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Winning the Future: Analyzing the CLEAN Future Act and Its Implications for Biofuels

Aviation Fuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)), Business News/Analysis, Federal Legislation, Funding/Financing/Investing, grants, Green Jobs, Opinions, Original Writing, Opinions Advanced Biofuels USA, Other Conferences/Events, Policy, Presentations
May 18, 2021

by Jenna Bloxom* (Advanced Biofuels USA)  The May 5th, 2021 Congressional hearing of the CLEAN Future Act: Driving Decarbonization of the Transportation Sector was a veritable marathon of legislative discourse just shy of four hours long as both parties debated what they deemed, in their own succinct if not melodramatic words, as the way to “winning the future”.  This particular test of deliberative endurance was certainly not the first nor the final hearing of the CLEAN Future Act, so the members of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce focused on reiterating their broader arguments regarding the bill’s overall goals and impacts rather than any nuanced specifics found within its 981 pages.

The profound partisan split underscoring many of the current legislative endeavors on Capitol Hill was, likewise, the defining reality of this hearing for the Clean Future Act’s transportation objectives and the aggressive push for electric vehicle production, service, and demand.  According to their impassioned speeches, Republicans and Democrats do not disagree on the potential for EVs to revolutionize the transport and travel sectors while forever altering the economic and manufacturing realities in this country. However, the two parties significantly diverge on the best manner in which electrical vehicles and the corresponding infrastructure should be introduced, instituted, and implemented in the public sphere.

The main themes and debates which emerged from the congressional representatives’ statements and follow-up questions to the panel of six expert witnesses during the hearing are summarized as the following:

  • Innovation Drivers—Government vs. Consumers, Strategic Choice vs. Diversity: Much of the ideological opposition from the Republicans for the CLEAN Future Act centered squarely on the federal-level mandates for jumpstarting the decarbonization and electrification of transportation. While Democrats insisted that governmental standards and directives are critical to immediately incentivize the EV investments needed for tomorrow’s innovations and supply chains, the GOP remained adamant that consumers can and should determine the pace of transport electrification through market signaling.

Republican representatives argued that the CLEAN Future Act would reduce consumer choice by elevating EVs beyond their market capacities, stunting innovative pathways for other technologies and worsening hardships for consumers during the transitional period away from internal combustion engines.  The option for using biofuels in those engines was mentioned in only in passing. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), who discussed the bill as part of “a government socialist agenda”, summarized the GOP perspective by saying:

“We should build upon our energy systems, not dismantle them.  We should stop attacking the source of American innovation, stop trying to pick winners and losers.  We should recognize the essential rule: technological innovation and American free enterprise serves to address climate risk.  Let’s win the future, let’s do it the American way.”

The Democrats refuted the notion that prioritizing EVs would reduce future technological competition, instead asserting that American ingenuity and innovation encouraged by reliable policy support and clear environmental goals would be the crucial linchpin for the U.S. to become the global powerhouse in green energy. Frank Pallone (D-NJ) also strongly contradicted the GOP regarding consumer options, insisting that the market had already decided the inevitability of EVs:

“Everyone has to understand that electric vehicles are the future.  That’s coming from the auto industry, itself; and, therefore, we need to do everything we can to ensure that America meets that future by making all the necessary investments now.”

