ethylene, butadiene, and aromatics. But there have been

July 28, 2020 Read Full Article

Letter to the Advanced Bioeconomy: Advance off the Beach

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) There was always going to be a point when the advanced bioeconomy reached the end of the “R&D years” and transitioned into “the years of deployment”,

July 28, 2020 Read Full Article

Ethanol Prophet Tilts at Petroleum

by Mikkel Pates (AgWeek)  South Dakota ethanol promoter Orrie D. Swayze likes to hear promotions for 30% ethanol blends in gasoline but thinks 50% would be better for the environment

July 13, 2020 Read Full Article

Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter on Behalf of the Urban Air Initiative (UAI)

(Urban Air Initiative)  On behalf of the Urban Air Initiative (UAI), we appreciate the opportunity to comment on the above Proposed Rulemaking (Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2015-0072). UAI is a not

July 1, 2020 Read Full Article

The Benefits of Ethanol

(Nebraska Ethanol Board) In an effort to spread ethanol’s clean air message, the Nebraska Ethanol Board put together this video aimed at students across the state. To help illustrate what is

June 29, 2020 Read Full Article

Comparison of Particle Number Emissions from In-Flight Aircraft Fueled with Jet A1, JP-5 and an Alcohol-to-Jet Fuel Blend

by Steven Tran, Anthony Brown and Jason S. Olfert (Energy Fuels) The aviation sector has begun to adopt alternative fuels in an effort to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and

June 19, 2020 Read Full Article

Validating the Need to Test Real-World Fuels

by Steve VanderGriend (Ethanol Producer Magazine/Urban Air Initiative)  While much of the industry’s energy has been focused on issues like Reid vapor pressure relief, a new technical paper demonstrates the

June 17, 2020 Read Full Article

UAI: EPA Keeping Ethanol from Its True Lower Carbon Value

by Steve Vander Griend (Urban Air Initiative/Ethanol Producer Magazine) In a world intent on lowering carbon emissions, any positive steps lowering CO2 should receive credit. Instead, a recent Notice of Proposed

June 10, 2020 Read Full Article

Just Because It’s in Popular Science That Doesn’t Mean It’s True: An Open Letter to Jennifer Lu and Popular Science Magazine

by Marc J. Rauch (The Auto Channel)  … The reason I’m contacting you today, in 2020, is because yesterday I received a message from a reader who disagrees with my advocacy

May 26, 2020 Read Full Article

Onboard Separation Technology Set to Improve Fuel Economy

by Lynne Roeder (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)  PNNL invention partitions ethanol from gasoline to enable octane on demand; could also lower emissions  —  … Designed to work with a car’s

May 25, 2020 Read Full Article

EPA Panel Asked to Review Public Health Benefits of Ethanol

(Urban Air Initiative/Ethanol Producer Magazine) The Urban Air Initiative sent a letter to the COVID-19 Review Panel within the EPA’s Science Advisory Board asking them to look at the research that shows the

May 20, 2020 Read Full Article

Fueling a Cleaner Future: Ethanol Is Just the Beginning

(Omaha World-Herald/Nebraska Corn Board) When you stop at the gas station to top off your tank, how much thought do you put in to choosing the fuel that’s right for your

May 20, 2020 Read Full Article

Growth Energy Urges EPA COVID-19 Panel to Examine Air Toxics

(Growth Energy)  In a letter to the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB), Growth Energy urged members of a new COVID-19 Review Panel to examine the impact of toxic gasoline additives on respiratory

May 19, 2020 Read Full Article

Update from Dave on COVID-19, Air Pollution and Ethanol

(Urban Air Initiative) The last few months have been tough, the sudden distress caused by COVID-19 has caused so much harm and heartache for all of us. But if there is something

May 13, 2020 Read Full Article

OPINION: Ethanol Dominates in Clean Air Contest

by Chris Bliley (Growth Energy/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  … When it comes to transportation emissions, newsrooms around the world generally preserve their biggest headlines for the urgent, high-stakes battle against climate

May 4, 2020 Read Full Article

Ethanol Blends Saving Lives Through Reduced Vehicle Emissions

(Urban Air Initiative) That is the conclusion of a new peer reviewed technical paper published in the  Journal of Air & Waste Management, validating previous research efforts by the Urban Air Initiative that

