If you find this site useful, please

Advanced Biofuels USA: promoting the understanding, development and use of advanced biofuels around the world.

Advanced BioFuels USA

Oil Prices Have Fallen below $0 a Barrel. What Does It Mean for the Climate? This Could Be an Opportunity to Reshape Our Energy System. But It Could Also Simply Lead to a Bailout of Oil Companies.

Business News/Analysis, Funding/Financing/Investing, Health Concerns/Benefits, Opinions, Policy, White House
April 24, 2020

by Adele Peters (Fast Company)  … Fracking companies have lost billions over the past decade. Some investors may be even more reluctant to invest in the sector now. “I think on the financial side, I would think twice as a lender until it became really clear what the trends were going to be in the transport sector,” Manion says. “Again, if there’s some stickiness to some of the new patterns and technologies that we’ve developed, along with hopefully at some point some strong policy signals from the United States and some of the other leading economies, you might see a real progression similar to what’s happened with coal, which is that it’s getting tougher and tougher to finance.”

Fossil fuel companies want a government bailout now, and Trump has suggested going farther to pay for oil that hasn’t even been extracted yet. But the U.S. government could also move in a different direction as it invests in economic recovery: Will the recovery embrace the necessary green technologies of the future? “We’re hopeful that if there’s an infrastructure package that it does take the long view,” says Manion, adding that some of the fastest-growing jobs before the pandemic were in the green sector, including energy efficiency jobs.

“If you want to accelerate recovery and neutralize to some extent some of the negative impact of COVID on the economy, you’ve got to make investments in greening the economy, reindustrializing, changing our processes, and putting people back to work almost the way that they did in the ’30s,” says Paula DiPerna, special adviser for the nonprofit CDP. “To address climate change is an enormous economic opportunity, and to fail to do so is to miss potentially the greatest opportunity to rethink our economic direction in a generation.”  READ MORE

Oil sector skeptical of Trump plans (Politico’s Morning Energy)

COVID-19 Impact Underscores Need for Biofuels (Morning Consult)

DIESEL TRUCKS HAVEN’T STOPPED ROLLING DURING THE PANDEMIC, AND NOW THE AIR IS CLEANER. WHAT GIVES? (Diesel Technology Forum)

Farm and Food: We have to start somewhere (Lincoln Journal Star)

As Oil Trades Below $0, Will Corn or Ethanol be Next? (Farm Journal AgWeb)

Jerry Gulke: Are Markets, COVID-19 Forcing Acreage Changes? (Farm Journal AgWeb)

Europe Pushes for Green Stimulus, Will Congressional Republicans Finally See the Light? (Our Daily Planet)

Big Flares, Big Bankruptcy, Big Relief? Oil Sector Experiencing “Tectonic Shift” (Our Daily Planet)

EARTH DAY PERSPECTIVES AND A GREEN RECOVERY (Diesel Technology Forum)

POLL — MORE THAN HALF OF VOTERS SUPPORT RENEWABLE BAILOUT: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Bail out clean energy before oil, most Americans say (E&E News)

TEXAS UNLIKELY TO CUT PRODUCTION: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Trump pulls back on oil rescue: TRUMP TAKES FOOT OF THE GAS: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

US fossil fuel giants set for a coronavirus bailout bonanza: Exclusive: oil, coal and fracking companies in line to benefit from $750bn bond scheme (The Guardian)

Citi Announces Inaugural USD-denominated Benchmark Green Bond Issuance (Citi/Yahoo! Finance)

Special Report: Millions of abandoned oil wells are leaking methane, a climate menace (Reuters)

 

Politico’s Morning Energy: Energy officials say they are growing skeptical that any workable plan from the Trump administration will emerge to prop up the struggling oil industry.

— Fossil fuel and clean energy interests are getting in line for the next coronavirus relief package, with former Vice President Joe Biden adding his voice to those pushing for green infrastructure.

OIL INDUSTRY DOUBTFUL OF TRUMP PLANS:Energy officials are becoming more and more skeptical the Trump administration will be able to come up with a workable plan to help the oil industry hit by a one-two punch from the coronavirus and a crash in prices, Pro’s Ben Lefebvre and Zack Colman report this morning. The Trump administration has already jettisoned plans to buy oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, nixed an idea to eliminate royalty payments for energy produced on federal lands, and dropped a discussion of paying oil companies not to produce oil.

