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Yes, Tin Lizzie Was an Alcoholic

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May 1, 2019

by Marc J. Rauch  (The Auto Channel)  Correcting Bad Revisionist History About Ford’s Model T Automobile  —  The most venerated automobile of all time is Henry Ford’s Model T. Nicknamed “Tin Lizzie,” “Leapin’ Lena,” and sometimes “Flivver,” the Model T went into production in 1908 and the last models rolled off the assembly line in 1927. The vehicle was a success everywhere in the world it was sold because it made owning a car affordable to the masses for the first time. It was reliable, durable, and replacement parts were available as needed.

A part of the Model T’s ubiquitous appeal to people around the world (even if it was not openly advertised as such) was that it was designed to run on different fuels, something that several other automobiles of the day were capable of doing (I purposely differentiate between “designed for,” and “capable of”).1

In today’s terminology this multiple fuel feature is closer to what we call “flex fuel” or what the Brazilians call “total fuel” because they have blends all the way up to E100.

The same can be said for the UK’s “petrol,” which for at least six decades meant both a petroleum based engine fuel without ethanol, and petroleum based engine fuel with ethanol in it.

In a 1998 white paper released in concert with the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the document provides background information in which they state, “Henry Ford was the first American automobile manufacturer to see the potential of ethanol as a fuel in the early 1900s. Many of his early…automobiles were capable of operating on ethanol fuel rather than gasoline.”

• Jeffrey and Adrian Goettemoeller’s 2007 book SUSTAINABLE ETHANOL contains the following passage on page 12: “In 1908, Henry Ford equipped his Model T with engines capable of running on ethanol, gasoline, or a combination of the two.”

• In 2008, Andrew English, Motoring Correspondent for The Telegraph publications wrote a story celebrating the centennial of the Model T and he stated “It was originally designed to run on bio ethanol.”

• On the webpage of the U.S. government’s Energy Information Administration website, headlined BIOFUELS: ETHANOL AND BIODIESEL EXPLAINED, it states: “In 1908, Henry Ford designed his Model T, a very early automobile, to run on a mixture of gasoline and alcohol. Ford called this mixture the ‘fuel of the future’.”

• The United States History for Kids website states, “Henry Ford and Model T Fact 19… The cars were flexible as to the quality or type of fuel it used…The engine was capable of running on gasoline, kerosene, or ethanol.”

• On the Historic Vehicles Association website, they state that “Henry Ford produced the Model T. As a flexible fuel vehicle, it could run on ethanol, gasoline, or a combination of the two.”

• In January 2011, Consumer Reports published a report on their website about ethanol. Their comments were right to the point: “The idea of running cars on ethanol is not new. Henry Ford designed the first Model T to run on ethanol so that farmers could produce their own fuel.”

• Cole Gustafson, a biofuels economist at North Dakota State University in Fargo, N.D., stated “Ethanol…fueled Henry Ford’s Model T in 1908.”

PHOTO (select to view enlarged photo)

• David Blume, author of ALCOHOL CAN BE A GAS and perhaps the world’s leading overall expert on ethanol fuel, routinely refers to Henry Ford’s intentional design of the Model T as a multi-fuel vehicle. As he told Jonathan Williams of the Wrestling With Pop Culture website in 2014, “The Model T, Henry Ford’s first (assembly line) production car, ran on both alcohol and gasoline…You just turned a couple of knobs and levers inside the cab of the car and you’d be running on alcohol.”

• The History Channel states that the Model T “…could go as fast as 40 miles per hour and could run on gasoline or hemp-based fuel.” 3

• The ZME Science website describes the Tin Lizzie like this: “The Model T could also run on gas, grain alcohol, or ethanol. Farmers could easily distill their own fuel and use Ford’s vehicle as they pleased, without having to depend on gas supply which was rather scarce.”

• In 2017, JEFF Zurschmeide wrote an article for EngineLabs website titled, HISTORIC ENGINES – THE FORD MODEL T. He wrote, “Because of the extremely basic design of the Model T engine, owners could run the car on gasoline, kerosene, or grain alcohol (pure ethanol). This “multifuel” capability was also done by design, to allow farmers to create their own fuel with excess corn. You can literally run a Model T on Moonshine!”