April 27, 2020 Read Full Article

Quantification of Gasoline-Ethanol Blend Emissions Effects

by Nigel N. Clark, David L. McKain Jr., Tammy Klein and Terence Higgins  (Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association) Emissions levels from current gasoline spark-ignited engines are low, and

April 27, 2020 Read Full Article

An Economic Rebound Will Need Ethanol

by Doug Durante (Clean Fuels Development Coalition/Biofuels Digest) … I want build on the theme that now, when we’ve been knocked down and are on the mat is when we  need support,

April 23, 2020 Read Full Article

Harvard Study Bolsters Ethanol’s Role In Protecting Public Health, Saving Lives

(Oklahoma Farm Bureau)  … The Harvard team’s recent findings underscore the need to power more of our transportation system with non-petroleum-based fuels, like ethanol. The research team looked specifically at polluted areas

April 21, 2020 Read Full Article

Focus Forward from Challenge to Opportunity: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to RFA’s 2020 Ethanol Industry Outlook

y Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The Renewable Fuels Association released its 2020 Ethanol Industry Outlook, an annual publication that provides policymakers, regulators, consumers, the media, and renewable fuel advocates with

March 30, 2020 Read Full Article

From the 3 E’s to the 3 C’s

by Geoff Cooper (Renewable Fuels Association/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Touting ethanol as a source of clean octane, it’s ability to reduce carbon, and allowing consumer choice in the marketplace. — For

March 27, 2020 Read Full Article

Biodiesel’s Green Footprint for Fleets: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to the National Biodiesel Board’s Biodiesel Industry – Part 2

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Check out Part 2 of the National Biodiesel Board’s slide guide that focuses on biodiesel’s on-road heavy-duty emission benefits, why they consider biodiesel as “liquid

March 26, 2020 Read Full Article

Reality EV: Let’s Not Overlook Biofuels

(Clean Fuels Development Coalition) The widespread introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) as a means of reducing carbon emissions presents a far greater challenge than the public is being led to believe,

March 18, 2020 Read Full Article

Ethanol Needs to Win the Octane Race- Our Health Depends on It

(Urban Air Initiative) Octane is a necessary component of our fuel, and more of it is needed as car engines become more advanced and efficient. So competition is on the rise

March 3, 2020 Read Full Article

Climate Change and Ethanol: Get the Facts Right

by Andrea Kent (Ethanol Producer Magazine/Greenfield Global/Renewable Industries Canada)  Myths and misinformation about ethanol and its effect on health and the environment need to be corrected to expand higher blends. 

February 19, 2020 Read Full Article

The Road to Higher Octane: Making the Case for a 95 RON Octane Standard Now

by David Vander Griend (Urban Air Initiative)  Octane. Mercedes called it the single most important parameter in designing engines. And guess what? Ethanol has the highest octane blending value and

February 18, 2020 Read Full Article

Ethanol’s Health Benefits Take Center Stage at Leadership Forum

by Matt Thompson (Ethanol Producer Magazine) The National Clean Fuels Technology and Health Effects Leadership Forum was held in Washington, D.C. this week, and brought to the forefront the health and

February 10, 2020 Read Full Article

Experts to Gather to Discuss the Public Health Threat from Gasoline Aromatics — February 6, 2020 — online from Miami Beach, FL

    Experts to Gather to Discuss the Public Health Threat from Gasoline Aromatics   —   February 6, 2020   —   online from Miami Beach, FL

The discussion will highlight alternatives to gasoline aromatics that benefit public health, the environment/climate change, national security, and the economy. These solutions could be implemented in the upcoming Safer Affordable

January 27, 2020 Read Full Article

Washington, DC, Is No Longer an Option

by Dave VanderGriend (Ethanol Producer Magazine/Urban Air Initiative/ICM)    Mid-level blends are the future of the ethanol industry, and the U.S. government can’t be trusted to promote their use.  … 

December 31, 2019 Read Full Article

FixOurFuel Publishes Aid for Holiday Conversations about Ethanol

(Urban Air Initiative) As the holidays approach, you’re bound to end up talking about where you work. And during what’s normally pleasant small talk, one mention of the word ethanol can

December 20, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Industry Leaders to Governor Noem: E30 Ready for Prime Time

(South Dakota Farmers Union/Governors’ Biofuels Coalition)  Following her remarks at the Glacial Lakes Energy annual shareholders meeting last week, a broad group of ethanol, agriculture, and clean air supporters commended South