The latest idea floated last week calls for the Treasury Department to create a new fund to lend money to struggling oil producers — and take partial ownership stakes in the companies while requiring them to reduce their output. “This is whack-a-mole stuff,” said one industry source. “There is a huge interest to ‘do something’ to help. But it all sounds good until step two.”

But skeptics in the industry say that would be all but unworkable politically and financially. “When I heard that, it was in the context of ‘We could be totally insane and try this,'” said one person in the oil and gas industry who requested anonymity because they weren’t authorized to talk to the press. “Are we really talking about nationalizing our oil industry? Is the government equipped to do something like this? The answer is no.”

Asked on Fox News Sunday about a bailout for oil companies, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said the president has made clear there would be no bailouts to any companies — including the oil producers. “We will consider, again, loans to companies in a proper scenario with strategic importance, but no bailouts. No shareholder bailouts,” he said. Mnuchin however said the administration is looking “carefully” at loans to oil companies. “The secretary of Energy and I are studying it and we’re looking at it very carefully,” he said.

The presumptive Democratic nominee suggested the next package should include a “trillion-dollar infrastructure program that can be implemented really rapidly,” as well as “dealing with environmental things that create good-paying jobs.” President Donald Trump and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell have suggested that “green stimulus” would be a non-starter with Republicans, but Biden said investments in light rail, clean drinking water, and half a million electric vehicle chargers on the nation’s highways could help retool the economy for the future.

Trump campaign spokesman Tim Murtaughresponded to the comments by accusing Biden of trying to exploit the coronavirus crisis to push a Green New Deal, which Murtaugh said would create “millions of job losses in the energy sector.”

POLITICO reported last week that while new polling across 14 countries in the G-20 shows a majority in every country surveyed agrees economic recovery should “prioritize climate change,” lawmakers will have to balance that sentiment with requests for bailouts and regulatory relief from sectors that are both hard-hit and high-polluting, including aviation, auto makers and fossil fuels.

Still, five energy-state Republican senators, led by Sen. Kevin Cramer of North Dakota, are demanding any assistance for the renewable energy sector be paired with accompanying benefits for the fossil fuel sector, Pro’s Anthony Adragna reports. While they oppose extending any clean energy credits, the Republicans said in a letter to McConnell that any move along those lines must be paired with “immediate action to properly compensate” coal and nuclear facilities, enhanced carbon capture and sequestration credits, an extension of the refined coal tax credit and legislative action to reduce the time lines for permitting reviews.

Sen. Ron Wyden, ranking member of the Finance Committee, told ME Democrats would not support aid for fossil fuel companies in future packages. “In this time of crisis, Democrats are committed to ensuring that COVID-related disruptions do not threaten the clean energy jobs and investments that have helped put the U.S. on a path to a more sustainable future,” Wyden said. “The fossil fuel industry has received taxpayer support for more than a century — it’s long past time America stopped coddling them.”

CONSIDER THISThe National Wildlife Federation told ME it will make a series of new policy recommendations on natural climate solutions to lawmakers this week, focusing on natural ways to sequester carbon and address climate change.     READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Morning Consult: Fine particulate air pollution — specifically tiny particles called “particulate matter” that are generated in part by fuel combustion from cars — continues to be a significant health threat. In fact, the American Lung Association just released The State of the Air 2020, and one of the key findings is “that too many cities across the nation increased the number of days when particle pollution soared to often record-breaking levels.” 

While there have been reports it has temporarily improved as a result of our “new normal,” we owe it to ourselves to ensure we get on path to keep it that way. This is even more critical now — since recent research found a link between high exposure to fine particulate air pollution and pre-existing conditions that contribute to more severe outcomes from COVID-19. 

Additional benefits of ethanol include the potential for rural economic stimulus, and just as important — but often not highlighted — reduced emissions and health costs. 

E30 gasoline is the “sweet spot” as far as ethanol blends go. It can significantly reduce toxic emissions from gasoline. These tiny emissions exacerbate air pollution and hurt our health — increasing instances of preterm births, cancer, IQ loss, neurological disorders and a multitude of respiratory diseases. 

In fact, research in a Guardian article noted that “the impact of different pollutants on many ailments remains to be established, suggesting well-known heart and lung damage is only ‘the tip of the iceberg.’” And similar to the research linking fine particulate air pollution and COVID-19, these particles have been proven to disproportionality affect low-income communities and vulnerable populations such as pregnant women.

