If you find this site useful, please


Advanced Biofuels USA: promoting the understanding, development and use of advanced biofuels around the world.

Advanced BioFuels USA

Growth Energy: EPA Proposal a Mixed Bag for Biofuels Industry: Proposal Shows Strong Movement on SREs and 2022 RVOs but Illegally Rolls Back 2020 RVOs Public Comments DEADLINE: February 4, 2022

Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Federal Litigation, Federal Regulation, Infrastructure, Opinions, Policy, Precursors/Biointermediates, Public Comment Requests Closed, White House
December 8, 2021

(Growth Energy) Today (December 7, 2021), Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor offered a mixed review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) proposed rulemaking regarding domestic biofuels blending requirements under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). The agency’s proposed Renewable Volume Obligations (RVOs) would undercut blending requirements for renewable, low-carbon biofuel in 2021, and would retroactively waive 2.96 billion gallons from 2020 RVOs set almost two years ago. Under the proposal, 2022 volumes return to statutory levels and the administration pledges to deny all improper small refinery exemptions (SREs).

“EPA’s projection of strong biofuel blending requirements in 2022, commitment to halt illegal refinery exemptions, and long-awaited progress toward complying with a 2017 court order on lost gallons represent a welcome step forward. These forward-looking plans underscore the critical role biofuels play in mitigating climate change and lowering prices at the pump. However, we are extremely disappointed EPA has proposed rolling back requirements for 2020 and lowering volumes for 2021.

“Retroactive cuts to 2020 blending requirements impact the entire fuel supply chain, including the farmers, producers, blenders, retailers, and responsible refiners who based business decisions on final requirements in place for some time.

“This unprecedented move not only exceeds EPA’s legal authority under the RFS, it fails to recognize the law’s built-in mechanism that adjusts requirements when fuel demand differs from original projections. At face value, the EPA’s plan for 2020 gallons serves as a giveaway to petroleum companies at the expense of rural families and future investment in low-carbon energy.

“The Biden Administration simply cannot meet its climate goals while retroactively rolling back low-carbon biofuel blending requirements to help oil refiners. On the campaign trail, President Biden committed to strengthening the rural economy and addressing climate change with a strong RFS and we hope to see the president’s promises fully reflected in the final rule. We look forward to engaging with the EPA during the comment period to get the RFS fully back on track.”

The agency’s draft rule would lower conventional ethanol volume to 12.5 billion gallons for 2020, advanced biofuel at 4.63 billion, and cellulosic at 510 million. In addition, it would set conventional ethanol at 13.32 billion gallons in 2021 and 15 billion gallons in 2022, while advanced biofuels would be set at 5.2 billion gallons in 2021 and 5.7 billion gallons in 2022, including 620 million gallons of cellulosic biofuel in 2021 and 770 million gallons of cellulosic biofuel in 2022. The proposal also adds a supplemental 250 million gallons in 2022 and 250 million gallons in 2023, deny the 65 pending small refinery exemption requests before the agency, and provide important guidance to limit the abuse of small refinery exemptions in the future. For more information and background on RVOs, please click here.   READ MORE

EPA lowers ethanol requirements, citing reduced demand (Associated Press)

Feather on the pedal: EPA proposes renewable fuels slash for 2020, cuts for 2021, slow growth in 2022 (Biofuels Digest)

EPA Releases Proposed RVOs and More; Industry Reaction Inside (American Ag Network)

U.S. EPA Proposes Biofuel Mandate Cuts, a Boost to Pandemic-Hit Refiners (Reuters)

House Agriculture Chairman David Scott Statement on Biofuels Announcements (U.S. House Agriculture Committee)

EPA Announces Long-Awaited RVOs, Ethanol Groups Have Mixed Reviews (Hoosier Ag Today)

EPA Proposes Comprehensive Set of Biofuels Program Updates and Improvements (Waste 360)

RFA: Today’s SRE Denials and RFS Proposals a “Modest Step in the Right Direction” (Renewable Fuels Association)


The biofuels breakthrough (Politico’s Morning Energy)