December 17, 2019 Read Full Article

Govs. Walz and Noem for Support of E30

(Grand Rapids Herald Review) Recently, Minnesota Gov. Tim Walz, the chair of the Governors’ Biofuels Coalition, along with South Dakota Gov. and coalition vice chair Kristi Noem, sent a letter to

December 13, 2019 Read Full Article

Trash to Cash – New Anellotech Technology Tackles Plastics Pollution by Recycling Plastic Waste Into Chemicals

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest) In New York, breaking news arrived that Anellotech is significantly expanding its program with Plas-TCat, a new process technology aiming to convert a wide range

December 9, 2019 Read Full Article

Reducing Toxic Aromatics: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to High Octane Low Carbon Ethanol

Ethanol is better for your health and “What a difference a year makes.” That’s what Douglas Durante, Executive Director of Clean Fuels Development Coalition told the audience recently at the

December 2, 2019 Read Full Article

Stop the Anti-Ethanol Ridiculousness–An Open Letter Reply to an Unmistakable Editorial Failure

by Marc J. Rauch (The Auto Channel)  This past Saturday, a media outlet called THE ATLANTIC published an anti-ethanol editorial titled “STOP THE ETHANOL MADNESS.” … The following is my rebuttal

November 25, 2019 Read Full Article

Governors Ask President Trump to Remove Gasoline’s Deadly Aromatics

(Governors’ Biofuels Coalition)  Minnesota Governor Tim Walz and South Dakota Governor Kristi Noem Say Poisonous Aromatics Put Our Health at Risk  —     In a letter to President Trump today, Minnesota Governor

November 25, 2019 Read Full Article

Better Biofuels with Biomass: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Axens and the BioTfueL Project

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  BioTfueL, originally launched by Total, is a project to produce biofuels via thermochemical conversion and includes several partners that work together on this. Axens Solutions

November 19, 2019 Read Full Article

Like Fine Wine, Smellin’ Fine: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Anellotech’s Aromatics

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Fine wine takes time but it’s so worth it when you gather that first aroma of a freshly opened bottle…and Anellotech shows us that the

November 18, 2019 Read Full Article

Despite Domestic Policy Disputes, Biofuels Retain Significance on World Stage

(Solutions from the Land) The domestic biofuel industry has taken some harsh hits in recent times, as evidenced by the heated disputes over biofuel policies and the questionable restraints the

November 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Vertimass Selected by U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technology Office to Receive Up to $1.4 Million Award to Optimize Renewable Jet Fuel

(Vertimass/PR Newswire)  Vertimass to optimize renewable jet fuel blendstocks to maximize energy content and reduce emissions  —  Vertimass LLC announced today that Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) within the U.S. Department of

October 31, 2019 Read Full Article

Intermediate and High Ethanol Blends Reduce Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicles

by Patrick Roth, Jiacheng Yang, Weihan Peng, David R. Cocker III, Thomas D. Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku, and Georgios Karavalakis  (Atmospheric Environment) Highlights:  Higher ethanol fueling will reduce SOA formation from GDI

October 24, 2019 Read Full Article

Moving beyond the RFS

Douglas A. Durante (Clean Fuels Development Coalition/Governor’s Biofuels Coalition) The global biofuels community is without a doubt watching the developments in the US with the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and might

October 23, 2019 Read Full Article

Global Ethanol Summit Panel Focuses on the Economics of Octane

by Matt Thompson (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Day two of the inaugural Global Ethanol Summit began with a discussion about the economic benefits of blending ethanol in gasoline. Renewable Fuels Association president

October 18, 2019 Read Full Article

The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Breakthroughs at the Bioenergy Research Centers

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Over 10 years (2007–2017), three Bioenergy Research Centers produced multiple breakthroughs in the form of deepened understanding of sustainable biomass production practices, targeted re-engineering of

October 18, 2019 Read Full Article

Reduction in Gasoline-Related Cancer Causes by Blending Ethanol into Gasoline in Five Global Cities

(Vital)  “Health Impact of Blending Ethanol into Gasoline in Five Global Cities” University of Illinois at Chicago, Energy Resources Center — Dr. Steffen Mueller, PhD, and others at the University of