  • Timeline for Objectives: Democrats argued that the fast-paced timeline outlined in the CLEAN Future Act for decarbonizing the U.S. transportation sector was imperative to successfully reduce GHG pollution as well as to contest the EV advancements already achieved in other regions around the world. Their GOP colleagues, however, insisted that the proposed schedules were too rushed and that the bill had vastly underestimated the length of time as well as the logistical costs required for this rapid increase in EV production and infrastructure expansion.
  • Global Competitiveness vs. Dependence: While Democrats asserted that the CLEAN Future Act and corresponding bills embody the opportunity to establish the U.S. as the dominant leader and agenda-setter in the global race for decarbonization, Republicans argued that a reliance on electric vehicles—as well as the need for lithium and other rare earth metals in their batteries—significantly undermines the country’s political and economic position in the international realm. GOP representatives were strongly opposed to the U.S. becoming dependent on both foreign supplies as well as supply chains, citing China’s position of power in battery manufacturing to be a serious threat to U.S. “energy independence” and standing in the global economy.
  • Domestic Advantage: The Republican objections to the dependency on battery-related imports necessitated by the CLEAN Future Act’s electrification goals were contradicted by the Democrats’ avowal that the bill pays special attention to developing and intensifying domestic technology, national commodity chains, and localized labor opportunities. In a rare unifying moment of the hearing, Democrats and Republicans, alike, emphasized the importance of decarbonization policies ushering in well-paying, long-term jobs for American workers.  Union leader expert witness Josh Nassar was repeatedly called upon to certify that the proposed legislation is tailored to improve U.S. labor force conditions and domestic economic growth.
  • Environmental Benefits and Equity: Expert witnesses attested to the long-term, positive environmental impacts of decarbonizing the transportation sector in support of the Democrats’ insistence that net zero carbon emissions are essential for climate goals and public health, but Republican representatives questioned the overall sustainability of EVs. The GOP suggested that the U.S. would simply be outsourcing the negative externalities of this technology due to the widely unregulated mining and labor practices common in the production of EV components and batteries abroad.
  • Socio-Economic Disparities: Despite specific programs in the CLEAN Future Act to prevent undue strain on lower income communities during the decarbonization transition, the GOP expressed concern for the inequality of the benefits versus the hardships felt by different districts during the electrification process, particularly as wealthier communities are able to more easily afford EVs, access reliable charging infrastructure, and pay higher electricity bills without financial difficulty. Democrats asserted that poorer regions would directly benefit from the legislation as they are proven to be disproportionately affected by GHG pollution in terms of health and air quality.  The Democrats also maintained that there would not be notable rate-based changes across the grid associated with the increased electrical usage for EV charging and that EV infrastructure would bring economic advancement to underdeveloped areas.
  • Consumer Experience and Expectations: While Democrats and Republicans continued to disagree over the future ease of charging EVs for daily drivers, both parties acknowledged that the logistics for travelling long distances will challenge consumer habits during the decarbonization process. Since the threat of “range anxiety” would discourage Americans from purchasing EVs as their main form of transportation, the Democrats championed the need to pass the CLEAN Future Act in conjunction with Biden’s proposed American Jobs Act of 2021 as it contains plans for the buildout of 500,000 EV charging stations by 2030. The entire committee was additionally aligned in their recognition that the co-location of charging stations and traditional gas pumps would have a practical appeal to all drivers in keeping with the familiar security, convenience, and amenities associated with today’s filling stations.  However, speaking on behalf of fuel corporations, expert witness AJ Siccardi pointed out that gas station providers have no incentive to pursue EV charging compatibility as they would be forced to buy electricity at set rate prices from utilities, leaving no room for profit when selling that energy to EV owners.
  • Rural versus Urban Imbalances: While several GOP representatives expressed interest in EV technology and its financial opportunities upon installment, the staunchest opposition was raised by Republicans from rural areas who did not expect to see EV construction in their districts for many years. These committee members disagreed with sweeping federal legislation for decarbonization when the manifestations of the EV transition would be distributed differently to rural and urban areas given the practicalities of consumer demand and cost.  Democrats pointed to examples, including David Jankowsky’s testimony regarding the widespread construction of charging stations across Oklahoma, to reinforce their argument that less populated regions would not be left behind in the shift to EVs.

TAKEAWAYS FOR THE BIOFUELS COMMUNITY

“The purpose of this hearing for the CLEAN Future Act and its concomitant bills was to discuss the decarbonization (rather than the defossilization) of the U.S. transportation sector with the assumption that the needed electricity would come from renewable (wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, or hydroelectric) sources.”

This purpose of this hearing for the CLEAN Future Act and its concomitant bills was to discuss the decarbonization (rather than the defossilization) of the U.S. transportation sector with the assumption that the needed electricity would come from renewable (wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, or hydroelectric) sources.  So, it was unsurprising that biofuels were only mentioned in passing twice during the almost four hours of EV discourse, making it rather disconcerting that biofuels’ inclusion into this passionate debate pertaining to the country’s future transportation energy constituted less than ten words, with those limited syllables all uttered by Republicans.  Within the circumstances and implications of the CLEAN Future Act, it is the GOP rather than the Democrats that prove willing to deem renewable fuels a worthy topic relating to tomorrow’s green energy possibilities.  Even untried, nascent hydrogen technology generated more attention and interest for representatives during the hearing than the well-established and functional biofuels industry.

