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Iowa Farm Leaders Warn Trump Could Lose Rural Voters unless He Makes Good on Ethanol Deal

2020 Election Activities, Business News/Analysis, China, Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Agency, Federal Regulation, Feedstocks, Field/Orchard/Plantation Crops/Residues, Iowa, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, Opinions, Policy, White House, Wisconsin
October 18, 2019

by Donnelle Eller (Des Moines Register)  Angry over proposed ethanol changes, Iowa agriculture leaders warned Wednesday that President Donald Trump will lose rural voters next year unless he makes good on a deal to restore millions of gallons of lost renewable fuel demand.

“No more Iowa nice. Now, it’s Iowa pissed,” said Craig Floss, CEO of the Iowa Corn Growers Association, repeating the reaction he got from an Iowa farmer after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed changes Tuesday to the federal mandate, called the Renewable Fuel Standard.

On Tuesday, the EPA said it would account for waivers to the oil industry that frees them from using ethanol and biodiesel, based on an average of the gallons that the U.S. Department of Energy recommends exempting. But the Trump administration earlier this month told farm groups it would use an average of the actual number of renewable fuel gallons that have been waived, which is much larger.

“It was a promise made, and a promise broken,” said Grant Kimberley, executive director of the Iowa Biodiesel Board, which held a press conference Wednesday with the Iowa Corn Growers, the Iowa Renewable Fuels Association and the Iowa Soybean Association.

Since taking office, the Trump administration has granted 85 waivers to oil refineries, freeing them from using 4 billion gallons of renewable fuel. The exemptions have killed demand for 1.4 billion bushels of corn used to make ethanol, industry officials say.

The EPA proposal “would not restart a single” plant that’s been idled in Iowa and the U.S., Shaw said, adding that hundreds of investors in ethanol and biodiesel plants are farmers.

Nearly 30 U.S. ethanol and biodiesel plants have closed either temporarily or permanently because of the exemptions. Four are in Iowa. Dozens more have cut production.

Iowa’s farm economy has struggled in recent years, given large supplies of corn and soybeans, which have depressed prices. They were further lowered by the administration’s trade wars with China, Mexico, Canada and other countries, and now a decline in demand for corn-based ethanol and soybean-based biodiesel.

Dave Walton, who farms near Wilton, said the use of soybean oil to make biodiesel adds about 90 cents to the value of a bushel. Last year, Iowa grew nearly 565 million bushels of soybeans.

“This is a huge financial issue for us,” Walton said.

“Our ire is aimed at EPA and Wheeler right now … but the buck stops with the president,” said Walton, who adds Trump risks losing his support over his biofuels plan.

“If he doesn’t fix this, my support will go away,” he said.  READ MORE includes VIDEO

Senator Lankford Disappointed with RFS Mandates: Lankford believes RFS should be repealed or reformed, not increased (Office of Senator James Lankford (R-OK))

Iowa farmers blame Trump for biofuels rule they view as betrayal (WQAD)

Farmers say biofuels proposal reneges on deal with Trump (Arkansas Democrat Gazette/Associated Press)

IOWA AG LEADERS RESPOND TO EPA’S BIOFUELS PROPOSAL (Brownfield Ag News)

Ethanol Report on RFA Reaction to EPA Proposal (Energy.AgWired.com; includes AUDIO)

Iowa Biofuel Leaders React to ‘Disappointing’ EPA Proposal (WHOTV includes VIDEO)

Iowa farmers blast Trump’s dealmaking after EPA biofuel plan (Bloomberg/Grand Forks Herald)

Overnight Energy: Farmers say EPA reneged on ethanol deal | EPA scrubs senators’ quotes from controversial ethanol announcement (The Hill)

Farmers blame Trump for biofuels rule they view as betrayal (Associated Press)

Trump Remarks Seem to Contradict EPA Plan (Energy.AgWired.com; includes AUDIO)

US biofuel makers say EPA deal does not fully account for refinery waivers (S&P Global Platts)

Lawmakers, groups slam EPA ethanol plan (E&E Daily)

Ethanol Groups Say EPA Proposal Contradicts White House Deal (Iowa Public Radio)

Trump Expected to Stand Behind RFS Deal: Agriculture, Biofuels Groups on Briefing Call Say EPA Not Following RFS Deal (DTN Progressive Farmer)

Nebraska leaders react to proposed RFS rule from EPA (NTV)