October 17, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Blog: Governors Ask Trump to Take Executive Actions on Biofuels

by Todd Neeley (DTN Progressive Farmer)  First and foremost, the group asked Trump to expedite any new rulemaking process aimed at the waivers issue. … As part of the biofuels

October 10, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Blog: Economist Proposes Two RFS Changes to Appease Oil, Ethanol

by Todd Neeley (DTN Progressive Farmer)  With a reported big deal for biofuels in flux, an economist at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign put forward a plan on Thursday to

September 23, 2019 Read Full Article

Want More Miles per Gallon? Start Planting Some Trees

by Beth A. Russell (Idaho National Laboratory) It turns out that trees (or as researchers refer to them, woody biomass) can

September 19, 2019 Read Full Article

Trump in High-Stakes Balancing Act between Oil and Corn ahead of 2020 Bid

by Humeyra Pamuk and Jarrett Renshaw (Reuters)  At a closed-door meeting at the White House on Aug. 19, President Donald Trump

September 6, 2019 Read Full Article

What’s the Plan to Increase Ethanol Use? Low Carbon Octane Standard Could Be the Way to Increase Ethanol Use beyond E15.

by Brian Jennings (Ethanol Producer Magazine/American Coalition for Ethanol)   … Are we simply going to play defense on the RFS

September 3, 2019 Read Full Article

New Catalysts, Improved Genetic Tools Bring New Opportunities: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to ORNL’s Biomass to Bioproducts

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Organisms are interesting creatures and genetic tools and biochemical pathway knowledge is changing the way we

August 22, 2019 Read Full Article

Oh My Neste MY: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Neste’s Renewable Diesel

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Neste’s MY renewable diesel is the best part of ‘diesel molecules’ and diesel specs, according

August 21, 2019 Read Full Article

Addressing Two Objections to My Midwest Ethanol Plan

by Robert Rapier (Forbes)  … My proposed solution is for the Midwestern states to band together to provide sufficient state

August 19, 2019 Read Full Article

Environmental Advocates Should Take Another Look at Biofuels

by Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-IA) and former Sen. Timothy Wirth (D-CO)  (The Hill)  … But public policy to date has put

August 15, 2019 Read Full Article

Harmful Gasoline Emissions Threat to Public Health

by Doug Durante (Morning Consult/Clean Fuels Development Coalition) … But what if there is research illustrating that some of these

July 16, 2019 Read Full Article

Gasolinegate: Three Decades of Flawed Emission Reports Has Endangered Public

(Safe Gasoline Campaign)   The 263 million gasoline vehicles on American roadways are emitting significantly more harmful emissions than being reported,

July 2, 2019 Read Full Article

Alternative Oxygenate Effects on Emissions

(Urban Air Institute)  The Urban Air Initiative (UAI) would like to thank the Coordinated Research Council (CRC) for its recent study that

July 1, 2019 Read Full Article

All I Need Is the Air that I Breathe: The Search for Better Sources for Octane and Better Uses for Aromatics

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In Washington, a new report concludes that emissions from petroleum-based gasoline “are one of the biggest

June 12, 2019 Read Full Article

Study Finds Ethanol Blends Reduce GDI Tailpipe PM

(Green Car Congress)  A new study finds that ethanol blends reduce particulate matter (PM) coming out of the tailpipe, which in turn reduces

June 7, 2019 Read Full Article

Emergency Fleets Will Switch to Cleaner Diesel Alternatives When States and Provinces Encourage It

by by Dayne Delahoussaye (Our Great Minds)  … That’s why leaders of the U.S. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [4]

June 4, 2019 Read Full Article

USGC Demonstrates Ethanol’s Cost Savings in Indonesia

(U.S. Grains Council/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Ethanol could generate significant cost savings while boosting octane in fuel supplies in Indonesia. That’s the

May 28, 2019 Read Full Article

Houston We Have a Problem…

by Doug Durante (Biofuels Digest/Clean Fuels Development Coalition) and Dave VanderGriend (Urban Air Initiative)  Floods, horrible chemical fires, and now a barge

May 27, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol: Let’s Ride the Wave–Making Ethanol Part of the “Green Wave” by Debunking Environmental Misinformation.

by Dave VanderGriend (Urban Air Initiative)  Now that we are well into the current Congress, it is clear that many new

