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Calls for E15 Action Face Unwritten Deadlines

Deliver Dispense, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Federal Legislation, Federal Litigation, Federal Regulation, Minnesota, Ohio, Opinions, Policy, What You Can Do, White House
March 30, 2022

by Spencer Chase (Agri-Pulse) The Biden administration is fielding a steady stream of requests for emergency action to allow for summertime sales of E15, but those calls are coming up against the realities of the fuel supply chain as demonstrated by the actions of a pro-biofuel company.

In various outreach to Biden – including a bipartisan letter from 16 senators, a letter authored by the Renewable Fuels Association with more than 1,000 signatures from producers, and a letter from Iowa’s congressional delegation, to name a few – the administration is pressed to consider the impacts of rising gas prices due to inflation and the Russian invasion of Ukraine as justification for the emergency action. A letter from farm and biofuel groups goes as far as to specify three possible steps the administration could take to make it happen. Geoff Cooper, RFA’s president and CEO, said the administration has signaled it’s open to the idea of expanded E15 use but hasn’t taken the kind of concrete steps the industry has requested. “They also know that if some action isn’t taken by June 1, then drivers who are currently using E15 are going to experience another unwelcome pump price increase because the lowest-cost fuel in the marketplace will no longer be available to them,” Cooper said in a statement to Agri-Pulse.   READ MORE

Rep. Craig Hopes EPA Will Allow Year Round E15 (Energy.AgWired.com)

BROWN: YEAR-ROUND E15 CAN HELP COMBAT DOMESTIC ENERGY COSTS (Brownfield Ag News)

THE ROLE OF E15 IN ENERGY SECURITY FOR THE US (Brownfield Ag News)

Midwestern lawmakers are trying to replace Russian oil with ethanol: Advocates of increased ethanol sales argue that it could lower fuel prices and help the climate. Both counts are hotly contested. (Grist)

FEENSTRA SAYS EPA HAS “NO INTEREST” IN MAKING E15 AVAILABLE THIS SUMMER (Brownfield Ag News)

Ethanol would offset foreign oil dependency, Farmers Union president says (Jamestown Sun)

Ethanol Report 3-29-22 — How Ethanol Can Lower Gas Prices (Energy.AgWired.com; includes AUDIO)

Corn could be the answer to high gas prices: Midwestern lawmakers push Biden to allow E15 gasoline production year-round (Fox Business; includes VIDEO)

BIOFUEL UNDER REVIEW: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

29 BIPARTISAN MEMBERS OF CONGRESS SEND BIDEN LETTER CALLING FOR GREATER ACCESS TO BIOFUELS (Brownfiels Ag News; includes AUDIO)

Growth Energy ad campaign: E15 can deliver relief at the pump (Ethanol Producer Magazine; includes VIDEO)

Americans Support Expanded E15 Use to Lower Gas Prices (Energy.AgWired.com)

Ethanol Blog: Federal Lawmakers Push Biden Administration to Make Year-Round E15 Sales Permanent (DTN Progressive Farmer)

Lawmakers Request Biofuel Regulation Easing to Lower Gas Prices (Bloomberg)

Ethanol producers push E15 as replacement for Russian oil (WISHTV; includes VIDEO)

Ethanol loses out again as White House tackles gas prices (E&E News)

White House Fuel Price Plan Overlooks Biofuels (AgWired; includes AUDIO)

Biden Administration Overlooks Biofuels in Plan to Address Higher Fuel Prices (WNAX; includes AUDIO)

Advocates pushing biofuels with the White House (Ohio’s Country Journal/Ohio AgNet)

High gas prices pose challenge for ethanol despite E15 hopes (Agri-Pulse)

Biden administration “considering” summertime sales of E-15 (RFD TV)

Iowa, Kansas petition EPA to issue emergency waiver for E15 (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

OPINION: Fuel retailers join push for year-round E15 (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

EPA chief hears more pleas to boost use of E15 (Agri-Pulse)

EPA evaluating options ahead of summertime restrictions on E15 sales: Regan (S&P Global)

Regan: EPA is evaluating authority to allow summer E15 sales (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

U.S. energy plan disappoints ethanol sector (Western Producer)

Senators Press EPA Administrator on E15 (Energy.AgWired.org; includes AUDIO)

RFA Campaign Amplifies Push for Year-Round E15 (Renewable Fuels Association)

Biden to announce plan to ease gas prices as inflationary pressures persist — The EPA plans to issue a national, emergency waiver to allow use of blended biofuels over the summer hours after report is expected to show inflation keeps surging (Washington Post; includes VIDEO)

 

Excerpt from Energy.AgWired.com: Last week, Rep. Angie Craig (D-MN) and several of her colleagues introduced the bipartisan Home Front Energy Independence Act, in an effort to expand the production and availability of American biofuels and lower energy costs for working families.