Wisconsin Farmers, Ethanol Producers Say EPA Proposal Won’t Ensure Needed Demand — Producers Say Latest Ethanol Proposal Falls Short In Making Up For More Refinery Exemptions (Wisconsin Public Radio)

EPA’s proposed RFS small refinery measures under fire (Ohio’s Country Journal)

EPA ethanol ruling falls short for corn farmers (AgDaily)

ETHANOL PRODUCER QUESTIONS IF TRUMP ADMINISTRATION SHARES MIDWEST CONCERNS (Brownfield Ag News)

President’s biofuel policy is under fire (American Press)

Commentary: More ethanol means higher prices — and not just for gasoline (Bozeman Daily Chronicle/Heritage Foundation)

TRUMP RISKS ALIENATING 2020 VOTER BASE WITH BIOFUELS POLICY THAT ANGERS BOTH FARMERS AND MANUFACTURING WORKERS (Newsweek; includes VIDEO)

RFA BAFFLED BY EPA FORMULA IN SUPPLEMENTAL BIOFUELS PROPOSAL (Brownfiels Ag News; includes AUDIO)

EPA: 5 SRE applications filed for compliance year 2019 (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

GOVERNOR REYNOLDS: ‘I’M GOING TO HOLD THE PRESIDENT TO WHAT HE SAID’ (Brownfield Ag News)

Ethanol leaders: Product worthy, but regulations a problem (Fence Post)

Collin Peterson, Amy Klobuchar criticize Trump’s new ethanol rule (Twin Cities Pioneer Press/Forum News Service)

Trump’s Impossible Biofuel Dilemma (OilPrice.com)

Senators grill Censky on accusation Trump pulled biofuels ‘bait and switch’ (Politico)

BIOFUELS, OIL INDUSTRY, BOTH DISAPPROVE OF RFS PROPOSAL (News Dakota)

Whitehouse: API does oil industry’s ‘dirty work’ on climate (E&E News)

Congresswoman Axne says EPA ‘bait and switch’ on RFS unacceptable (Radio Iowa)

New rule could effect local farmers (Our Quad Cities; includes VIDEO)

Environmental Protection Agency move threatens small farms in Iowa (Des Moines Register)

Outrage over federal agencies’ biofuel mandates (WAVY)

Minnesota Democrats take aim at EPA, White House over proposed biofuels rule (Grand Forks Herald)

Farm groups slam EPA’s biofuel plan: Renewable fuel supporters say EPA’s proposal fails to keep President Donald Trump’s promise. (Farm Progress)

“EPA Reneges on Trump’s Biofuels Deal”: Shocker details emerge on US oil industry waivers (Biofuels Digest)

Farm, renewable fuel groups angered by EPA plan to replace lost demand for ethanol, biodiesel (Des Moines Register)

Ethanol Futures Tumble on EPA Fix to Offset Refinery Waivers (Bloomberg)

Trump’s latest plan to boost ethanol miffs both corn groups and the fossil fuel industry (The Hill)

THEIRS: SD ethanol facing challenging times (Rapid City Journal)

Cal Dalton: The EPA must honor Trump’s promise to put biofuels back to work (The Cap Times)

PETERSON STATEMENT ON NEW BIOFUELS RULEMAKING (Office of Representative Colin Peterson (D-MN 7th)

EPA FACES PRESSURE OVER RFS REWRITE: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Siouxland ethanol industry reeling from oil refinery exemptions, trade wars (Sioux City Journal)

Amid impeachment inquiry, Iowa Republicans show support for President Donald Trump (Des Moines Register)

USDA deploys officials to defend ethanol policy, relocations (E&E News)

Missouri biofuel industry wades through policy, trade challenges (Associated Press/Kenosha News)

Refinery waivers cut into E15’s 2019 expansion (Associated Press/Kenosha News)

Murphy: Ethanol policies could hurt Trump in Iowa (Globe Gazette)

Iowa biofuels leaders put pressure on Trump administration (The Gazette)

EPA, Donald Trump come up short in plan to address renewable fuel standard waivers (Grand Island Independent)

Corn Board disappointed with new EPA, Trump plans (Columbus Telegram)

Editorial: Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down (Quad City Times)

Tariffs, trade tensions threaten growth in key US ethanol markets (AgriPulse)

More Questions than Answers on China, Biofuels Package (Farm Journal AgWeb)

Washington needs to put rural America back on track (Midland Daily News)

Nancy Pelosi visits Omaha, talks impeachment and Nebraska farmers; Pelosi spoke at a Nebraska Democratic Party fundraiser. (KETV)

Despite Trade Uncertainty, Many US Farmers to Back Trump in 2020 (Voice of America)

3 reasons farmers hurt by the U.S.-China trade war still support Trump (PBS)

 

 

Excerpts from The Hill:  But farm and ethanol groups say the additional details released Tuesday by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were never part of the package they discussed with the White House.