May 17, 2019 Read Full Article

Anellotech’s Bio-TCat Technology Viability Confirmed during Pilot Plant Campaign – Moving forward with Commercialization

by Helena Tavares Kennedy (Biofuels Digest)  We hear the theme song to Disney’s Carousel of Progress… “It’s a great big beautiful

May 6, 2019 Read Full Article

Sustainable Super JET Fuels: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to High Performance Fuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Researchersfrom several labs and universities like Georgia Tech, Sandia National Labs, University of Dayton, and others

April 17, 2019 Read Full Article

Fuels Institute Study Explores National High-Octane Standard

by Matt Thompson (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  A report released by the Fuels Institute, a research group that studies issues effecting vehicle

April 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Petrochemical Fire in Houston Reveals Much Larger Issue.

(Urban Air Initiative)  On Sunday, March 17, tanks of toluene and xylene caught fire at Intercontinental Terminal in the Houston, TX

March 26, 2019 Read Full Article

UAI’s Studies Tell the Truth

by Dave VanderGriend (Urban Air Institute/Ethanol Producer Magazine) The need for an updated fuel testing process.  —  Every time we fill our gas

March 18, 2019 Read Full Article

The Competitive Edge: BioBTX

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … Most chemical building blocks, platform chemicals originate from fossil sources. Especially for aromatics, no

March 8, 2019 Read Full Article

Delay in SAFE Rule Disappointing, But Still an Opportunity

(Urban Air Initiative)  EPA’s decision to delay fuel economy rules until “later in the year” provides the Urban Air Initiative an

February 27, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Blog: Ethanol Industry Not Impressed with General Motors’ Push on Octane Standard Legislation

by Todd Neeley (DTN The Progressive Farmer)  While General Motors representative Dan Nicholson indicated this week it was important for the

February 18, 2019 Read Full Article

Ethanol Facts vs. Fiction

(Outdoors First) … If you check out the recent deluge of press material from the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA), one

January 31, 2019 Read Full Article

Independent Study Finds Vehicle Emission Testing Is Not Reliable

(Urban Air Initiative)  A new study finds that many of the test fuels used in emissions research studies do not

January 21, 2019 Read Full Article

2019: The Year Ethanol Misinformation Died

(Renewable Fuels Association) …  Ethanol is providing a cleaner, domestically produced, higher-octane fuel, while offering greater consumer choice at the pump.

January 4, 2019 Read Full Article

New Research Finds EPA Not Enforcing The Clean Air Act

(Urban Air Initiative)  Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was directed to reduce mobile source air pollution

December 18, 2018 Read Full Article

Ethanol’s New Way Forward: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide ABLC Guide to Byogy Renewables

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Byogy Renewables is producing full replacement renewable fuels for all modes of transport, including heavy transport

December 18, 2018 Read Full Article

US Ethanol Producers: We Are Oil’s Biggest Competitor, Cleaner Too

by Sarantis Michalopoulos (EURACTIV)  Increasing ethanol use will help countries around the world meet their Paris Agreement climate goals in a cheaper

December 14, 2018 Read Full Article

Year of the Tree, CORSIA Fuels, Mabus’ Remarks, a Breakthrough on Woody Biomass?: Heard on the Floor at the CAAFI General Meeting

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  When the world’s leaders for sustainable aviation fuels have a general meeting the week before the

December 13, 2018 Read Full Article

Fueling the Future: Developing a More Efficient Process for Producing Biobased High-Octane Gasoline

by Zia Abdullah (U.S. Department of Energy)  Over the past five years, the market share for premium gasoline in the United

November 28, 2018 Read Full Article

Urban Air Institute Issues ‘Beyond a Reasonable Doubt’ Research Series on Ethanol

by Erin Voegele (Ethanol Producer Magazine) The Urban Air Initiative has announced the release of its “Beyond a Reasonable Doubt” research

November 24, 2018 Read Full Article

Octane Enhancement Cannot Come from the Oil Barrel

by Dave VanderGriend  (Ethanol Producer Magazine/ICM/Urban Air Initiative)  … Today, at 10 percent of the motor fuel pool, ethanol is displacing

November 21, 2018 Read Full Article

#Gasolinegate: EPA’s Role in Fair Gasoline Emissions Testing Draws Fire

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In Washington, researchers for a report published by the Urban Air Initiative contend that “technical data

November 13, 2018 Read Full Article

Report on the Thermochemical Sciences Symposium at Auburn University

by Leyla Battista-Channell*  (Advanced Biofuels USA) Auburn, Alabama: Home to the Auburn tigers, the “loveliest village on the plains,” and

November 12, 2018 Read Full Article

Op-Ed: Ethanol Needs to Win the Octane Race- Our Health Depends on It

(Urban Air Initiative/Governors’ Biofuels Coalition)  … Octane is a necessary component of our fuel, and more of it is needed as

October 29, 2018 Read Full Article

Pyromaniax Unbound

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … Why the attention? Some of it in the most recent data and news regarding commercial status.