A solution exists: enforcement of the mandatory provision of the Clean Air Act that requires the Environmental Protection Agency to reduce the toxic carcinogens that refiners use to increase octane in gasoline. And all this would take is the stroke of the president’s pen. Frankly, the SAFE Rule was a huge missed opportunity to make it right.

Thankfully, experts are bringing this issue back to the forefront. Earlier this year — even before COVID-19 was widespread in the United States — a distinguished group of energy and policy experts discussed the topic in the National Clean Fuels Technology and Health Effects Leadership Forum

One of the forum’s speakers, Reid Detchon, senior adviser for climate solutions at the UN Foundation, spoke about the smoking gun — the fact that the EPA itself admitted it was wrong about the dangers of gasoline aromatics. Another participant, former Sen. Tim Wirth (D-Colo.), joined Sen. Charles Grassley (R-Iowa) late last year to urge environmental advocates to take another look at biofuelsREAD MORE

 

Excerpt from Farm Journal AgWeb: “We may be seeing a paradigm shift in ethanol, where plant become more of a protein or a DDG-maker and ethanol is a byproduct,” he (Jerry Gulke, president of the Gulke Group) says. “That’s is a total shift in what we started out with back in 2005.”

With all the price and demand uncertainty, Gulke says farmers may make more last-minute acreage shifts that ever before. 

“Some people are switching a pivot from corn to alfalfa,” he says. “Some are going into specialty crops, non-GMO or expanding organic production. I just switched some more corn ground to bean ground. Why would I plant corn now when I know it is a negative result?”

Gulke urges any farmers with time to carefully analyze the profit potential for the crops they plan to plant—don’t just follow your standard rotation.

“People like to say for the long term, they don’t change because of rotation,” he says. “In the long term, we’re all going to be dead. In the short term, we want to make money, so we don’t have to sell the farm. Now is when being flexible and using futures and options can help you make good decisions quickly.”

Manage your short-term risk and key your eye on the big picture, Gulke says. 

“We have a long road ahead of us in mitigating the problems that are affecting agriculture,” he says. “It may take years of work our way out of this.”  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Diesel Technology Forum:   The opportunity for a green recovery, one that invests in new fuels and energy technologies guided by greenhouse gas emissions profiles, is prescient. In this tumultuous time, we would be wise to set aside the “either-or’s”, “either you are 100% behind a 100% renewable clean energy future, or you are not”, in favor of certainty and accommodation; a little give and take on all sides.  Do what is possible right now to help dig out of this hole. Some future plans and milestones will inevitably be delayed or shelved entirely until clearer days are ahead, and that’s reasonable and okay.

Truck, engine and equipment makers are looking for the best for their customers, and recognize the opportunities of alternatives. That means that diesel will yield some of its 97 percent market share in the heavy-duty side of commercial trucking to new alternatives like hydrogen fuel cells or battery-electric technology. Use of low-carbon fuels including biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel have proven capabilities and can bring valuable near-term benefits. The largest trucks and heaviest equipment and machines continue to rely on diesel, and manufacturers are improving on diesel’s energy efficiency and low emissions, along with meeting new government efficiency and upcoming further low emission mandates. Last mile deliveries in urban areas are being made today with all electric trucks, albeit in very limited test markets.  Exactly how much and when new technologies become more mainstream now must factor in the economic impacts of COVID-19.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: POLL — MORE THAN HALF OF VOTERS SUPPORT RENEWABLE BAILOUT: Support among U.S. voters for a government bailout of the renewable energy industry amid the coronavirus pandemic has remained steadily above 50 percent, according to a new Morning Consult poll. The poll, conducted from April 29-30, found 56 percent of voters supported a bailout of the renewables industry, up just 2 percent from an earlier survey from March 31-April 1 that asked the same question. The U.S. renewable energy industry has seen delayed construction and thousands of jobs lost amid the pandemic, as the Associated Press highlighted over the weekend.