“At the gas pump this past weekend E15 was anywhere from 30 cents to 50 cents (less), and we found one gas station in a town called Cottage Grove offering E15 at 80 cents less a gallon compared to regular unleaded,” said Craig in an interview Monday. “You’re talking about 20 bucks off the cost of filling your tank!”

Rep. Craig’s bill, along with the companion bill in the Senate, would expand the availability of E15 year-round after a July 2021 D.C. Circuit Court ruling which rejected the volatility waiver for E15 created by EPA in 2019. But she admits it would be easier to make that happen administratively rather than legislatively. “I’m holding out hope that the administration and the EPA does the right thing here,” she said, mainly because it just makes sense. “This is such a win-win. It’s going to help us lower prices at the pump. It’s going to help accelerate the role that biofuels play in our effort to decarbonize the transportation sector to tackle climate change and drive economic growth.”  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Brownfield Ag News: Senator Sherrod Brown says “the best lesson here is we have to broaden our energy production and that means more E15 fuel.”

The Ohio democrat tells Brownfield it’s critical to expand the availability of U.S. biofuels following the import ban on Russian oil.

“We have a lot of opportunities to broaden our energy inputs, which will stabalize prices and, frankly, will finally push Russian oil more off the world market,” he says.

Brown, a senior member of the Senate Agriculture Committee, co-sponsored the recent letter to President Biden.

The senators say American biofuels are a clean and reliable energy solution that will help drive down fuel costs for consumers.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: BIOFUEL UNDER REVIEW: EPA is reviewing the potential to allow summer-time sales of E15 fuel amid the spike in fuel prices following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, two people familiar told ME. Reuters first reported on Wednesday that the Biden administration is considering temporarily removing the restrictions on the blends of up to 15 percent ethanol. And one of the people told ME that EPA’s Office of General Counsel is specifically considering its options available to facilitate the summer-time sale of E15.

The White House already signaled earlier this month it was looking at lifting the ban to bring down the price of gasoline, though it offered no other specifics. EPA press secretary Nick Conger did not comment on the reports Wednesday, but said in a statement that the agency is “considering a range of options across the Administration to help mitigate impacts from Russia’s actions on American consumers.”

The news is sure to please ethanol advocates and corn-state lawmakers who have called on the president to use his authority to lift the summer-time restrictions in a bid to give consumers access to lower cost fuel — particularly after an appeals court last year vacated the Trump-era rule that extended the sale of E15. Bipartisan senators earlier this month, led by Sens. John Thune (R-S.D.) and Dick Durbin (D-Ill.), also wrote to the White House on the issue. “Restoring year-round E15 would provide American drivers with a cleaner, lower-cost fuel option,” Thune added Wednesday evening.

American Petroleum Institute Vice President of Downstream Policy Ron Chittim, however, said in a response that there “is no clear pathway for EPA to establish year-round sales of E15.” READ MORE

 

Excerpt from AgWired:  Biofuel organizations are baffled by the White House “Plan to Respond to Putin’s Price Hike at the Pump” released last week that completely ignores increasing use of renewable fuels.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Brownfield Ag News: More than two dozen members of Congress are calling on President Biden to reinstate year-round E15.

In a letter to the administration, the bipartisan group is asking that biofuels be prioritized to increase energy independence and lower prices at the pump. 

Iowa Democrat Cindy Axne is one of the lead authors.

“We’re trying to drive the agenda to get more ethanol out there country-wide, especially during a time when we’re reliant on Russian oil and we really should be producing as much as we can here.”

The letter requests an emergency waiver to allow summertime sales of E15 and calls on EPA to reverse the lowering of the 2020 and 2021 Renewable Volume Obligations.

In response to the letter, Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor (score) says the message on both sides of the aisle remains loud and clear that the Biden administration must increase access to homegrown, low-carbon biofuels to offer relief at the pump and move toward a more secure energy sector.