EPA proposes lowering past blending requirements for gasoline, rejecting waivers (The Hill)

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 80 and 1090 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2021-0324; FRL-8521-02-OAR] RIN 2060-AV11 Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program: RFS Annual Rules  ACTION: Proposed rule. (Environmental Protection Agency)

EPA Proposes Comprehensive Set of Biofuels Program Updates and Improvements: Proposals aim to reinforce the foundation of the program, provide for future growth (Environmental Protection Agency)

Proposed Volume Standards for 2020, 2021, and 2022 (Environmental Protection Agency)

Biden eases biofuel quota blow to farmers with future growth (Bloomberg)

US EPA proposes cuts to 2020 biofuel mandate, with plans to raise blending in 2022 (S&P Global Platts)


EPA Proposes Corn-Ethanol Cuts to RFS: Biden Administration Tries to Soften RFS Cuts Blow With $800M Aid, Refinery Exemption Rejections (DTN Progressive Farmer)

EPA issues RFS RVO proposed rule, proposes to deny SRE petitions (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

Mixed reaction in biofuels industry to EPA ethanol blending announcement (Radio Iowa)

EPA Proposes Volume Standards and Waiver Rejections (Energy.AgWired.com)

Gov. Ricketts: EPA’s Actions Undercut Ethanol Producers and Farm Families (Office of Nebraska Governor Pete Ricketts)


Iowa Republicans condemn EPA decision lowering biofuel requirements (The Gazette)

US refiners weigh impact of EPA’s RFS volume obligations as RINs costs rise (S&P Global Platts)

Ethanol Report Reviews EPA Announcements (Ag News Wire; includes AUDIO)

EPA’s RFS Announcement This Week Unleashed a Mix of Support and Questions; Here’s What to Watch Next (AgWeb; includes VIDEO)

VILSACK ON RFS: (Politico’s Morning Energy)  

EPA Plan For RFS’ ‘Biointermediates’ Use Balances Benefits, Fraud Risk (Inside EPA)

Todd’s Take: New EPA Announcements Raise Questions for Biofuels Industry (DTN Progressive Farmer)

Biden’s biofuel agenda will amount to ‘promises made, promises broken’ (Times Republican)

INSIDERS: Iowa Renewable Fuels Association hopes to change Biden’s mind about retroactive cuts to biofuel mandate (WHO13)

EPA offers nearly 14% increase for 2022 biomass-based diesel volumes in late RFS proposal (Biobsed Diesel Daily)

EPA Faces Major Legal Test Over Plan For Retroactive RFS Blending Cuts (Inside EPA)

Biden Raises the Ethanol Gas Tax: Higher renewable fuel mandates may put refiners out of business. (Wall Street Journal)

Editorial: Conflicting passions burn brightly over biofuels production mandate (World Grains)

Why All This Breast-Beating about Faltering Petroleum Refineries? Wouldn’t It Be Better if They Stop Producing Fossil Fuels and Move to Renewables? (Advanced Biofuels USA)

Public Hearing for RFS Annual Rules–January 4, 2022 (Federal Register)

Biden eases biofuel target’s blow to farmers with future growth (Pittsburgh Gazette/Bloomberg)

Biden Boosts Fuel Economy Standards to Fight Climate Change (Transport Topics)


Excerpt from American Coalition for Ethanol:  American Coalition for Ethanol (ACE) Senior Vice President Ron Lamberty issued the following reaction to EPA’s package of proposals:

“Despite being one of the most important tools available to replace petroleum with low carbon alternatives such as ethanol, today’s proposed rule misses an important opportunity to meet the Biden Administration’s decarbonization goals for the transportation sector. Instead of insisting on renewable fuel volumes required under the law, EPA’s novel approach to its authority results in the foot being taken off the decarbonization accelerator to let petroleum companies determine how much ethanol they wanted to blend in 2020 and 2021. This is not the way to drive low carbon transportation fuel alternatives quickly.

