If you find this site useful, please

Advanced Biofuels USA: promoting the understanding, development and use of advanced biofuels around the world.

Advanced BioFuels USA

California to Ban Sales of Gas Cars by 2035

2020 Election Activities, California, Opinions, Policy
September 24, 2020

(Our Daily Planet) Yesterday, California Governor Gavin Newsom announced that the state will phase out sales of all gasoline-powered vehicles by 2035. As Governor Newsom said in a separate event with Democratic governors yesterday, people have climate “goal fatigue” and are ready for the application of those goals–this move on gas-powered cars walks the walk on California’s ambitious climate goals.

As NPR explained, in signing the executive order on Wednesday, this amounts to the most aggressive clean-car policy in the United States. Although it bans the sale of new gas cars and trucks after the 15-year deadline, it will still allow such vehicles to be owned and sold on the used-car market.

Why This Matters: Transportation is the biggest source of carbon emissions in the country and this mandate will help lead the rest of the nation and boldly supporting the transition to emissions-free vehicles. The details of how the California Air Resources Board will create the transition plan are yet to be released but this will certainly be challenged in court.

This puts an even heavier emphasis on the importance of the presidential election. Should Donald Trump be reelected, a 6-3 conservative Supreme Court will likely not uphold California’s ambitious phase-out.

Go Deeper: The LA Times posted an informative Q&A about the known details of this announcement.  READ MORE

Governor Newsom Announces California Will Phase Out Gasoline-Powered Cars & Drastically Reduce Demand for Fossil Fuel in California’s Fight Against Climate Change (Office of Governor Gavin Newsom)

Sales of new gas-powered cars banned in California by 2035: What you need to know  (Los Angeles Times; includes VIDEO)

California Governor Signs Order Banning Sales Of New Gasoline Cars By 2035 (NPR)

No ICE: California bans sale of non zero-emission cars from 2035 (Biofuels Digest)

California seeks to sell only electric cars by 2035 (The Hill)

Governor bans post-2035 sales of new gas-fueled cars (E&E News)

Newsom bans new gas cars — and begs Trump for a fight (Politico; includes VIDEO)

ATTENTION OIL INDUSTRY: California Is Banning Gasoline Powered Vehicles — You have one chance to save yourselves and COME CLEAN  (The Auto Channel)

California to phase out sales of new gas-powered cars by 2035 (Washington Post; includes VIDEO)

California governor signs order to mandate zero-emission trucks (Fleet Owner)

Renewable Fuels Association on California’s gas powered car ban (RFD TV; includes VIDEO)

DRIVING THE DAY: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Wheeler calls Calif.’s EV goal ‘political’ (E&E News)

Power plays: The EPA raised legal questions about California’s plan to ban new gas-powered cars by 2035. (Washington Post)

WHEELER QUESTIONS CALIFORNIA EV ORDER: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Newsom Issues Executive Order Requiring All New Passenger Vehicles to be Zero-Emission (NGT News)

How a gas car ban could fail in Calif. (E&E News)

CALIFORNIA FIRES BACK AT EPA: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

California electric car plan crushes Iowa farmers in move toward Green New Deal (Fox News)

Corn farmers concerned California EV push will sink ethanol sales (Green Car Reports)

GOLDEN GRAIN CEO HOPES CA GOVERNOR COMES AROUND ON ETHANOL (Brownfield Ag News; includes AUDIO)

The Interaction of the Clean Air Act, California’s CAA Waiver, Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Renewable Fuel Standards and California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (Advanced Biofuels USA)

 

Excerpt from Los Angeles Times: Gov. Gavin Newsom’s executive order banning sales of new combustion-engine motor vehicles in California starting in 2035 will mark a radical change in transportation infrastructure. It also will prompt many questions from consumers. Here are answers to some:

Is this a real ban on combustion vehicles?

The order calls it a goal but gives the California Air Resources Board authority to lay out a transition plan. CARB has enforcement powers. The order calls for a plan to phase in requirements between now and 2035, but details are yet to be determined.

The consulting firm McKinsey estimates EVs will reach price parity with combustion-engine cars as soon as 2025 and transform from money losers to moneymakers for car companies. Other studies predict price parity by the end of the decade.

Where will I charge my new electric car?

Most people charge EVs at home. The network of public charging stations is still sparse — but growing. The mandate should help solve the chicken-egg problem for capital spending on stations and create plenty of places to charge up.

What about hybrids?

They’ll be allowed until 2035, but because they come equipped with both a battery and a combustion engine, they will not be allowed to be sold once the ban takes place.

I love gasoline engines in cars and trucks. Will I still be able to own one after 2035?