• On the FordModelT.net website of Australian automotive writer Mitch Taylor, he writes “The engine was capable of running on petrol, kerosene, or ethanol…”

• And, just a few months ago, in December 2018, automotive historian Jon Branch published a story about the Model T in which he wrote, “The engine was made so it could use fuels in common use in rural areas. Kerosene was a common fuel for farm tractors and stationary engines, ethanol was a home grown alcohol which was moderately popular until it became unavailable with the advent of the Prohibition era in 1919. So Prohibition didn’t just prevent human beings from drinking alcohol, it stopped Fords from drinking it too.”

In a story written by Daniel Strohl, “Fact Check: Henry Ford didn’t design the Model T as a multi-fuel vehicle,” Mr. Strohl lays out why he and Hemmings feel that the Model T was not designed to run on any fuel other than gasoline. I’ll be breaking their story down in a moment, but their position, I think, is simply encapsulated in the last sentence of the first paragraph: “…we’ve found no evidence that Ford designed the Model T to run on any fuel other than gasoline.” This story was published on the Hemmings’ website on April 23, 2017, almost exactly two years ago.

This Hemmings’ story has led other individuals and entities to accept the conclusion that the Model T was not a multi-fuel vehicle. One such entity is a website called GREEN CAR REPORTS (not to be confused with the older, more established and credible entity GREEN CAR JOURNAL). The Green Car Reports story is titled “Alt-fuel history: Ford Model T wasn’t designed for multiple fuels, really.” It was written by Sean Szymkowski, and was published online five days after the Hemmings Motor News story. Mr. Szymkowski’s opinion can be summed up with the two sentences: “Even those old-timers who have owned a Model T will likely rattle off a laundry list of fuels used, but Hemmings Motor News has utterly debunked the myth once and for all. After a bit of research, it turns out there is no conclusive evidence to affirm the Model T was meant to run on such fuels as ethanol or kerosene.”

I would like to point out that about four years before Hemmings published this “Model T Ford was not a multi-fuel car” story, they published a story titled “Cars of Futures Past – Ford Model T,” which was written by Kurt Ernst (now Editor of Hemmings Daily – Hemmings’ website). This story very definitely took the position that the Model T was designed as a multi-fuel car. The exact quote from the article is: “Ford designed the Model T to have multi-fuel flexibility, giving it the capability of running on gasoline, kerosene or ethanol.”

1. Henry Ford’s first vehicle, his Quadricycle, which was built in 1896 ran on an alcohol (ethanol) fuel. Clearly Ford knew about alcohol being a good engine fuel.

2. Ford was raised on a farm, he understood about using crops as fuels. When Henry Ford introduced his first production automobiles there were no public fueling stations. He knew businesses and homeowners could make their own ethanol – but they could not make their own gasoline – and it was this knowledge that allowed Ford’s business model to become viable.)

3. Ethanol was used successfully as the premium fuel in motor sports around the world in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s (and, of course, in very recent times). Ford was involved in racing in the years prior to the introduction of the Model T – he built race cars. So, Ford and his designers were aware of ethanol’s superior characteristics as a fuel.

4. In 1907, Congress removed the big tax on alcohol production that had been in place for more than 40 years. Henry Ford was well aware of the Congressional Hearings that were taking place in 1906 that led to the passage of the bill to remove the alcohol tax. We know Ford was aware of the Congressional Hearings because he references them in newspaper interviews.

5. As a result of the tax repeal, the price of alcohol fell below the price of gasoline. Since the Model T was supposed to be the car for the masses – an inexpensive car – how could Ford not want his car for the masses to be able to utilize whatever was the least expensive and most convenient fuel for drivers to obtain? (At the time, gasoline wasn’t available everywhere, and gasoline stations didn’t start to pop up around America and the world until after 1907).

6. Testimony had been presented at the “Free Alcohol” Congressional Hearings in 1906 about the successful wide spread use of alcohol as a passenger car engine fuel in Europe, and the potential importance it could have here.

7. The Model T was intended to be sold around the world, and it was as successful in other countries as it was in America. Europe and parts of Asia had even less access to petroleum oil and gasoline in those days than people in America. England, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Scandinavia, etc., used ethanol and ethanol blends as engine fuels. Around this time it was illegal to use gasoline in Spain. The Model T had to be able to function at optimum levels in all countries, the flexible capability made it possible.

8. In 1907-08 the U.S. Navy and U.S. Department of the Interior (Geological Survey) conducted over 2,000 tests on ethanol fuel. They found ethanol to be comparable or better than gasoline. Henry Ford knew of this.

9. It was believed that there was very finite availability of crude oil. Having a vehicle that could use more than one type of fuel was a great benefit.