“Further, while we appreciate that EPA is proposing to return corn ethanol blending levels to 15 billion gallons in 2022 as well as proposing a path forward to restore the 500 million gallons of remanded volume as ordered by the DC Circuit Court in 2017, and rein-in the abusive use of SRE waivers pioneered under the last Administration, the proposal falls short of deploying the RFS in a manner that fully takes advantage of expanding the use of low carbon ethanol, which according to the latest lifecycle science reduces greenhouse gas emissions on average by approximately 50 percent compared to gasoline.

“The RFS is an exceptionally well-written law with provisions written into it to deal with even the devastating volume loss experienced in 2020 and 2021. Each year’s volume is converted to a percentage, so renewable fuel volumes automatically rise or fall based on actual fuel sales. By reducing the 2020 percentage and 2021 volumes EPA is essentially shifting more of the pandemic burden from refiners to ethanol producers and farmers, and allowing gallons already sold to be counted against 2022 volumes, extending the pain into another year. EPA is missing the mark on using the RFS to the fullest extent.

“Our comments on this rule will reflect on EPA’s novel interpretations of its waiver authority and will encourage EPA to take a second look at this proposal to better support low carbon biofuels and take actions to help grow demand for biofuels that benefit rural America as well as the Administration’s decarbonization goals.”  READ MORE


Excerpt from Associated Press: Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, a staunch ethanol advocate, slammed the move to adjust the 2020 targets in the last month of 2021. He called it “a boon for Big Oil″ and asked: “What’s to stop the administration from slashing 2022 obligations down the line? It’s a disgrace and an outrage to Iowa producers and anyone who cares about our environment.″

EPA’s action also contradicts Biden’s campaign promise to “promote and advance” ethanol and other biofuels, Grassley said.

“I don’t want to hear another word about President Biden’s so-called climate priorities until he puts his money where his mouth is and delivers cleaner, cheaper biofuels for Americans, just as he promised Iowans on the campaign trail,” he said.

Even so, ethanol groups applauded EPA’s move to deny all pending small refinery exemption petitions, following a court ruling earlier this year.  READ MORE


Excerpt from Reuters:  “This decision is an about-face by President Joe Biden who campaigned on his supposed support for renewable fuels,” said Republican Senator Joni Ernst of Iowa, a major corn and ethanol producing state.

The American Petroleum Institute, which represents the U.S. oil industry, said the administration “would best serve the public interest by keeping compliance volumes feasible” and said it was studying the proposals.

In a concession to the biofuel industry, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in tandem with the EPA’s announcement, announced $700 million in grants to biofuel producers as COVID-19 relief and another $100 million in support for biofuel infrastructure.

Scott Irwin, an agriculture economist, said the move to lower mandates for 2020 and 2021 would likely trigger lawsuits from angry biofuel producers.

The White House had since come under intense pressure from merchant refiners – including a plant in Biden’s home state of Delaware – to take actions that lower the costs of the credits and help stave off threatened plant closures in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic that slashed gasoline demand.

Reuters, citing sources, previously reported that the Biden administration was considering big cuts to the blending requirements. read more

The price of RINs traded at 80 cents each Tuesday, the lowest in nearly a year, before recovering to 95 cents in the afternoon. RINs had set a record at $2 in May on concerns the refining industry would fail to generate enough of the credits to meet the regulatory mandates.

Earlier this year, merchant refiners such as PBF Energy Inc (PBF.N) and CVR Energy Inc (CVI.N) began building up massive outstanding liabilities in the credits, taking bets that Biden would ultimately side with refiners and roll back RFS mandates, Reuters previously reported. read more    READ MORE


Excerpt from Biofuels Digest:  a retroactive action on 2020 volumes that has the ethanol industry up in arms. Advanced biofuels producers were cautiously optimistic, biogas producers took a more positive view, noting that cellulosic volumes would increase 51% between 2020 and 2022. Ethanol producers didn’t like the 2021 volumes but were generally positive about 2022 volumes, and action on small refinery waivers.

Even in the content of biomass-based diesel, which fared much better than ethanol, the EPA action can be seen as placing a feather on the renewable fuels pedal, precisely when the Administration is making huge long-term commitments for the country.

