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Sustainable Aviation Fuels: A Canadian Perspective: 2019

Aviation Fuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)), BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production, Books Web Sites etc, Business News/Analysis, Canada, certification, Funding/Financing/Investing, Infrastructure, Opinions, Policy, R & D Focus, Resources, Sustainability
May 24, 2019

( Green Aviation Research and Development Network for Environment and Climate Change Canada)  … Since 2009, the Green Aviation Research and Development Network (GARDN) has played a pioneering role in the development of SAF through collaborative research projects where cross-sectoral industrial and academic partners have co-created less-environmentally-impactful ways to travel by air.

Whereas some of the proposed mechanisms analyzed in this white paper can contribute to the development of SAF supply chains from a regional perspective, they will not, by themselves, drive the transition toward commercial deployment of SAF.

Future efforts demand addressing current gaps and opportunities from a collaborative and integrated perspective throughout the following strategic areas: (1) research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and innovation, (2) financing and strategic partnerships, (3) policy and regulations, (4) technical and sustainability certifications, (5) outreach and knowledge transfer, and (6) consortia building and regional initiatives.

These strategic areas form the basis of GARDN’s vision of a Pan-Canadian Sustainable Aviation Fuels Initiative (SAFI Canada), a commercialization roadmap that builds on the principles of the circular economy, strategic eco-design and industrial symbiosis to advance the decarbonization of the Canadian air transport sector through the use of domestically produced SAF.

To operationalize the objectives pursued by SAFI Canada, this document encompasses a set of succinct recommendations for each of the analyzed strategic areas that require further work to bridge the “valley
of death” while avoiding the introduction of competition distortions within the aviation sector.

There are a number of reasons for the aviation sector to use SAF to achieve greater GHG reductions beyond those resulting from the implementation of technological and operational measures. First, the current technological barriers
to powering aircraft with cleaner energy carriers make air transport reliant exclusively on liquid fuels. Second, even if a technological breakthrough were to become commercially available before 2050, new technological developments in the aviation sector usually take up to a couple of decades before reaching maturity. Third, aircraft in service can only be phased out gradually as they reach the end of their service life, which is estimated between 20 and 25 years on average. 

The following recommendations are addressed to both the private and the public sectors. They summarize the main takeaways from each chapter. Some of them require specific guidance from the national and provincial governments and others straightforward leadership from the industry. The creation of a comprehensive and holistic long-term vision shared between all stakeholders is foundational to SAFI Canada and should be the essence of SAF development in Canada.

Strategic Area 1 — RD&D and innovation
• Facilitate cross-sectoral research for advanced and non-conventional feedstocks and conversion technologies for SAF production
• Facilitate public investment in collaborative RD&D projects at low TRL stages
• Set innovation strategy targets for SAF development
• Focus RD&D efforts on the feedstock sources that are the most environmentally and economically sustainable in the long term
• Encourage the development of feedstock-agnostic conversion technologies
• Explore Canadian opportunities for co-processing of low-carbon conventional aviation fuels 

Strategic Area 2 — Financing and strategic partnerships
• Encourage federal procurement or other public incentives to finance the premium on SAF for government-related travelling
• De-risk private and public investments with a coordinated approach between federal and provincial financial-support programs
• Enhance access to capital grants, loan guarantees, tax credits, producer-based incentives, RD&D support programs, etc.
• Foster the production and consumption of more sustainable products and services through PPPs

Strategic Area 3 — Policy and regulations
• Design and implement a Pan-Canadian SAF roadmap to support the targets proposed by the CFS and the goals of the PCF
• Harmonize the carbon-pricing schemes among all Canadian provinces to address concerns of fair competition distortions
• Exempt SAF from federal and provincial carbon levies to reduce the price gap with CAF
• Re-invest CAF charge proceeds into mitigation and adaptation measures within the aviation sector
• Allow the use of a multiplying factor for SAF to generate credits under the CFS
• Incorporate iLUC values into the LCA Modelling Tool during the 2025 CFS review with the objective of minimizing the potential trade-offs from Canadian SAF commercial deployment
• Set “balance commitment” targets between the industry and regulators in support of national GHG reduction goals
• Engage stakeholders through demonstration initiatives across Canada to facilitate SAF integration into the existing transport, storage and distribution infrastructure

Strategic Area 4 — Technical and sustainability certifications
Technical certification
• Ensure a coordinated approach to the certification of SAF from various federal departments such as the National Research Council of Canada, Transport Canada, Natural Resources Canada, National Defense, and Environment and Climate Change Canada
• Develop a fast-track approach to the certification of new conversion pathways in Canada under ASTM D4054
• Provide assistance to applicants throughout the certification process
• Provide incentives to support fuel testing and review process for fuel certification
• Review the existing guidelines for incorporating SAF into the downstream logistics of CAF (API 1543, API 1595 and CSA B836)
Sustainability certification
• Develop a comprehensive LCA database for the Canadian SAF sector and low-carbon CAF to ensure the data consistency throughout regulatory and policy frameworks at federal and provincial levels
• Develop a meta-sustainability framework that ensures compliance with the already established sustainability standards such as RSB and ISCC standards
• Create incentives to support the Canadian stakeholders going through the sustainability certification process

Strategic Area 5 — Outreach and knowledge transfer
• Implement a communication plan to inform Canadians of the benefits of a Clean Fuel Standard, carbon tax and other policy mechanisms
• Deploy a comprehensive outreach strategy to communicate the value proposition of SAF to
stakeholders and Canadians
• Encourage citizens, through public-awareness strategies, to reduce non-essential air travel and consider other means of transportation with lower environmental impact
• Hold a dedicated SAF forum in Canada on an annual or biennial basis
• Encourage knowledge transfer between regional and national initiatives through workshops and webinars
• Increase online presence on social media and SAF Community virtual platform
• Have a dedicated organization to push forward knowledge transfer and public awareness

Strategic Area 6 — Consortia-building and regional initiatives
• Encourage the development of biohubs and other multi-stakeholder regional projects and initiatives
• Foster N2N approaches for more collaborations and extended knowledge transfer
• Enable and facilitate consortia-building based on the principles of circular economy and industrial symbiosis    READ MORE

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conversion solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve straw students sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugar cane sugar cane prices sugar cane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils Velocys 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