10. Watch the video below of David Blume demonstrating how the Model T would work. The Hemmings’ people say that despite the mythical claim that a switch would change the car from running on gasoline to running on alcohol, there isn’t a switch like that. David coincidentally confirms this, but what he does show are the two cockpit adjustment controls that did allow for the switch from gasoline to alcohol. David describes the purposes of these controls (one to adjust timing, the other to adjust the air-fuel mixture).  WATCH VIDEO

11. Throughout the decades of the 1890’s, the 1900’s, and the 1910’s there was a plethora of newspaper and magazine articles reporting on alcohol as a fuel and as an anti-freeze. My guess is that, percentage wise, more people in 1907 may have known that alcohol could be used as a fuel than people in 2007. Ford was not the only car company testing alcohol as fuel (and finding success), Pierce Arrow, Franklin, and Maxwell were some of the others. (Detroit Free Press, March 17, 1907, page 21)

12. Hemmings says that the Henry Ford comment about alcohol being the “fuel of the future” doesn’t count as being proof that the Model T was a multi-fuel vehicle because it was made in 1925, near the end of the Model T’s production run. However, it’s irrelevant when Ford might have made that statement – in 1925 or at any time – because at least as early as 1906, Henry Ford did make statements such as “Alcohol will revolutionize the American industrial situation.” And nothing says “Alcohol is the fuel of the future” better than saying that alcohol fuel will revolutionize everything. And this statement was made two years BEFORE the introduction of the Model T, not seventeen years after. (The Pittsburgh Post, June 10, 1906, page 28; Abilene Daily Chronicle, June 11, 1906, front page: and Ft. Wayne Journal, June 17, 1906, page 20)

Furthermore, the initial reference to any such specific words that “Alcohol is the fuel of the future,” by Henry Ford, may come from a 1917 newspaper story written by journalist Frank G. Carpenter about Henry Ford’s new Model T tractor and its value as a farm tool. The sub-headline of the article includes the phrase “Alcohol the fuel of the future.” In the story itself, the journalist asks Ford or a Ford spokesperson about the cost of fuel. The reply is: “I doubt whether gasoline will be the tractor fuel of the future. Kerosene is now being used…and in the future the fuel will probably be alcohol and it will be made on the farm.” (Capper’s Weekly, January 5, 1918, page 7) The significance is that, once again, Ford’s alcohol fuel planning didn’t come as an afterthought at the end of the Model T passenger car era.

13. Hemmings places great emphasis on the carburetor information (or what they think is a lack of carburetor information) that is contained in Bruce McCalley’s book MODEL T FORD: THE CAR THAT CHANGED THE WORLD. As included earlier, Hemmings’ position is that despite there being thirteen or more different carburetors used in the Model T over its years in production, that Mr. McCalley never mentions even one carburetor that was designed to run on anything other than gasoline. Using the “optics” of today’s obsessive child-proof labeling Hemmings thinks this “argument from ignorance” means that the 13-plus carburetors were incapable of working with anything but gasoline.

Well, in January 1907, the trade industry publication THE POWER WAGON featured a story on page 26 titled “Prof. Lucke’s Alcohol Tests.” The sub-headline of the story is “Columbia University Professor Says Present Carburetters May be Used for the New Fuel.” Putting aside the funny way they spelled ‘carburetors,’ the story makes an incredible announcement. Here’s some of what the story states: “Some time ago Professor Lucke of Columbia University was appointed by the national government to investigate the possibilities of denatured alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines. After many experiments he reports, contrary to general expectation, that alcohol may be used to advantage in the ordinary type of carburetter and without any alterations in its structure… All of the professor’s experiments were conducted with 1906 engines**… In driving it is found that the alcohol explodes better when the spark is carried well advanced and the needle valve in the carburetter well open…Thumping in the engine, due to pre-ignition when gasoline is used, is not noticed with alcohol. In fact, intense heat and an advanced spark even in very hot weather all tend to assist the new fuel to act. Thus it can be seen hill climbing in summer with air-cooled motors will be made easy.”

14. Victor Wilfred Pagé was a well known expert on automobiles. He was an inventor, car designer and builder, mechanical engineer, and author of more than a dozen automotive technical books and manuals.