A lot of voices pointed to “a step in the right direction” toewards getting “RFS back on track”. Most commentators were polite enough. The National Biodiesel Board was positive enough about their 2.43 billion gallon biomass-based diesel mandate. But they pointed out that in 2020, the U.S. biodiesel and renewable diesel market grew to 3 billion gallons — its highest volume ever — and generated more than 4.5 billion advanced biofuel credits (Renewable Identification Numbers or RINs). Through the first ten months of 2021, the industry maintained a sustainable production rate comparable to 2020.  The numbers are trending in the right direction, but are lagging where producers already are, and do not match the Administration rhetoric on renewable fuels.

US Senator Chuck Grassley of Iowa said, “At a time when gas prices are through the roof and the administration is myopically focused on climate policy, it makes absolutely zero sense for President Biden to turn his back on cleaner, cheaper biofuels. The administration’s unprecedented plan to retroactively cut blending levels for previous years is a boon for Big Oil. What’s to stop the administration from slashing 2022 obligations down the line? No matter how rosy future outlooks might be, this precedent makes clear the administration is not committed to renewable fuels. It’s a disgrace and an outrage to Iowa producers and anyone who cares about our environment.

“This administration has spent much of its first year crowing about its climate priorities while simultaneously begging OPEC to reduce skyrocketing oil costs. Domestically-produced biofuels help to solve both of these problems, but the Biden Administration opted not to take yes for an answer. I don’t want to hear another word about President Biden’s so-called climate priorities until he puts his money where his mouth is and delivers cleaner, cheaper biofuels for Americans, just as he promised Iowans on the campaign trail.”

U.S. Senator Deb Fischer of Nebraska said: “The Biden administration claims to care about addressing climate change but is giving big oil a huge break at the expense of the farmers in the Heartland who produce cleaner fuel. That doesn’t add up. Retroactively lowering the 2020 RVOs and setting low 2021 RVOs is a betrayal of the hardworking men and women of rural America. To pile on, the administration is trying to conceal this bad news by taking credit for biofuels COVID-19 assistance I fought for that Congress passed and President Trump approved in 2020. The administration held this assistance back for three extra months and is releasing it now to distract Americans from its actions. Further, it appears the administration has intentionally delayed denying 65 small refinery exemptions until today, instead of letting the biofuel industry know sooner and providing certainty. The administration has broken its promises. I will continue to work with my colleagues on both sides of the aisle to fight for fairness and certainty for our ethanol producers.”

Action on small refinery waivers sinks 2020 levels, further

Monte Shaw of the IRFA noted:

“The reopened 2020 rule was not only reduced, but a hard-fought victory for biofuels supporters was removed, further destroying demand. After years of abusing the RFS refinery exemption process, former President Trump, under pressure from Congress and Governors, agreed to account for refinery exemptions when setting the RFS levels. Today’s proposal would remove the three-year rolling average of past exemptions that was finalized as part of the 2020 rule.

“This industry endured four years of illegal demand destruction through the abuse of refinery waivers during the previous administration,” stated Shaw. “Even former President Trump finally agreed it was necessary to repair this harm. After criticizing the Trump era refinery exemptions, it’s hard to understand why the Biden EPA would seek to reverse time and remove the very provision designed to undo the damage. It feels like an unnecessary gut punch that will destroy 770 million gallons of future biofuel blending.”

Reaction from the stakeholders

Michael McAdams, president, Advanced Biofuels Association

“On behalf of the members of ABFA we are pleased with the release of the RVO mandate prior to the end of the year.  In society’s collective goal to reduce carbon in our future, ABFA members stand ready to increase the number of gallons of advanced biofuels products that exceed the minimum 50% carbon reduction requirement.  With a particular focus on heavy duty diesel, marine fuels, heating oil, as well as aviation, we are on a mission to reduce carbon in the future.

“Releasing the RVO today, will help us plan for the coming year and sends some clear signals of support for our industry.  We are supportive and grateful for the manner in which the EPA addressed the issue of small refinery exemptions going forward by deny the pending exemptions.  As ABFA argued going back to 2018, the manner in which these were doled out in 2018, 2019, and 2020 was unprecedented and undercut the purpose of the RFS program.”