Yes. The ban doesn’t affect existing cars, and according to the governor’s order, it won’t cover out-of-state sales.   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from NPR:  Newsom, a Democrat, also threw his support behind a ban on petroleum fracking but called on the California Legislature to make that change.

In January 2018, Gov. Jerry Brown signed an executive order setting ambitious targets of 200 hydrogen fueling stations and 250,000 electric vehicle chargers to support 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles on California roads by 2025.

The number of zero-emission electric vehicles being sold in the state has been on the upswing in recent years, although they accounted for fewer than 8% of all new cars sold in California last year.

Kreutzer (David Kreutzer, a senior economist at the Institute for Energy Research) also pushed back at the notion that electric vehicles are zero-emission. “Electric cars might not have emissions at a tailpipe, but they do have emissions at the power plant,” he said.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Biofuels Digest:  All Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles to be zero-emission where feasible by 2045
Air transport, marine not affected.

In addition, the Air Resources Board will develop regulations to mandate that all operations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles shall be 100 percent zero emission by 2045 where feasible, with the mandate going into effect by 2035 for drayage trucks. To ensure needed infrastructure to support zero-emission vehicles, the order requires state agencies, in partnership with the private sector, to accelerate deployment of affordable fueling and charging options. It also requires support of new and used zero-emission vehicle markets to provide broad accessibility to zero-emission vehicles for all Californians. The executive order will not prevent Californians from owning gasoline-powered cars or selling them on the used car market.

California transportation leaders  are required to plan near term actions and investments in support of the order by 7/15/2021.

The Complete Text

It’s here.

The Practical Impact

For now, not much. California will not be able to mandate much in the way of a transition until the COVID-based economic crisis passes, above and beyond what the state is already doing with incentives for EVs and production and sales targets.

Why this is mostly window dressing

California was already sharply decarbonizing and the LCFS is targeted to reduce transportation emissions by 20 percent compared to the baseline, by 2030, and the baseline was dropping roughly 1 percent per year. So, California was scheduled to be at roughly 25 percent, anyway, by 2035 — not starting to move that way in 2035.

And in “California’s Clean Fuel Future: Assessing Achievable Fuel Carbon Intensity Reductions Through 2030” — Ceres, NextGen America, and the Union of Concerned Scientists found that California could feasibly shift to up to a 26 percent target by 2030.

Biofuels Impact

No, renewable fuels are not being thrown out of California.

1. First of all, this is an order for California passenger car sales starting in 2035. Doesn’t impact vehicles sold elsewhere and transferred into California, and there will be plenty of gasoline-powered vehicles on the road into the 2050s given that it takes almost 20 years to turn over a fleet.

2. Doesn’t impact medium and heavy duty trucks, excepting those sold in California and the clock doesn’t start ticking until 2045 for them — we’re looking at a phase-down of renewable diesel in or around the 2050s and 2060s.

3. Air transport and marine are not impacted.

4. The executive order noted that “The State Air Resources Board, in consultation with other State agencies, shall develop and propose strategies to continue the State’s current efforts to reduce the carbon intensity of fuels beyond 2030 with consideration of the full life cycle of carbon.”

And the order recognizes that “California is already working to decarbonize the transportation fuel sector through the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which recognizes the full life cycle of carbon in transportation emissions including transport into the State.”

Reaction from the stakeholders

Tyson Keever, Chair of the California Advanced Biofuels Alliance:

“We understand what Governor Newsom is trying to achieve and laud the move to a low-carbon transportation future, but an electric-only future is not a science-based solution. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has a proven, technology driven, market-based solution right in front of them in the form of the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program. Through biodiesel, renewable diesel, and numerous other home-grown sources, the program reduced 14.6 million tons of carbon emissions in 2019 alone, with room for diverse growth well into the future.”

“Biodiesel and renewable diesel can reduce carbon today and help move the State away from petroleum. In fact, biodiesel and renewable diesel alone have displaced over 3.3 billion gallons of petroleum diesel since the LCFS program began in 2011. This announcement only harms our industry that has proven time and time again to be at the focal point of the success of the LCFS. We need to embrace all carbon-reducing fuels and not pick winners and losers.”

The Bottom Line

We like the Low Carbon Fuel Standard better. Mandated monopolies for EVs remove incentives by manufacturers to drive down EV vehicle costs, and for power producers to de-carbonize. 

The California Low Carbon Fuel Standard is a simpler and better idea, it doesn’t generate the same sexy headlines., but it packs a punch in performance. It simply says that California will reduce carbon — and lets the markets figure out which combination of technologies and infrastructures will deliver that most efficiently.