The CLEAN Future Act, itself, approaches monstrous territory with almost 1,000 pages framing a multitude of energy and industry-related programs, standards, and initiatives to assess and progress climate goals culminating with zero net carbon targets in 2030 and 2050.

Regrettably, this bill only contains only a handful of paragraphs dedicated to addressing traditional combustion engines which will be using fuel for decades to come. The most detailed of those paragraphs outline statutes pertaining to the establishment of commercial aircraft emission standards which match or exceed those announced by the International Civil Aviation Organization’s CAEP/10 objectives for carbon dioxide pollution.  If the CLEAN Future Act is intended to vocalize a precedent for the future of U.S. transportation, then it absolutely screams a new realty for renewable fuels, one in which the industry may be relatively isolated and largely have to settle for smaller, less distinguished legislation.

That is not to suggest that the successful passage of bills like the CLEAN Future Act will exterminate biofuels or interrupt their role for both light and heavy-duty vehicles anytime in the near future. 

The CLEAN Future Act faces a multitude of uphill hurdles even if it does become law: decarbonization standards must send the right signals to spur the market into action; society must be convinced of the tangible and hypothetical benefits of EVs; domestic technology development and manufacturing must prove to be competitive with rest of the world; and the creation and management of a revolutionary infrastructure must take place over many Presidential administrations. 

The realities of building this EV infrastructure represent the most daunting challenges facing the CLEAN Future Act as voters in the U.S. are notorious for first supporting, then punishing, leaders who enact infrastructure plans as these expensive projects tend to drag on for years and often produce few noticeable differences.

As Nanette Diaz Barragán (D-CA) pointed out, The CLEAN Future Act cannot be successful without also passing Biden’s American Jobs Act since this related bill would provide $15 billion for a national EV charging network as well as a total of $174 billion over eight years for an array of EV grants and incentives.  These funding proposals sound astronomical, but as David Jankowsky discussed, the upfront capital to install the first dispenser at an EV supercharger station runs about $400,000—and, of course, not all charging stations (ideally, one every fifty miles across the country) will offer the same charging speeds or utility rates.  Constituents, therefore, will be wary of such incredible spending and are likely to be impatient for the infrastructure to show some type of immediate proof of progress.

But beyond the planning obstacles, short timeframe to meet goals, and financial realities of installing a reliable and available charging network, Americans will need to rapidly alter their attitudes about EVs.  People are skeptical of their performance, their environmental record, and even their image, which is currently associated with upper-class tree-huggers.  Plus, many people will remain unconvinced of the financial and technological benefits associated with EVs because they will have no firsthand experience with them; Joe Britton testified that 70 percent of American consumers are not even in the market for a new car, so the displacement and/or replacement of ICEs for EVs will be a slow and expensive endeavor in even the wealthiest communities.

In short, EVs have a cornucopia of battles to fight, but legislation like the CLEAN Future Act and even the American Jobs Act are evidence that electric vehicles are the chosen technological direction for the future of the United States.  None of the committee members disputed the role of EVs as the proverbial North Star guiding the nation’s transportation sector, and even as a divided entity, Congress seemed more willing to bet on a system that has yet to be developed than to go back to promoting biofuels as the environmental bastion of hope. 

The CLEAN Future Act, therefore, is policy confirmation that decarbonization, a mysterious and nebulous concept, is more appealing to lawmakers than the more attainable defossilization of liquid transportation fuel. 

And, course, now that the EV industry is rooted in the legislative limelight, it does not have anything to gain from sharing its popularity with other green energy technologies.

Nevertheless, the fate of those “other” energy options are still anything but hopeless.  Bio-based alternatives like sustainable aviation fuel and renewable diesel will undoubtedly receive the lion’s share of federal and state policy support regarding ICEs because they symbolize new biotechnology with non-traditional feedstocks and because they solve problems that electrification cannot.