Monte Shaw, executive director, Iowa Renewable Fuels Association

“The Biden EPA’s proposal to reopen the finalized 2020 rule is ill conceived, illogical, and, we believe, illegal,”  “The EPA has long maintained it does not have the authority to reopen a final RVO rule and we agree. Further, the self-correction mechanisms in the RFS have already adjusted the biofuels requirement for 2020 down to account for COVID-related reduced gasoline use. Adjusting the 2020 levels down further is biofuel demand destruction pure and simple. Further, the 2021 number was reduced well below actual blending. That’s unfathomable and, if allowed to stand, would blow apart the many commitments President Biden made to Iowa voters when running for president. We have not forgotten that Biden said the RFS ‘marks our bond with our farmers and our commitment to a thriving rural economy.’ We urge President Biden to ensure the final rule lives up to his promise.”  READ MORE


Excerpt from Environmental Protection Agency: Proposed Volume Requirements for 2020-2022 (billion gallons)

Category 2020 2021 2022
Cellulosic Biofuel 0.51 0.62 0.77
Biomass-Based Diesel 2.43 2.43 2.76
Advanced Biofuel 4.63 5.20 5.77
Total Renewable Fuel 17.13 18.52 20.77
Supplemental Standard n/a n/a 0.25

*All values are ethanol-equivalent on an energy consult basis, except for BBD which is biodiesel-equivalent  READ MORE

Excerpt from Renewable Fuels Association: Today’s announcement should finally put an end to the rampant abuse of the exemption program that we experienced under the last administration.”

RFA was also pleased to see EPA’s proposal to bring more transparency to the SRE process by requiring public disclosure of certain information that has previously been treated as confidential business information—something for which the association has been advocating for many years.   READ MORE


Excerpt from Hoosier Ag Today:  POET Senior VP of Government Affairs and Communications Joshua Shields added, “EPA’s draft rule would reduce access to the single most affordable and abundant source of low-carbon liquid fuel on the planet right at the moment when consumers are facing high gas prices, and political leaders are grasping for climate solutions that are within reach. The Biden Administration should fulfill the President’s campaign promises to support the Renewable Fuel Standard, which will continue to affordably decarbonize the nation’s existing vehicle fleet, create clean energy jobs and support American farmers. We urge the EPA to consider the consequences of reducing biofuel volumes, reinstate robust blending targets and, as the President said, ‘Get the RFS back on track’ before the rule is finalized.”  READ MORE


Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: Farm state Democrats were happy the administration finally released its blending requirements after months of delay, but still offered some reserved criticism for lowering 2020 targets. Sens. Amy Klobuchar (Minn.), Tammy Duckworth (Ill.), Debbie Stabenow (Mich.), Dick Durbin (Ill.), Tina Smith (D-Minn.), and Tammy Baldwin (D-Wis.) issued a joint statement saying the new plan would “delay progress to achieving our climate goals” and that there “is clearly much room for improvement.”

But Republican Sen. Joni Ernst (R-Iowa) offered a sharp rebuke for the administration’s cutting the 2020 mandate, saying it was “absolutely a broken promise” by Biden.

The administration acknowledged the challenges for farmers and announced Tuesday the Agriculture Department will offer $700 million to financially assist producers and $100 million for renewable fuels infrastructure. But Ernst said flatly that the USDA funds “will not make up for it.”

The House Biofuels Caucus also knocked the 2020 reduction even as it offered tempered praise for the new proposals Tuesday, saying in a statement that “the 2022 number sets the biofuels industry on the right path moving forward. And the end of the abuse of Small Refinery Exemptions – which provide relief to oil companies at the expense of family farmers – is welcome news.” Pro’s Kelsey Tamborrino breaks down the proposals here.  READ MORE


Excerpt from The Hill: “The Biden administration claims to care about addressing climate change but is giving big oil a huge break at the expense of the farmers in the Heartland who produce cleaner fuel. That doesn’t add up,” read a statement from Sen. Deb Fischer (R-Neb.), who represents a large agricultural constituency.