October 25, 2018 Read Full Article

Don’t Buy Big Oil’s Lies On E15

(Urban Air Initiative)  It didn’t take long. Minutes after President Trump announced he wanted to see E15 sold year round, the

October 12, 2018 Read Full Article

Help Wanted: Job Interview for High Octane & Low Carbon

by Doug Durante and Doug Sombke (Clean Fuels Development Coalition/South Dakota Farmers Union/Biofuels Digest)  … However, we may have a unique and

October 11, 2018 Read Full Article

Scaling up Biobased BTX: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to Anellotech

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Founded in 2008, Anellotech has developed a clean technology platform for inexpensively producing bio-based chemicals from

October 10, 2018 Read Full Article

Circular Biobased Economy: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to the Biobased Delta

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In a biobased economy renewable raw materials take over the role of fossil raw materials, such

September 25, 2018 Read Full Article

NFU, FUE & UAI Announce Alliance to Pursue Expanded Use Of American-Grown, High-Octane Biofuels

(National Farmers Union) In an effort to expand the market for domestic agriculture products, reduce harmful emissions, and provide consumers with

August 22, 2018 Read Full Article

Uncovering the Plot to Keep Ethanol Down — How Clean Burning Ethanol Can Make Rural America Great Again

(Urban Air Institute) A paradigm shift is needed in Washington, and it’s up to Rural America to push for change. “We need

August 16, 2018 Read Full Article

The Road to Biobased BTX: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to Anellotech

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Founded in 2008, Anellotech has developed a clean technology platform for inexpensively producing bio-based chemicals from

August 15, 2018 Read Full Article

USGC Joins USDA Trade Mission to Promote Ethanol

(U.S. Grains Council/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The U.S. Grains Council and ethanol industry partners added an octane enhancer to the USDA’s Agricultural

August 14, 2018 Read Full Article

Making Crude Oil from Paper Pulp? Vertoro Creates This ‘Green Gold’

by Olga Koltsova (Innovation Origins)  Vertoro is Spanish for “Green Gold“. The founders clearly had their end product in mind when they

August 9, 2018 Read Full Article

The Battle for Octane: Ethanol or Aromatics?

by Steve Vander Griend (Urban Air Initiative)  After learning about the clean octane benefits of ethanol, you may wonder why oil

July 24, 2018 Read Full Article

The Sustainable City further Reduces Its Carbon Footprint by Adopting B100 Bio-Diesel

(Go Dubai) The renewable fuel alternative is manufactured from the used cooking oil produced by restaurants at The Sustainable City  —  The

July 19, 2018 Read Full Article

The ‘Octane Olive Branch’ Is Full of Thorns

by Doug Durante (The Hill/Clean Fuels Development Coalition)  With a final rule on fuel economy likely to come out in the

July 9, 2018 Read Full Article

The Yosemite Sam of the Microbial World, Hot Rodded Lichen, BYO Nitrogen, The Microbial Marx Brother, Sexy Hexy and More: The DOE Delves into New Orgamsism for Fuels & Chems

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The meanest, nastiest, ornierest, heat-seeking organism ever found that munches biomass and other microbes that got

June 28, 2018 Read Full Article

Repeating History with Octane Biofuel Standards Is a Huge Mistake

by Mike Carr (New Energy America/The Hill)  Recently, Chet Thompson of American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) testified before Congress and proposed a

May 9, 2018 Read Full Article

Urban Air Uncovers More Fishy Fuel Testing

(Urban Air Initiative)  Urban Air Initiative uncovered what looks to be more fishy fuel testing. Last year, we called out the Coordinated Research

