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Sky’s the Limit as UK Sets out Strategy to Reach Net Zero Aviation and Deliver Guilt-Free Flying

Aviation Fuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)), BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production, Business News/Analysis, Funding/Financing/Investing, Opinions, Policy, Sustainability, UK (United Kingdom)
July 20, 2022

(U.K. Department for Transport, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, The Rt Hon Kwasi Kwarteng MP, and The Rt Hon Grant Shapps MP) Jet Zero strategy commits UK domestic aviation to achieving net zero emissions by 2040, and for all airports in England to be zero-emission by the same year.

  • Jet Zero strategy sets out timeline for reaching net zero aviation, so passengers can fly guilt-free
  • new targets to reduce aviation’s carbon emissions and prevent them from increasing above pre-pandemic levels in future – with 2019 set to be remembered as the peak year for aviation emissions
  • sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) mandate to ensure at least 10% of jet fuel is SAF by 2030, with the government’s ambition to have at least 5 commercial-scale SAF plants under construction in the UK by 2025
  • pioneering SAF projects can also now apply to the £165 million Advanced Fuels Fund

The new Jet Zero strategy sets ambitious green targets to ensure passengers will be able to fly guilt-free in the future.

Launched at Farnborough International Airshow, the strategy commits UK domestic aviation to achieving net zero emissions by 2040, and for all airports in England to be zero-emission by the same year.

It also includes a plan for the industry to stay below pre-pandemic levels of carbon emissions through measures focused on everything from delivering system efficiencies to new technologies, with progress monitored annually.

Aviation is currently responsible for around 2.5% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. With the sector contributing £22 billion to our economy and set to grow as it recovers from the pandemic, the Jet Zero strategy provides the tools to help future-proof the aviation sector, deliver guilt-free air travel and create thousands more green jobs around the country.

The whole economy will benefit as new, cutting-edge industries develop and new infrastructure is built to meet our ambitious targets, including the government’s commitment to having at least 5 commercial-scale SAF plants under construction in the UK by 2025.

Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said:

We want 2019 to be remembered as the peak year for aviation emissions. From now on, it should all be downhill for carbon emissions – and steadily uphill for green flights.

The UK is setting an example of the ambition needed to tackle climate change, and the Jet Zero strategy provides a clear path to building a greener aviation sector for generations to come.

Rather than clipping the sector’s wings, our pathway recognises that decarbonisation offers huge economic benefits, creating the jobs and industries of the future and making sure UK businesses are at the forefront of this green revolution.

Business Secretary Kwasi Kwarteng said:

This strategy provides the clear vision and leadership required to tackle one of the great industrial challenges of our time, decarbonisation of aviation. Importantly, it is also clear the global shift to cleaner forms of flight represents a huge opportunity to secure growth and jobs for the UK.

Through the ambitious steps outlined in this strategy and close collaboration with our world-leading industrial and innovation base, the UK stands ready to capitalise on first mover status, seizing the economic benefits of a green aviation revolution.

The 6 priority areas set out in the strategy are:

  1. Improving the efficiency of our existing aviation system, from aircraft to airports and airspace. For example, we will improve fuel efficiency by 2% every year and are providing a further £3.7 million in 2022 to 2023 to support airports to modernise their airspace.
  2. Increasing support for sustainable aviation fuels (SAF), by creating secure and growing UK SAF demand through a SAF mandate that will require at least 10% of jet fuel to be made from sustainable sources by 2030 and kickstarting a domestic SAF industry, supported by the new £165 million Advanced Fuels Fund.
  3. Supporting the development of zero-emission aircraft, with the aspiration of having zero-emission routes connecting places across the UK by 2030.
  4. Developing carbon markets and greenhouse gas removal technologies to drive decarbonisation and offset any residual emissions, including by enhancing the UK Emission Trade Scheme (UK ETS).
  5. Providing consumers with better information so they can make sustainable aviation choices. We will publish a call for evidence on our proposal to provide consumers with environmental information at the time of booking air travel in autumn 2022.
  6. Increasing our understanding of the non-CO2 impacts of aviation, such as contrails and nitrogen oxides. The effects of these remain uncertain so we will work closely with academia and industry to monitor global developments in this area, increase our understanding, potential mitigations and explore a means of tracking these emissions.