Fischer also accused the administration of “delaying” the waiver denial.  READ MORE


Excerpt from S&P Global Platts: “We think they got 2020 by opening this [obligation] to address the COVID-induced demand destruction and the way things got out of whack with that,” said Derrick Morgan, senior vice president for federal and regulatory affairs for the trade group American Fuel and Petroleum Manufacturers, about the EPA’s Dec. 7 release of Renewable Volume Obligations for 2020, 2021 and 2022.

The EPA’s downward revision of the 2020 total volume obligation to 17.13 billion gallons from the 20.09 billion gallons set prior to the coronavirus pandemic was seen as a positive by the AFPM.

For 2021, the preliminary total RVO was revised down to 18.52 billion gallons and Morgan said it made “common sense” that 2021 volumes will be finalized once the year is over because it will be based on actual demand. 

“By lowering 2020 and 2021 RVO, EPA has avoided the situation where RIN bank would be completely depleted in 2021, causing liquidity issues and RIN price spikes,” said Manav Gupta, a Credit-Suisse analyst.

“In the detailed 159 page document, EPA is hinting that it’s lowering RVO enough to a point where they don’t see the need to issue small refinery exemptions…Some refiners might feel disappointed that 2022 RVO was revised higher (22.8 billion gallons) vs. the original mandate (22.5 billion gallons) and D6 obligation is back at 15 billion gallons in 2022,” Gupta said.

About 60 refineries have petitions in for SREs, which under the RFS is available for refineries of 75,000 b/d or less. However, the EPA noted in its Dec. 7 analysis that all obligated parties recover their costs through the market price when they sell their products and “thus do not bear a hardship created by compliance with the RFS program.”

Platts Analytics lead biofuel analyst Corey Lavinsky said the EPA is following the narrow holding of the Supreme Court, which ruled in April that there is no need for continuous exemption to be eligible for an SRE “but is still clinging on requiring a small refinery to have received the original exemption 10-plus years ago in order to be eligible.”

“If the EPA eliminates the ability for small refiners to get hardship exemptions, then more obligated parties will be required to acquire RINs to show compliance, which will drive up prices,” Lavinsky said.

Because the EPA has yet to decide if it will grant SREs for 2020, 2021, or 2022, in the mean time, it issued a range of percentage variables rather than one constant variable to be used to calculate the total RVO, which Platts calculates as the aggregate costs of RINs over all transportation fuel.  READ MORE


Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy:  VILSACK ON RFS: Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack had a rebuttal to corn-state lawmakers alarmed by the lowered blending targets for 2020 under EPA’s RFS proposal this week. The latest proposals include lowered targets for 2020 but higher levels for 2022, taking into account the consumption slump last year due to the pandemic.

“It’s hard for me to understand why these policymakers didn’t make any reference to the impact that the pandemic had on transportation… We were all hunkered down. So as a result, less fuel was used,” he told Morning Agriculture’s Ximena Bustillo, who’s trailing Vilsack in Ohio this week. “What the EPA has done is it sent a strong message about the validity of the rule and the validity of the standard by saying this is the real world. This is what really has happened by setting these numbers.”

Vilsack also said EPA’s decision to raise 2022 levels to the “highest volume ever” sent a “very strong message about the growth potential of this industry.” USDA is also proposing financial assistance for ethanol producers to account for the lower 2020 targets.  READ MORE


Excerpt from DTN Progressive Farmer: By reducing the RVOs for 2020 and 2021, EPA had effectively made more RINs available that could be applied as a pass on future blending requirements.

While Neeley was in the process of replying, I was digging up the numbers from the U.S. Energy Department and USDA’s Global Ag Trade system. Before COVID-19, in 2019, U.S. ethanol production minus exports came to 14.32 billion gallons, slightly more than 10% of that year’s gasoline production.

In 2020, U.S. ethanol production minus exports totaled 12.56 billion gallons or 10.05% of gasoline production. In the first 49 weeks of 2021, ethanol production minus exports totaled 14.08 billion gallons or 10.28% of gasoline production. In all three years, the mandate of blending 10% of gasoline production was met, despite the challenges of the pandemic.