The fine print: The formula proposed by the agency for determining how many gallons other refineries would have to blend into their fuels would be based on an average of government projections rather than the actual number of gallons small refineries received waivers for.

Reaction: “We’re being told that we’ll trust that the EPA will treat you better in the future when they’re the very agency that has caused the crisis and the economic hardships we see today. I’m sorry, but we don’t need to,” said Monte Shaw with the Iowa Renewable Fuels Association. 

“We had a deal with the president. We stand by that deal with the president. And today we’re calling on the president to step in and get the EPA back online. Don’t let the EPA undermine your policy once again, Mr. President.

 “You don’t have to be good at math. You don’t have to be a [renewable fuel standard] policy expert … doesn’t it just make common sense that if you’re going to try to account for something that you should, I don’t know, base it on the real numbers?” Shaw said.

EPA push back: The EPA said their announcement did not depart from what was negotiated by the White House.

“This proposal, which EPA will be taking comment for 30 days following the public hearing slated for October 30, is the text of the agreement negotiated by President Trump, USDA and EPA that was announced on October 4,” EPA spokesman Michael Abboud said to The Hill by email.

More on the criticism from farmers here.

 And there are signs the proposal might already be losing political support…

DISAPPEARING ACT: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) removed positive quotes from Iowa’s two senators from a release with the latest details on its plan to boost ethanol use — a proposal that is now being opposed by Iowa corn growers and ethanol producers.

When the EPA made its announcement Tuesday, it included past praise for the ethanol policy from when it was first announced in early October, a detail the agency noted. 

But the online version of that press release has since been changed to remove quotes from Sens. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) and Joni Ernst (R-Iowa). 

“That quote was for the announcement on Oct. 4,” Michael Zona, a spokesman for Grassley through the Senate Finance Committee said by email before referring further questions to the EPA.

The EPA did not immediately respond to questions about why the quotes from Iowa’s senators were removed from the latest announcement, nor did Ernst’s office respond to request for comment.   

In early October, Grassley praised President Trump for delivering a good deal for farmers.

“These are promises made and promises kept by President Trump. President Trump has made clear that he is an ally of corn and soybean farmers as well as ethanol and biodiesel producers. He is fighting for the farmer. This announcement is great news for Iowa, the Midwest and the entire country,” Grassley said on Oct. 4.

Grassley’s team sent a new comment on the EPA’s latest proposal Wednesday morning, saying the EPA would need to ensure biofuels actually get blended into traditional fuels if farmers are to be happy with any proposal

Read more hereREAD MORE

 

Excerpt from Brownfiels Ag News: Geoff Cooper tells Brownfield it’s baffling the EPA would use Department of Energy recommendations to calculate a three-year rolling average instead of actual gallons lost to small refinery exemptions.

“It is frustrating and head-scratching. It isn’t what we were promised, and it just seems apparent that EPA is trying to mislead us here.”

He says the reason using DOE recommendations is problematic is because the EPA has always ignored them, instead granting an amount of exemptions that was virtually double what the DOE had recommended.

“So what we’re concerned about is EPA would use the DOE recommendations as the basis for this 3-year average, and then they would kind of do what they’ve been doing the last few years at the end of the compliance year and grant 1.3 or 1.4 billion gallons-worth of exemptions. And that takes us back down under 15 billion gallons.”  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Ethanol Producer Magazine: Actual SRE approvals over the past three years have been significantly higher than DOE recommended SRE approvals, according to data featured in the Oct. 15 supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking.

That data shows the EPA followed DOE recommendations for compliance year 2015, providing a total exemption of 290 million RINs. There was, however, a significant mismatch between DOE recommendations and EPA approvals for compliance years 2016-2018.

For compliance year 2016, the EPA said the DOE recommended the approval of SREs equating to 440 million RINs. In actuality, the EPA approved SREs accounting for approximately 790 million RINs. Similarly, the DOE’s compliance year 2017 recommendation reached 1.02 billion RINs, far lower than the estimated 1.82 billion RINs finalized by the EPA. For compliance year 2018, for which several SRE applications are still pending, the DOE has to date recommended the EPA approve SREs accounting for 840 RIN million RINs, far lower than the 1.43 billion RINs worth of SREs already approved by the agency.