May 8, 2018 Read Full Article

Clearing Up Myths About E85 And Ethanol: 16 Things You Need To Know

by Jeff Smith (Dragzine)  Over the years we’ve seen all sorts of misinformation floating around the web on various forums

April 14, 2018 Read Full Article

New Studies Show Ethanol Reduces Emissions And Improves Air Quality

(Urban Air Initiative)  Ethanol blends reduce toxic tailpipe emissions by up to 50%, significantly improving air quality and protecting public health

April 11, 2018 Read Full Article

Urban Air Initiative Discredits Sierra Club’s Inaccurate Assumptions About Ethanol

(Urban Air Initiative)  In an effort to rebut erroneous assumptions about ethanol’s health effects in a lawsuit filed by the Sierra

April 6, 2018 Read Full Article

The Digest’s Top 10 Innovations for the Week of April 4th, 2018

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The pace of invention and change is just too strong, we’ve realized, to highlight annual or

April 4, 2018 Read Full Article

Vertimass Named Winner of National Corn Growers Association Competition: “Consider Corn Challenge: New Uses for Field Corn as Feedstock for Making Sustainable Chemicals”

(Vertimass/PR Newswire)  Vertimass’ ethanol to renewable fuels and chemicals offers exceptional corn growth potential  —  The National Corn Growers Association named

March 9, 2018 Read Full Article

Is Our Gasoline Making Us Sick? Ethanol Is a Healthier Option

by Steve Roe (Des Moines Register/Little Sioux Corn Processors)  … A significant amount of these emissions are coming from our vehicles.

March 7, 2018 Read Full Article

UPS Reports on Renewable Diesel Performance, Calls for Bio-Crude Advancements to Increase Production

by Tom Quimby (Hard Working Trucks)  With both Ford and Chevy recently announcing diesel engine options for their 2019 ½-ton pickups,

January 29, 2018 Read Full Article

QUOTE OF THE WEEK

In an Ethanol Producer Magazine article, Urban Air Initiative’s David Hallberg explains how, with proper adherence to Clean Air Act

January 24, 2018 Read Full Article

Respecting the Law

by David Hallberg (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  (T)he U.S. Department of Energy’s adherence to laws, and a proposal from the Urban

January 24, 2018 Read Full Article

Leaps and Bounds in Sustainable Plastics and Nylons: U Wisconsin, Genomatica, Aquafil, Anellotech, Suntory, ADM, DuPont in the Mix

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  It’s been a big week in plastics and nylons, all right — not only for those

January 24, 2018 Read Full Article

China Mixed Aromatics Imports May Wane amid High Costs

(ICIS News)  China’s imports of mixed aromatics may wane due to high costs and amid calls for a nationwide use of

January 22, 2018 Read Full Article

My Voice: A ‘Swing and a Miss’ from the USDA

by Doug Sombke (Argus Leader/South Dakota Farmers Union)  Our esteemed U.S. Department of Agriculture recently released a report of the Inter-Agency Task Force

January 18, 2018 Read Full Article

Make Haste Slowly: The Story of Anellotech’s Journey towards a Bio-BTX Breakthrough

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … In it, we are reminded that innovation is a never-ending war between two brothers named Urgency and Diligence —

January 5, 2018 Read Full Article

US Grains Council : USGC Explores Potential For Ethanol Use in Indonesia, Thailand

(U.S. Grains Council/4 Traders)  Representatives from the U.S. Grains Council (USGC) recently traveled to Indonesia and Thailand to visit with ministry

December 26, 2017 Read Full Article

EESI Comments on Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

(Environmental and Energy Study Institute)  On October 5, EESI submitted comments to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety

October 6, 2017 Read Full Article

Proposed Standard Will Support Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Quality

(ASTM)  A proposed ASTM International standard will help characterize the quality of diesel fuels and biodiesel blends. The proposed standard (WK51775)

October 5, 2017 Read Full Article

Letter: Is the EPA Scamming Auto Owners?

by Dale Christensen (Glacial Lakes Energy/Argus Leader)  How long can the Environmental Protection Agency ignore clean air and soaking auto owners

September 18, 2017 Read Full Article

More Is Less

by Doug Durante (Ethanol Producer Magazine/Urban Air Institute) … We need more ethanol in gasoline, and in so doing, we will

August 30, 2017 Read Full Article

The Electrochemical Approach: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Upgrading Biorefinery Waste to Industrial Chemicals and Hydrogen