It is important to remember that on Dec. 19, 2019, before the pandemic hit, EPA set the RVO for corn-based ethanol at 14.41 billion gallons for 2020 and at 15.0 billion gallons for 2021 and 2022. In 2020, some refiners met their blending requirements and some fell short. As an industry, however, the refiners met the requirements, but likely also bought more RINs than needed, knowing the RVO was set higher than needed, at 14.41 billion gallons. For 2020, the 12.5-billion-gallon RVO is roughly a reasonable adjustment that will prevent refiners from being punished after they met the blending mandate.

For this year of 2021, refiners are on track to meet blending requirements and may have again bought more RINs than needed, knowing the RVO was earlier set at 15.0 billion gallons. With 14.08 billion gallons of ethanol already blended in 2021, I’m not sure how EPA arrived at an RVO of 13.32 billion gallons for 2021. In this case, it does appear EPA’s lower RVO will result in refiners being issued more free passes on future blending than can be explained by gasoline demand that is running about 4% lower than in 2019. READ MORE


Excerpt from Waste 360:  To promote efficiency and opportunity in producing biofuels, this action also proposes a regulatory framework to allow biointermediates to be included in the RFS program, while ensuring environmental and programmatic safeguards are in place. Biointermediates are feedstocks that have been partially converted at one facility but are then sent to a separate facility for final processing into an RFS-qualified biofuel.  Providing a way for producers to utilize biointermediates could reduce biofuel production costs in some cases, and potentially expand opportunities for more cost-effective biomass-based diesel, and advanced, and cellulosic biofuels.  READ MORE


Excerpt from Environmental Protection Agency Proposed Rule:  G. Biointermediates
Since the RFS2 program was finalized in 2010, we have been made increasingly aware of renewable fuel producers that would like to process fuel at more than one facility. Specifically, renewable fuel producers would like to first have a facility process renewable biomass into a proto-renewable fuel (or “biointermediate”) and then have a second, separate facility process that biointermediate into renewable fuel.

In some cases, it may be preferable for economic or practical reasons for renewable biomass to be subjected to substantial pre-processing at one facility before being sent to a different facility where it is converted into renewable fuel. For example, renewable biomass may be converted into a biointermediate (such as a biocrude) at one facility that requires some additional processing at a different facility before it can be used as transportation fuel. These production methodologies have the potential to lower the cost of using cellulosic and other feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels by reducing capital costs for new facilities and/or the storage and transportation costs associated with feedstock handling— especially for cellulosic biomass. Thus, we believe that such technologies provide an opportunity for the future growth in production of the cellulosic biofuels required under the RFS program. Based on this potential for future growth, in 2016 we included in the proposed the Renewables Enhancement and Growth Support (REGS) rule provisions to allow for the production, transfer, and use of biointermediates to generate qualifying renewable fuel under the RFS program.12

Due to the elapsed time since the proposed REGS rule and our continued consideration of how to most effectively allow biointermediates into the program, we are proposing anew provisions to allow for the use of biointermediates to produce qualifying renewable fuels. Consistent with what we previously proposed in the REGS rule, these provisions specify requirements that apply when renewable fuel is produced through sequential operations at more than one facility. These provisions center around the production, transfer, and use of biointermediates and the creation of new regulatory requirements related to registration, recordkeeping, and reporting for facilities producing or using a biointermediate for renewable fuel production. We are reproposing many of the proposed biointermediate provisions from the REGS rule without significant changes, making significant changes to some of the previously proposed provisions, and proposing some provisions for the first time here. We further discuss biointermediates in Section VII.
12 See 81 FR 80828 (November 16, 2016).

Page 10 of 159  READ MORE


Excerpt from World Grain: Lost in the back and forth over the RVOs are the global forces driving strong prices for US edible oils. Viewed alone, the supply/demand balance for US soybean oil would not appear to justify record or near record high prices. The carryover of soybean oil on Oct. 1, 2022, is forecast at 1.91 billion pounds, down from 2.18 billion in 2021 but above carryovers of 1.85 billion in 2020 and 1.78 billion in 2019. Soybean oil supplies in 2021-22 were forecast at a record high 28.3 billion pounds.