The 1918 edition of his book THE MODERN GASOLINE ENGINE – ITS DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE was an expanded edition to more than 1,000 pages owing to the technological information that had been developed during the First World War (1914-1917). Chapter V – the fifth chapter, beginning on page 349 – discusses liquid fuels, one of which is alcohol. Pagé writes that its use was mostly in countries other than the U.S. and Russia (they had control of their own petroleum oil). On page 355, he states that “some authorities contend that alcohol will be the fuel of the future.”

Victor Wilfred Pagé was also an experienced owner of a Ford Model T. In 1915, Pagé began writing books that were specific to the Model T.  …

Among the liquids that can be combined with air and burned, gasoline is the most common and is the fuel utilized by the majority of internal combustion engines employed in self-propelled conveyances.”

So, in other words, the Ford Model T was designed to be a multi-fuel vehicle. Yes, gasoline was the most common, no one is arguing that, but Ford engineers were familiar with other liquids that could do the job. What might those other liquids be? Kerosene, alcohol, and benzol of course. The fact that Henry Ford believed in “farm fuels” means that his logical choice was alcohol – or as we call it today: Ethanol.

While certain persons alive today working for Hemmings Motor News and Green Car Reports might be hard pressed to consider that the carburetors of a century ago could easily handle more than just gasoline (as they do today, by the way, because all carburetor and fuel injected vehicles can easily handle E10, E15, E20, E25, E30 and higher).

15. If you want to talk about an exhaustive and authoritative book on a specific subject, THE FORBIDDEN FUEL – A HISTORY OF POWER ALCOHOL must be included. This book was originally published in 1982. It was written by Hal Bernton, William Kovarik, and Scott Sklar. You’ll recall that I brought up Professor Bill Kovarik’s name a few pages ago. This book, as the title suggests, presents the most thorough history of alcohol fuel.

DIRECT EVIDENCE

PHOTO (select to view enlarged photo)

1. The following quote is from the Washington Post article sent to me by Bill Kovarik. It’s dated May 22, 1906, page 8 (two years BEFORE the introduction of the Model T):

“WITH THE AUTOMOBILISTS – In anticipation of the passage of the act permitting the manufacture of “denatured” alcohol free, Henry Ford the Detroit automobiles manufacturer, is preparing to meet the new conditions with an automobile that will use the new fuel instead of gasoline. For several weeks past the well-appointed laboratory and experimental force of the Ford Company have been conducting exhaustive experiments to determine the best type of carburetor, or mixing valve, for vaporizing alcohol for internal combustion motors.”
This same basic story appeared in the Philadelphia Inquirer, May 20, 1906 (two days before the Wash. Post story) on page 6; as well as in several other cities around the country.

2. From Detroit Free Press, June 11, 1906, page 9:

“ALCOHOL MOTOR CARS – Big Plant to Manufacture Them is Being Planned – Will be Located in Detroit – Henry Ford Will Head The Company…Enterprise is Result of Passage of Denaturized Alcohol Bill – Ford has also made exhaustive experiments with alcohol as fuel for internal combustion motors and has been very secretive about the positive results of these experiments.” This same basic story appeared in multiple cities around America.

3. From Ft. Wayne Journal-Gazette, June 17, 1906, page 20:

“FORD SAYS FREE ALCOHOL WILL REVOLUTIONIZE AMERICAN INDUSTRIES…During the past three years Ford has devoted all his leisure time, a great deal of thought and research, not only to the invention of motors that will use alcohol as fuel, but to the study of the production of alcohol itself.” Same basic story appeared in multiple cities around America.

4. For several years, until a design change was made around 2008, the Ford Motor Company website included a section on Environmental Vehicles, which included Fuel Cell Vehicles, Hybrid Vehicles, and Ethanol Vehicles. The Ethanol Vehicles webpage states: “Vehicles fueled by ethanol actually use E85, a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. Ford’s interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel goes back to the days of Henry Ford. Ford planned to use ethanol as the primary fuel for his Model T…”

5. On May 30, 2006, the Louisville Courier-Journal ran a story on page D3 about Dogwood Energy, a small distillery making ethanol for fuel. The spokesman for the company told the reporter, “Using ethanol to power cars isn’t new. The Model T was originally built to run on alcohol.” This newspaper report fueled (pun intended) some controversy with members of the Model T Ford Club of America, who describe themselves as the world’s largest Model T fan club. The group is located in Richmond, Indiana – a couple of hours north of Louisville. A club executive contacted the newspaper to check that information. The newspaper contacted Ford Motor Company and asked if the story was true. The newspaper subsequently published the following: “According to Ford spokeswoman Kristen Kinley, Henry Ford’s first four-wheel engine-powered vehicle, the quadracycle, ran strictly on ethanol in 1896. When it was released in 1908, the Model T could run on either gasoline or ethanol or a combination thereof. As the market embraced petroleum, Ford stopped producing vehicles that could run on either fuel and focused on gasoline engines. But the first few years of Model Ts could run on either fuel.”