The Morning Consult poll released early this morning also shows that support for the renewable industry is higher than that for a bailout of the oil and gas industry, but it showed support for the latter also went unchanged between the two polls, even as oil prices dipped below zero last month. Thirty-eight percent of voters said they would support a bailout of the oil and gas industry.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morninge Energy:  TEXAS UNLIKELY TO CUT PRODUCTION: … (Texas Railroad Commissioner Ryan) Sitton said Monday he believed that some larger oil companies would use their Washington, D.C., connections to seek their own financial assistance from the federal government. “I do think absolutely there are going to be some companies who argued against proration who are going to the federal government and asking for stimulus dollars, loans, asking to block imports of oil,” Sitton said in the interview. “You’ve got different companies all over the map on this. Almost everybody is arguing for what’s in their interest as opposed to the nation’s or the industry’s interest.”  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: TRUMP TAKES FOOT OF THE GAS: Industry officials in contact with the White House and Energy Department say there seem to be no new plans coming out of the Trump administration to aid struggling oil companies since the Treasury Department said it would allow the Federal Reserve to relax some restrictions on buying debt from companies with poor credit ratings, Pro’s Ben Lefebvre, Anthony Adragna and Zack Colman report this morning. Instead, the administration appears to be content to let states address the fallout of the oil market meltdown.

The administration hasn’t closed the door to more aid, White House allies said. But President Donald Trump, who called the recent uptick in prices “good for jobs” and “good for the economy” during a press briefing Thursday, seems to consider the modest rebound reason enough to move on, sources said. “Until the president says ‘no’ publicly it’s not dead — and even if he does say ‘no’ it doesn’t mean he won’t change his mind,” said Paul Blair, strategic director of Americans for Tax Reform. “[But] I don’t think it is the current top priority in the administration.”

The White House is still mulling tariffs on oil imports and “all options are on the table,” said Stephen Moore, an economist with the Heritage Foundation whom Trump briefly sought to appoint to the Federal Reserve. And Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin and Energy Secretary Dan Brouillette are still exploring an emergency lending program for oil and gas companies, multiple people said, though details on that effort remained scarce.

But while major firms like Exxon Mobil — which posted its first quarterly loss in more than 30 years last week — are likely to be able withstand the low prices for some time, many smaller and mid-sized companies have said they need some form of government assistance or they risk going out of business.

“Why this administration can stand idly by while entire sections of the oil and gas industry are cratering is mystifying,” said one industry official who requested anonymity to talk about discussions he had with administration officials. “I’m glad the president has such a good relationship with the Saudis because in a few years he is going to be buying a lot of oil from Saudi Arabia. So much for American Energy Dominance.”

Looking ahead: IHS Markit expects the second quarter of 2020 will see the largest volume of petroleum liquids production cuts in the history of the oil industry, including shut-in production, according to analysis released this morning. IHS expects cuts or shut-ins of as much as 17 million barrels per day, including a drop of nearly 14 million bpd of crude oil production, between April and June 2020. Oil demand in the second quarter is also expected to be 22 million bpd less than a year ago.    READ MORE

Comments are closed.

More than 30,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the more than 30,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors

FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters

Donate



Archives

Categories

Tags

2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 4th generation biofuels 7% solution 45Q 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane 100 octane 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election Activities 2022 9003 Program A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) Abu Dhabi acacia acetic acid acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Aircraft engine emissions Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy airports air quality Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-E ARPA-Terra artificial intelligence Aruba Asia ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D396 ASTM D975 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation Aviation biofuel aviation biofuel benefits aviation biofuel price aviation biofuel pumps/delivery Aviation Fuel aviation fuel production awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B10 B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B20 B25 B30 B33 B35 B40 B50 B75 B80 B98 B99 B100 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors billion ton study bio bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) Biofuel biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuels Biofuels Directive biofuels education biofuel tax credit Biogas Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons BioIsoprene Bio LPG biomass Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene bioprospecting BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch black carbon black grease black liquor black locust blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock Blend wall blockchain blue carbon boat fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 Brachiaria bracken brackish water Brassica Brazil breweries British Columbia broker brownfields brown grease Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses business law business resources butadiene Butane butanediol butanol/biobutanol butanol emissions butyl acetate c C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canada canarygrass Canary Islands canary reed grass candle nut cannabis canola/rapeseed canola straw cap-and-invest cap-and-trade carbohydrates carbon carbon-efficient fuels carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber Carbon Intensity (CI) carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon price carbon recycling carbon sequestration carbon sink carbon tax carbon tax-and-dividend Carbon tax border adjustments carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata/brassica carinata carob cashew cashew apple CASI CAS Registry Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile China chitin chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products CO2 Sequestration coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG / R-CNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether digital Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed e-diesel e-LNG e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 educatio education educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) French fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility green Jo Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kero kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulation regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable d Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustai Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsi Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

Notice

donate nowWe are not accepting donations from people or companies in Florida due to unfair reporting requirements and fees not imposed by any other state.