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The DOE is funding a fascinating project to develop a continuous electrochemical process to convert biorefinery

August 11, 2017 Read Full Article

QUOTE OF THE WEEK

Chris Clayton (DTN The Progressive Farmer), commenting on EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt’s calls for ethanol-free gasoline (E0):  A gallon of

July 7, 2017 Read Full Article

Pruitt Raises Idea of Higher Levels of Ethanol-Free Gasoline

by Chris Clayton (DTN The Progressive Farmer)  … (EPA Administrator Scott ) Pruitt also noted that EPA will be “assessing

July 7, 2017 0 comment Read Full Article

ALTERNATE ENERGY: Ethanol: It’s Just Plain Corny

by James Bobreski (Finger Lakes Times)  … Ethanol is the alcohol in our beer that we enjoy at a ball game, a

June 26, 2017 Read Full Article

Things to Do with Lignin: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Upgrading Biorefinery Waste to Chemicals and Hydrogen

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  At the 2017 DOE Project Peer Review, John Staser of Ohio University gave this illuminating

June 26, 2017 Read Full Article

And No Extra Hydrogen: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to One-Step, High-Yield, Drop-In Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Vertimass’ John Hannon gave this illuminating overview of one-step, high-yield production of drop-in fuels without added

June 22, 2017 Read Full Article

DLR and Lufthansa Technik Investigate Biofuels in New Study

(DLR) In a large-scale test, DLR combustion researchers investigated the use of biofuels as well as blends of biofuels and

June 12, 2017 Read Full Article

We Need a Disruption to Grow

by David VanderGriend (Ethanol Producer Magazine/Urban Air Initiative/ICM)  … Urban Air Initiative will be part of a group with diverse perspectives

May 24, 2017 Read Full Article

Livin’ La Vida Octane: The Quest for Torque and Affordable, Sustainable Vroom

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  … In recent days. we’ve been updating some very useful industry charts relating to costs, carbon,

May 23, 2017 Read Full Article

Ethanol at Forefront on Earth Day

by Tom C. Doran (AgriNews Publications)  Renewable fuels have come a long way since the first Earth Day 47 years ago,

May 2, 2017 Read Full Article

GUEST COLUMN: Corn Farmers Deserve to Be a Part of Earth Day’s Celebrations

by Mike Lefever (The Gazette)  … Corn producers belong at the table of these discussions and have much to be proud of,

April 25, 2017 Read Full Article

Aromatics Poisoning Prompts Partnership with Formula Drift Racer

(Urban Air Initiative/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The Urban Air Initiative is proud to announce an educational partnership with Alec Hohnadell, a

April 10, 2017 Read Full Article

UAI Challenges CRC Ethanol Study, Calls Test Procedures Flawed

(Ethanol Producer Magazine)  The Urban Air Initiative is calling the results of a new Coordinating Research Council emissions study “one

March 31, 2017 Read Full Article

Fuel Economy Rules: Someone Is Listening

by Doug Durante (Clean Fuels Development Coalition/Biofuels Digest)  The recent announcement that the Trump Administration was taking another look at Corporate

March 27, 2017 Read Full Article

Economists: Octane Premium Offsets Ethanol Energy Penalty

by  Susanne Retka Schill (Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Ethanol critics bash the fuel for its lower energy value than gasoline, while

March 20, 2017 Read Full Article

The Justice League of Pyromaniax

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The High Lords of Pyrolysis travel under the unlikely cover identities of “George Huber” and

March 14, 2017 Read Full Article

High Biofuel Blends in Aviation (HBBA)

(Netzwerk Biotreibstoffe)  In the frame of the ENER/C2/2012/ 420-1 Tender a study on high biofuel blends in aviation has been

March 13, 2017 0 comment Read Full Article

Health Effects Institute Takes Hard Look at Ethanol vs Aromatics

by David Hallberg (Ethanol Producer Magazine/Urban Air Initiative)  Candid discussions at the Health Effects Institute offer hope ethanol’s positive emissions

February 14, 2017 Read Full Article

Bioconversion of Lignin Derivatives to Biofuels: The Digest’s Multi-Slide Guide to Value from Lignin

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The goal? Develop microbial biocatalysts to convert lignin-rich streams into value-added products. That’s subject which this

February 13, 2017 Read Full Article

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Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulation regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very 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