The principal driver in edible oil markets has been tightening global palm oil supplies, the largest edible oil globally. Production in recent years has fallen short of expectations, in part because of pandemic-related labor shortages on plantations. Meanwhile palm oil global consumption has been rising rapidly — up over the past six years.

Other factors have kept global edible oil markets on edge, including a small canola crop in Canada and disastrous sunflower seed crop in Russia. As a result, export demand for US soybeans and soybean oil have been unusually strong.

If global supplies of edible oils begin catching up with demand over the next year or so, bakers and consumers will gain much needed relief. Until then, volatility and abnormally high prices are likely to be market features purchasing executives are forced to address.   READ MORE

Comments are closed.

More than 40,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 40,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors

FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters








2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 4th generation fuels 7% solution 45Q 45V 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane 100 octane 100% SAF (Sustainable Aviation Fuel) 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election 2022 2022 Election 2022 US Senate and House Campaign 9003 Program a A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) Abu Dhabi acacia acetate acetic acid acetone acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act advanced advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerobic digestion aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation agr Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy agricultural w Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agrivoltaic agroforestry agrofuels agronomy agrovoltaics Aircraft engine emissions Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy airports air quality Alabama Alaska Albania Alberta albizia alcohol-to-diesel alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkanes alkenes alkylate almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion and Energy Use in Transportation Model Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-C ARPA-E ARPA-Terra artificial intelligence Aruba Asia asphalt/bitumen ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D396 ASTM D975 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada atmosphere Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation aviation fuel (SAF) benefits aviation fuel (SAF) price aviation fuel (SAF) production aviation fuel (SAF) pumps/delivery aviation fuel (SAF) tax credit aviation fuel (SAF) terminal Aviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) Aviation Gasoline/AvGas avocado awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B10 B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B20 B24 B25 B30 B30RD10 B33 B35 B40 B50 B70 B75 B80 B98 B99 B100 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors billion ton study bio bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy Bio-CNG/RNG terminal Bio-CNG pumps bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG terminal bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodies biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioelectrochemical conversion bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) biofoundry Biofuel biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuel production Biofuels Directive biofuels education biofuel tax credit Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline pumps biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons biohydrogen BioIsoprene Bio LPG biomass Biomass Carbon Removal and Storage (BiCRS) Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) old 9003 Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance 9003 BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch bitter orange black carbon black grease black liquor black soldier fly blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 bracken brackish water brash Brassica Brazil breweries brine British Columbia broker brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses Business/General Aviation Business and Industry Program (B&I) business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butyl acetate butyric acid c C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cactus pear cagaita Californa California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap-and-invest cap-and-trade capybara carbohydrates carbon carbon-14 testing carbon-efficient fuels carbon/CO2 sequestration carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon pipeline carbon price carbon recycling carbon removal carbon sink carbon standard carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend Carbon tax border adjustments carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) CBG (compressed biogas) cellulase enzymes cellulose Cellulosic/Biomass Hydrogen cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program Certificates of Origin (COs) certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 chemical-looping hydrogen method Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chromium chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel Clean clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative co-processing co-products coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt coco cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel Cook Islands cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel diesel with renewables digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electroly electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylbenzene ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon games gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasificatio gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogen aircraft hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesi Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lpg lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandate mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methani methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Noth Dakota Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil ref oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine needles pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass podcasts Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R5 R33 R99/RD99 rabbits race radiata pine radish leaves railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/REDIII) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron Ricardo rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification SAF30 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower SAF pipeline sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcan sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tugboats tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) UK Emission Trade Scheme (UK ETS) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont vetiver Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses vlsfo VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin women Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc zoning


donate nowWe are not accepting donations from people or companies in Florida due to unfair reporting requirements and fees not imposed by any other state.