The Jet Zero strategy builds on the Prime Minister’s Net Zero strategy, the UK’s economy-wide plan for achieving net zero emissions by 2050, as well as the Transport decarbonisation plan, which outlines the commitments and actions needed to decarbonise the entire transport system.

As part of the strategy, the government has announced today a new mandate for at least 10% SAF to be blended into conventional aviation fuels by the end of the decade.

Made from waste materials such as household waste, sewage or used cooking oil, these fuels offer, on average, greenhouse gas emissions savings of more than 70% compared to conventional fossil jet fuel when fully replacing kerosene.

SAF is a core part of the Jet Zero strategy, and from today pioneering projects looking to produce SAF in the UK can bid for a share of the new £165 million Advanced Fuels Fund. Building on the progress of the £15 million Green Fuels, Green Skies competition, this new funding will help us achieve our aim to have at least 5 commercial SAF plants under construction in the UK by 2025.

Innovative projects will harness engineering expertise to produce millions of litres of SAF every year, supporting thousands of green jobs in our industrial heartlands, improving UK fuel security and putting us at the forefront of the emerging global SAF industry.

Kevin Craven, CEO of ADS Group, said:

A clear strategy for the UK that focuses on a broad range of measures through which aviation can decarbonise is a welcome step forward towards net zero aviation by 2050. The UK aerospace community is committed and ready to deliver on the promise of sustainable aviation.

This will include the development and realisation of zero-emission technologies that will play a central part of the decarbonisation journey, alongside sustainable aviation fuels and improvements in system efficiencies.

ADS and our members look forward to working with partners in industry, academia and government to solidify the UK’s place as a world leader in green aviation.

Julie Kitcher, EVP Communications and Corporate Affairs, Airbus, said:

Decarbonising aviation is a significant challenge, but the Jet Zero strategy provides a clear goal for the sector whilst driving forward the development of the different technological pathways needed to make net zero aviation emissions by 2050 a reality. The time to act is now. Working together, we will succeed.

Warren East, CEO of Rolls-Royce plc, said:

As a member of the Jet Zero Council and the Zero Emission Flight Delivery Group, Rolls-Royce is committed to working across industry and with government to decarbonise aviation.

We welcome the ambition set out in the Jet Zero strategy and the framework that will support the sector to deliver the technologies and innovation required to achieve our collective net zero aviation ambitions.

This strategy positions the UK government as a global leader in the journey towards more sustainable flight and we will play our part in pioneering the technical solutions that will make this vision a reality.

Val Miftakhov, Founder and CEO, ZeroAvia and a member of the Jet Zero Council said:

The Jet Zero Council played a critical role in establishing momentum behind zero-emission solutions for aviation, such as ZeroAvia’s hydrogen-electric propulsion systems. Today’s strategy is the next step, and will help to ensure the UK remains a global leader in our sector.

By the end of this decade, passengers will be boarding guilt-free, zero-emission, hydrogen-electric regional flights for work and leisure, creating thousands of jobs in the process and helping us meet our collective net zero goals.

Manchester Airport Group CEO Charlie Cornish said:

The publication of the Jet Zero strategy is a key milestone in our sector’s drive towards a net zero carbon future.

We are proud to play a leading role in the Jet Zero Council, which brings together government and industry to share ideas and innovation to ensure we make this strategy a reality.

MAG is committed to delivering on its own Jet Zero pledges, as well as working with partners collaboratively across our industry to achieve the 2050 net zero target.

Andy Smith, Head of Sustainability at Loganair, said:

Loganair is pleased to be an active member of the Jet Zero Council which, as a cross-industry and governmental body, has driven forward the UK aviation industry’s Net Zero strategy and ensured that the UK remains at the forefront of global efforts to reduce aviation’s environmental impact.

Mark Swan, Head of the Airspace Change Organising Group (ACOG), said:

Airspace modernisation is a critical national infrastructure project for the UK. Our airspace structures – our routes in the sky – have not been updated since the 1950s and as we enter a new age in airspace use, we have a huge opportunity to deliver major efficiencies for the sector.

As outlined in today’s Jet Zero strategy, upgrading our airspace will support the UK to create a future-proof, more resilient airspace, helping drive the country towards Jet Zero through optimised routes that reduce carbon emissions.

We look forward to continuing our work with the government and industry to modernise our skies.