Additional SRE data is available on the EPA website.   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: EPA FACES PRESSURE OVER RFS REWRITE:Biofuel producers and farmers want the Trump administration to rewrite its proposed fix to the Renewable Fuel Standard and they’re willing to take legal action if EPA goes through with its proposed supplemental blending rulePro’s Eric Wolff reports. “People are not happy,” Sen. Joni Ernst (R-Iowa), a leading defender of the RFS, said last week. “They feel that once an agreement is reached, they should be standing by that agreement.”

Producers and farmers say Trump pledged he would require large refiners to blend 15 billion gallons of ethanol, even after factoring in the impact of the economic hardship exemptions EPA grants to small refiners, Eric reports. The biofuels industry said administration officials led them to believe that the number of gallons assigned to large refiners would be a three-year rolling average of total exemptions, which would make the system self-correcting: If EPA gave out a lot of exemptions, they would be forced to reassign more gallons in future years.

 

Excerpt from PBS: America’s farmers have borne the brunt of China’s retaliation in the trade war that President Donald Trump launched in 2018.

One reason: China is the biggest buyer of many U.S. agricultural products, such as soybeans, grain sorghum, cotton and cattle hides, which made these products an obvious target for retaliatory tariffs.

The other related reason is more strategic: China hoped inflicting economic costs on U.S. farmers – who voted overwhelmingly for Trump in 2016 – would in turn put pressure on the president to end his trade war.

Although farmers have lost billions of dollars in exports, China’s strategy hasn’t created the intended effect, with surveys of farmers continuing to show strong support for the president.

We conducted our own survey of corn and soybean farmers. Published in October, it suggests three reasons farmers support Trump’s trade policies despite the costs.

Easing the pain

Undoubtedly, China’s retaliatory tariffs on almost all U.S. agricultural exports, most notably soybeans, feed grains and pork products, have been painful for farmers.

But the Trump administration’s efforts to ease their pain have paid off. The administration gave soybean, sorghum and other farmers $12 billion in assistance in 2018, which the vast majority of our survey participants found useful.

Long-term gains
We also found that farmers largely view the trade disruption as short-term pain for long-term gain.

While only 14% think their farm operations will be better off financially a year from now, more than half said they expected something good to ultimately come out of the trade war. And about 44% said they believe the U.S. economy will be stronger in three years.

Frustration with China

Finally, we found a growing frustration with China’s erratic buying behavior.

For example, China shut out U.S. beef for 14 years over a mad cow scare in 2003, keeping the ban more than a decade after other countries like Japan and South Korea lifted theirs.

Chinese purchase of products such as distillers grains or corn sometimes just disappear. These may have been offshoots of adjustments China made to its corn support policy, but, from the perspective of U.S. farmers, Chinese demand for certain U.S. agricultural commodities has been annoyingly inconsistent.

Although we didn’t ask survey participants a specific question on this topic, many farmers provided their own unsolicited comments that voiced this frustration.

“The Chinese do not play by the rules,” one Illinois farmer said. “They cancel shipment orders that are not in their favor. They continue to steal our patents. Only President Trump has tried to stop these unfair trade practices.”

Or as a farmer from Minnesota explained: “China imposed the tariffs and refused to buy soybeans in an attempt to hurt our agriculture and get us to turn against a president they do not want. They have been stealing technology and jobs for too long and giving us back inferior goods. Prior to this, they manipulated our markets by buying and then canceling or refusing shipments of grain.”

The possibility of relief

Our survey showed that most farmers recognize that they will continue to be the biggest victims of the U.S.-China trade war and will likely lose markets – some permanently – as China diversifies away from American producers.

Yet 56% still said they supported imposing tariffs on Chinese products, while only 30% oppose them.  READ MORE

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tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green chemistry green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway funds highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indone Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis 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Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbe microbes microbiology microorganizms microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Lab National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol off-take agreements Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin pellets 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flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK sales Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale gas shale oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smokestack soap social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar-to-fuels solar biofuels solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solid oxide fuel cell Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve straw students sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugar cane sugar cane prices sugar cane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariff tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils Velocys Venezuela Vermont video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers waiver Wales warranty 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