California was on a fast trajectory, so fast that the California legislature doubled down on the LCFS and increased the carbon reduction targets — precisely because it was working so well.

We would have been happier if the Governor and legislature had shifted the targets more aggressively on carbon — say, 35 percent by 2035, and let markets figure out how to deliver.   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico: But California Republicans immediately seized on Newsom’s order as an overstep in a year of unprecedented executive decisions on coronavirus closures. And Trump could use it as another cudgel to portray Democrats as out of touch by forcing drivers into electric vehicles still spurned by the vast majority of Americans.

After signing his executive order, Newsom seemed to welcome Trump criticism. He sent a fundraising email within hours drawing a contrast between Trump’s actions on auto emissions and his own. And he braced for a presidential tweetstorm.

Dan Becker, director of the Safe Climate Transport Campaign at the Center for Biological Diversity, said it appears California would need EPA approval to end sales of internal combustion engine cars.

The state could argue that switching to zero-emissions vehicles will significantly curb conventional pollutants, such as particulate matter and nitrogen oxides in addition to carbon dioxide. The state has struggled to meet air quality standards because of its car-heavy culture, growing population and unique geography. But it’s not clear the EPA would buy that argument either.

“This is yet another example of how extreme the left has become,” White House spokesman Judd Deere said. “They want the government to dictate every aspect of every Americans’ life, and the lengths to which they will go to destroy jobs and raise costs on the consumer is alarming. President Trump won’t stand for it.”

But Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden also did not endorse Newsom’s order Wednesday. Spokesman Matt Hill said Biden considers a transition to electric vehicles an “enormous opportunity” to create a million union jobs and work on the climate crisis. “He’s got a plan to do that and thinks of it in terms of incentives and investments, not bans,” Hill said in a statement.

The Golden State is the world’s fifth-largest economy, with more than half of its emissions stemming from the transportation sector, so the move is expected to significantly help reduce tailpipe pollution from vehicles with internal combustion engines.

California’s influence on the market is so great that it won support last year from five automakers, who sided with the state instead of the White House on vehicle efficiency standards. One car company — Ford — went so far as to launch new ads Wednesday that call out Chevrolet, Jeep and Toyota for siding with Trump.

But it was not immediately clear if Ford and the other four automakers who signed on with California are backing Newsom’s latest executive order. The Alliance for Automative Innovation, which includes all five signatories in addition to other automakers, said in a statement that while the industry is committed to expanding electric vehicles, “neither mandates nor bans build successful markets.”

“Currently, electrified vehicles account for less than 10 percent of new vehicle sales in California,” the group said. “While that is the best in the nation, much more needs to be done for California to reach its goals. It will require increased infrastructure, incentives, fleet requirements, building codes, and much more.”

Still, passing new regulations against a mountain of industry opposition will prove difficult. California business groups, from the California Chamber of Commerce to the California Manufacturers & Technology Association, criticized the executive order as unrealistic.

California Business Roundtable President Rob Lapsley said in an interview that the “radical step” to ban internal combustion engines “makes no sense” and is a rushed decision, with no guarantee of affordability for many who live in an already-expensive state.

Edison International CEO Pedro Pizarro said that his electric utility wants more to be done on economy-wide electrification, saying that the state’s recent approval of Edison’s proposed 38,000 charge ports is just a “drop in the bucket” for what’s needed to reduce emissions.

State Senator Melissa Melendez (R-Lake Elsinore) said the move would spur a backlash among California residents already struggling with the state’s high cost of living and unemployment due to coronavirus closures. She said many could perceive his order as “taking away their choice.”

State Senate Republican Leader Shannon Grove (R-Bakersfield) stressed the affordability issue and posted on Twitter an old clip of Newsom talking about his own expensive electric cars and solar panels.

Melendez said the statement was a surprise to lawmakers just 40 days from the election, and it “certainly did put more moderate Democrats in a precarious situation, having to defend what he did.”

He also outlined plans to support more bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, especially in low-income and disadvantaged communities. READ MORE

 

Excerpt from the Washington Post: Under Newsom’s watch, the state approved drilling permits for more than 1,400 new oil and gas wells in the first half of 2020, according to the Center for Biological Diversity. Kassie Siegel, director of the advocacy group’s Climate Law Institute, praised the phaseout of gas-powered cars as “a very big step” for California but said the governor still had not gone far enough to curtail oil production.

“Newsom can’t claim climate leadership while handing out permits to oil companies to drill and frack,” she said. “He has the power to protect Californians from oil industry pollution, and he needs to use it, not pass the buck.”   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: DRIVING THE DAY: California Gov. Gavin Newsom’s order this week to ban sales of new cars with gasoline engines in the state by 2035 will run headlong into a wall put up by EPA — unless Democratic nominee Joe Biden wins the presidency, former EPA officials tell Pro’s Eric Wolff. Newsom’s executive order directs California’s state agencies to take actions to phase out gasoline cars and diesel-fueled trucks, and implement a variety of other zero-emission transportation initiatives. But it included no citations of legal authorities.