Richard Moriarty, Chief Executive of the Civil Aviation Authority, said:

Aviation delivers substantial benefits both regionally and internationally, but comes with significant environmental impact.

As an industry we must all continue to work together to reduce carbon emissions and the impact the aviation sector has on climate change.

The Jet Zero strategy is an ideal opportunity for collaborative work to improve environmental performance in the aviation and aerospace systems for the benefit of consumers, users and the wider community. We’re proud to sign the new charter and commit to delivering net zero.

Chair of Sustainable Aviation, Matt Gorman, said:

With the world’s third largest aviation network and a proud history of aviation innovation, the UK is in a prime position to lead the global transition to a Jet Zero future.

Today’s strategy and pledges by Jet Zero Council members are a significant milestone on the path to achieving this ambition, recognising that aviation can grow sustainably with the right support.

We are pleased to see a strategy focussed on supporting the technologies that will deliver this ambition. We look forward to working with government on the commercialisation and scale-up of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) in the UK, investment in technology including zero-emission aircraft, delivery of critical airspace modernisation and supporting carbon removal technologies.

We hope this will include policy support to quickly deliver a mandate and the right commercial incentives to enable investment in SAF plants here in the UK whilst ensuring the wider technology solutions are developed and implemented.

CEO of Jet Zero Council, Emma Gilthorpe, said:

This is a key milestone on the path to decarbonising aviation, setting the framework for the Jet Zero Council to continue its great progress on sustainable aviation fuels and zero emission flight, and providing key policies to get us there, including a SAF mandate.

I also welcome the ambitions for 5 SAF plants to be under construction by 2025 and zero emission UK routes this decade, and look forward to working with the council’s dedicated delivery groups to help achieve these.

Today’s announcements come as the Transport Secretary launches the next phase of his historic challenge to the aviation industry to deliver the first transatlantic flight running on 100% SAF in 2023. Following a call for expressions of interest in May this year, companies can now bid for up to £1 million of funding. The government will announce the final successful applicant later this year.

Today’s announcements support the work of the Jet Zero Council, which met today at the iconic Farnborough International Airshow to discuss the Jet Zero strategy and signed a new Jet Zero Council members’ charter. The charter will ensure the council remains at the forefront of delivering SAF and zero emission flight, with over 17 council members having today made new pledges showing their commitment to delivering Jet Zero.

The new strategy is the next milestone for the aviation sector’s green journey and builds on the UK’s presidency of COP26 in Glasgow, where the UK launched the International Aviation Climate Ambition Coalition, showing the high level of support for an ambitious long-term emissions reduction goal for international aviation to be agreed at the 41st ICAO Assembly this year.

The government is also working with industry through the Aerospace Growth Partnership, which released its new strategy today, Destination Net Zero. The strategy will complement the Jet Zero strategy, driving a reduction in the climate impact of aviation whilst contributing to the economic prosperity and global aerospace leadership of the UKREAD MORE

UK sets SAF mandate and unveils advanced ‘jet zero’ plan fuels fund  — The new strategy includes plans to have at least five commercial sustainable aviation fuels plants under construction by 2025. (Airport Technology)

UK sets 10% SAF goal, launches £165 Advanced Fuels Fund (Biomass Magazine)

‘Guilt-free’ flying impossible with UK’s new aviation strategy: The UK government’s Jet Zero Strategy fails to deliver a credible plan to get UK aviation to net zero. (Transport & Environment)

‘UK in prime position to lead the global transition to a Jet Zero future’ (Biofuels International)

UK government unveils net zero by 2050 aviation strategy that promises passengers “guilt-free” flying (GreenAir Online)

 

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(HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export India Indiana Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesi Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logist logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards 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methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microo microorganisms/microbes Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural g natural gas natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherland Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Noth Dakota Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil ref oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peach shell peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine needles pine nut pinion pipelines PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poand podcasts Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control 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metal rare earth metal/critical minerals RD3 RD10 RD20 RD30 RD50 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/RED III) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron Ricardo rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower SAF pipeline sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver simarouba Singapore Singpore SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solaris solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South K South Korea South Sudan SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcan sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustain Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tugboats Tunisia Tunsia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) UK Emission Trade Scheme (UK ETS) Ukraine Ukriane UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) Unleaded 88/E15 urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army usda USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey Utah utility model value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont vetiver Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses vlsfo VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Virginia wet distillers grain What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops 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