If you take a look at the monthly Hemmings magazine (and now the “cars for sale” section of their website), it’s full of these cars – remember, this is how I found my 1956 Bentley S1 thirty five years ago. What I didn’t know when I bought the Bentley was that it may very well have run on Cleveland Discol power alcohol or KoolMotor power alcohol (the two major UK brands owned by Standard Oil and Cities Service, respectively) for some or all of the 28 years that it was driving the roads in England. When I picked up the car at the docks in California, it was not in perfect condition – but then I didn’t buy it in perfect condition. However, when I turned the key the car started and I immediately drove it many miles away to my home. The Bentley was my primary personal vehicle for the next 20+ years. The point is that if my car might have been powered by ethanol then the same would be true for literally thousands and thousands of European vehicles manufactured between the years 1900 and 1970 that must have been sold through Hemmings. The bottom line is that if ethanol is so bad for internal combustion engines, where are all the thousands of reports complaining about the damage. And if ethanol was so damaging, then why did Standard Oil, ESSO, Cities Service and other leading oil/gasoline companies sell this power alcohol fuel in Europe as being cleaner, safer, more powerful, higher MPG, and less expensive than ethanol-free gasoline?

In 1906, prior to the passage of the Free Alcohol Act, Henry Ford spoke about alcohol fuel and the predatory nature of Standard Oil in a newspaper interview. He praised alcohol as a coming boon to rural and urban industries. Then, addressing the issue of long term alcohol fuel availability, Ford said: “No immense plant is necessary – no costly machinery. It is not even necessary to manufacture it (alcohol fuel) on a large scale. Every farmer can afford to make enough for his own individual use…And he can make it as he does butter – cheaper, considering his leisure at certain seasons, than can a factory competitor. There can never be a monopoly of the alcohol industry. To control the output of the sale of this product, the Standard Oil Trust would have to own every farm in the Unites States, obviously impossible.” (The Daily Standard, June 22, 1906, page 3)

The year 1907 was a pivotal year. … Second, it was the year in which the Free Alcohol Act took effect, which rescinded the onerous tax that had been placed on alcohol production more than 40 years earlier. Almost immediately the price of alcohol fell below the price of gasoline in America for the first time ever. And then in one year’s time, Henry Ford would introduce the Model T, which revolutionized the automobile industry, it became the best selling car in the world, and IT COULD RUN ON ALCOHOL. As the many, many, many newspaper articles of the years between 1900 and the start of Prohibition point out, alcohol was being looked upon as the fair-haired child because it was cleaner, safer, and more powerful in internal combustion engines than gasoline or kerosene.

Although new oil discoveries in the western U.S. would cause the price of gasoline to fall back below the price of alcohol fuel, alcohol was still priced close enough to be a problem.

The First World War presented a new problem for gasoline producers, especially Standard Oil and its “baby Standards” (the newly formed companies that resulted from Standard Oil’s conviction of violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Law in 1911). The Germans were winning the air war in Europe, with planes fueled with alcohol-gasoline blends, proving the blends’ superiority over straight gasoline. And the war pushed the need for bigger, faster internal combustion engine vehicles with high compression engines. Gasoline caused engine knock, which in turn limited the production and consumer acceptance of modern cars and trucks. The only known solution at that time was to use alcohol or alcohol-gasoline blends.

In a September 1916 newspaper interview, a reporter asked Henry Ford if Standard Oil had interfered with the development and progress of alcohol as a fuel in the years since the passage of the Free Alcohol Act. Ford responded: “Sure, certain people have seen to that. Such a fuel would put gasoline out of business.”  READ MORE

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Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME (dimethyl ether) Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 price E12 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life end user Energy Bill energy cane energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) Export externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green chemistry green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding Horse manure horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrofaction hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbe microbiology microorganizms microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Lab National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol off-take agreements Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-gas prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable hydrogen renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) renewable volume obligation (RVO) replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK sales Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale gas shale oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smokestack soap social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks 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teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils Velocys Venezuela Vermont video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste water water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java 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