Renewable Fuels Association CEO Geoff Cooper says if the administration fails to act on this request, the lowest-cost fuel available at the pump will disappear on June 1st and drivers will face another unnecessary price hike.  READ MORE; includes AUDIO

 

Excerpt from Energy.AgWired.com: new nationwide survey indicates Americans see the potential for ethanol to help lower gas prices at the pump, with the national average running above $4 per gallon.

The survey conducted by Morning Consult found that 72 percent of American voters support expanding the availability of E15 as a way to replace petroleum imports from Russia, and more than 80 percent support increasing domestic renewable fuel production as a way to lower record-high gas prices.

Renewable Fuels Association President and CEO Geoff Cooper notes that ethanol prices have been nearly $1 per gallon lower than gasoline prices at wholesale terminals where gasoline is blended which brings down the price of the fuel sold to consumers at the pump. If E15 replaced just 30 percent of the E10 currently being sold in the United States, the nation could entirely replace the amount of gasoline supplied annually from Russian petroleum imports.

Voters also expressed support for increasing the production of flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs), which can run on fuel containing up to 85 percent ethanol (E85), with 69 percent saying it is important for the U.S. government to incentivize automakers to increase FFV output. Finally, the Morning Consult survey showed that two-thirds of voters support the Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires renewable fuels to comprise an increasing share of the nation’s fuel supply each year.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Ethanol Producer Magazine: The Renewable Fuels Association was thrilled to see the major trade associations representing fuel retailers jump aboard this effort last month, with a letter to Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Michael Regan, urging EPA to use its waiver authority under the Clean Air Act to immediately authorize year-round E15 sales. “This common-sense step,” they note, “would provide much-needed price relief at the pump while enhancing America’s energy security and improving gasoline’s emissions characteristics.”

These three associations speak for a significant portion of the retail fuel space and their perspectives are considered  highly credible. NACS represents the convenience store industry, with more than 1,500 retail and 1,600 supplier companies as members; NATSO represents 5,000 travel plazas and truck stops nationwide; and SIGMA represents a diverse membership of independent chain retailers and marketers of motor fuel. Together, these three associations represent over 90 percent of motor fuel sales in the United States.

 In a recent poll conducted by Morning Consult, three in four American voters support expanding the availability of E15 as a way to replace petroleum imports from Russia.

As this country’s leading association representing ethanol producers, we can’t help but agree with our retailer peers: ”This is a unique situation where the Administration’s energy security and geopolitical objectives are fully aligned with its environmental priorities. Allowing year-round E15 would make the U.S. more energy secure, enhancing the nation’s geopolitical leverage all the while improving gasoline’s emissions characteristics.”    READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Western Producer: The White House announced March 31 that it will release one million barrels of oil per day from its strategic reserves for the next six months and support increased domestic production of oil and natural gas in response to the energy crisis.

That is not the message that the renewable fuels sector wanted. It has been lobbying hard for the government to allow for the year-round sale of blends containing 15 percent ethanol (E15).

“The White House is actively considering an E15 fix to deliver relief at the pump but today’s announcement made no mention of homegrown fuels,” a coalition of renewable fuels advocates said in a news release.

“It was just a stop-gap release of oil reserves and a promise of more mineral extraction down the road.”

The renewable fuel folks wanted an executive order overturning a 2021 court decision that reversed year-round access for E15 starting this summer.

The court ruling allows the blend to be sold in the winter but not during the summer months when fuel consumption is higher.

The renewable fuel lobby says E15 saves drivers more than 30 cents U.S. per gallon at the pumps and notes that there is a record surplus of ethanol in the U.S. today.

Corn grower leaders from 19 U.S. states recently sent an open letter to Biden calling on his administration to use an emergency waiver or executive order to reinstate year-round E15.

“If we replaced just one-third of regular E10 fuel sales with E15, we would fully replace all gasoline from previously imported Russian oil.”

The Home Front Energy Independence Act is new legislation that was recently introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives.

It would make the sale of year-round E15 blends permanent, create a tax credit for higher biofuel blends, streamline E15 labelling, provide funding for E15 infrastructure, extend the biodiesel tax credit for three more years and ban imports of Russian petroleum products.   READ MORE

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rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogen aircraft hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae 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NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation 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sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper 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renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable 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Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustain Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin women 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