California has implemented a low-carbon fuel standard , and it has traditionally used a waiver it received under the Clean Air Act to mandate increasingly stringent mileage standards in conjunction with the federal government. But Trump’s EPA withdrew the waiver last year. “Because EPA has now rescinded the waiver that allows California to have its own vehicle [greenhouse gas] standards, a future EPA will need to reinstate it or grant a new one,” said Jeff Holmstead, EPA’s air chief under former President George W. Bush. “If there is a Biden administration, I suspect that this would happen fairly soon.”

Labor pains: Newsom also got a swift reminder Thursday that his clean car agenda could hit a snag with California’s powerful labor unions if it doesn’t protect jobs, Pro’s Jeremy B. White reports . California Assemblymember Lorena Gonzalez (D) tweeted Thursday: “Can we immediately start talking about jobs? We can hate on oil, but the truth is our refinery jobs are really good middle class jobs. Union jobs. Jobs can’t be an afterthought to any climate change legislation.”   READ MORE

Excerpt from Washington Post: The Environmental Protection Agency sent a letter to California Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) claiming that the statewide shift to electric vehicles could strain the state’s electric grid.

“California’s record of rolling blackouts—unprecedented in size and scope—coupled with recent requests to neighboring states for power begs the question of how you expect to run an electric car fleet that will come with significant increases in electricity demand, when you can’t even keep the lights on today,” EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler wrote in the letter.

The letter also argues that California will need approval from the EPA to go forward, given that the Trump administration took away the state’s authority to set its own vehicle tailpipe emissions standards in 2019.

Newsom announced last week that California intended to stop selling gasoline-powered cars within 15 years, a move which, if implemented, could have ripple effects across the country and supercharge the production of electric vehicles.  READ MORE
 
 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy:  WHEELER QUESTIONS CALIFORNIA EV ORDER: EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler on Monday blasted California Gov. Gavin Newsom’s executive order seeking to ban the sale of internal combustion engines in the state by 2035, Pro’s Alex Guillén reports. In a letter to Newsom, Wheeler raises questions regarding the order’s “legality and practicality,” writing that since EPA has revoked a waiver allowing California to enforce its zero-emissions vehicle program, the state would have to obtain a new one to enforce any regulation related to Newsom’s order.

“While the EO seems to be mostly aspirational and on its own would accomplish very little, any attempt by the California Air Resources Board to implement sections of it may require California to request a waiver to U.S. EPA,” Wheeler wrote. Legal experts agree California would face almost certain rejection from the Trump administration but could succeed if Biden is elected in November.

Wheeler also questioned how, given recent rolling blackouts “unprecedented in size and scope,” California would “expect to run an electric car fleet that will come with significant increases in electricity demand, when you can’t even keep the lights on today.”  READ MORE

Comments are closed.

More than 30,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 30,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors

FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters

Donate



Archives

Categories

Tags

2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 4th generation biofuels 7% solution 45Q 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane 100 octane 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election Activities 2022 9003 Program A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) Abu Dhabi acacia acetic acid acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Aircraft engine emissions Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy airports air quality Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-E ARPA-Terra artificial intelligence Aruba Asia ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D396 ASTM D975 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation Aviation biofuel aviation biofuel benefits aviation biofuel price aviation biofuel pumps/delivery Aviation Fuel aviation fuel production awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B10 B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B20 B25 B30 B33 B35 B40 B50 B75 B80 B98 B99 B100 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors billion ton study bio bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) Biofuel biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuels Biofuels Directive biofuels education biofuel tax credit Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons BioIsoprene Bio LPG biomass Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene bioprospecting BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch black carbon black grease black liquor black locust blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain blue carbon boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 Brachiaria bracken brackish water Brassica Brazil breweries British Columbia broker brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butanol emissions butyl acetate c C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass Canary Islands canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap-and-invest cap-and-trade carbohydrates carbon carbon-efficient fuels carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon price carbon recycling carbon sequestration carbon sink carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend Carbon tax border adjustments carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile China chitin chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products CO2 Sequestration coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG / R-CNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether digital Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed e-diesel e-LNG e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) French fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kero kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulation regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable d Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustai Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsi Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

Notice

donate nowWe are not accepting donations from people or companies in Florida due to unfair reporting requirements and fees not imposed by any other state.