Based on the speeches and debates from this CLEAN Future Act hearing, ethanol and biodiesel will likely be relegated as a ‘stepping stone’ or ‘placeholder’ technology implanted in the past, now only deserving of major funding that can be useful for a wider range of potential applications.  These biofuels will likely be further pushed into association with agricultural concerns rather epitomizing an independent energy solution for tomorrow. But, they certainly won’t disappear overnight, even with increased demand for EVs, as the agricultural sector needs robust biofuels mandates to help recover from the Trump-era tariffs.

The future of biofuels is not bleak by any means, but this industry will have to navigate a new reality in which electrification is the unequivocal priority for transportation, not just power.  Facing today’s electrification-obsessed politicians, the bio-based liquid transportation fuel industry should consider the following prescriptions to increase their significance:

  • Publicly emphasize the benefits of defossilization over decarbonization, namely in terms of the more immediate reductions in GHG reductions with fewer transformative infrastructure requirements
  • Market green hydrocarbons such as renewable diesel and SAF as a modern-day energy ingenuity and revolutionary innovation, downplaying their familial ties to ethanol and biodiesel
  • Build new relationships with policymakers based on their current government-forward investment trajectory; if Biden’s Congress wants to heavily invest in green technology, becoming a prominent player in that narrative is key
  • Invest in public education and outreach regarding the benefits of bio-based fuels and green hydrocarbons so that consumers know their choices in the fight to reduce GHG emissions

 

Hearing:  The CLEAN Future Act: Driving Decarbonization of the Transportation Sector

Date: May 5, 2021

Proposed Legislation Discussed:

      -H.R. 1512, the “Climate Leadership and Environmental Action for our Nation’s Future

         Act”

      -H.R. 2852, the ‘No EXHAUST Act”

      -H.R. 1221, the “Electric Vehicles for Underserved Communities Act of 2021”

      -H.R. 2308, the “Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Future Act of 2021”

Expert Witnesses:

      ■ Amol Phadke, M.S., Ph.D. – Staff Scientist and Deputy Departmental Head,

         International Energy Analysis Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

      ■ Joe Britton – Executive Director, Zero Emissions Transportation Association

      ■ Josh Nassar – Legislative Director, International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace

        and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW)

      ■ David Jankowsky – Founder and President, Francis Energy

      ■ Michelle Michot Foss, Ph.D. – Fellow in Energy and Minerals, Baker Institute for

    Public Policy, Center for Energy Studies, Rice University

      ■ AJ Siccardi – President, Metroplex Energy

The CLEAN Future Act and several interrelated bills including the “No EXAUST Act”, the “Electric Vehicles for Underserved Communities Act”, and “ATVM Future Act”, are designed to collectively become the seminal legislation to decarbonize the United States’ energy and industrial sectors for purposes of environmental and economic transformation.  Inspired by the United Nation’s IPCC recommendations to avoid irreversible consequences of anthropogenic climate change, the underlying ambition of the CLEAN Future Act is to “achieve net zero greenhouse gas pollution no later than 2050, with an interim target of reducing pollution by 50 percent from 2005 levels no later than 2030.”  The bill’s intended programs and standards to reduce carbon emissions target a wide variety of the major GHG polluters in the U.S. such as the power, transportation, building, and industrial sectors, but this proposed law also creates complimentary plans for federal and state climate initiatives, green R&D, community and labor transitions, plastic and waste reductions, and environmental justice provisions.

To learn more about the CLEAN Future Act and its components or to access the bill’s text, please use this link:

https://energycommerce.house.gov/newsroom/press-releases/ec-leaders-introduce-the-clean-future-act-comprehensive-legislation-to

****

*Jenna Bloxom is a political scientist with fourteen years of combined professional and research experience specific to biofuel policies and technology, the politics of innovation, and natural resource management. With practical training in both the domestic and international arenas, Bloxom executed strategic public outreach in the private sector as well as for interest groups including ACORE in addition to a stint in academia teaching bioenergy policy graduate courses and publishing on renewables-based economic development in U.S. cities. As the first political scientist admitted to Colorado State University’s NSF-funded IGERT bioenergy program, Bloxom pursued an interdisciplinary Ph.D. by utilizing a scientific emphasis to study the viability of sustainable aviation fuel in conjunction with the intrinsic policy foundations of this emerging global production network.

 

Daybreak May 19: EVs surfacing as infrastructure flashpoint (Agri-Pulse)

Biden’s conundrum: Expand EVs without harming the Earth (E&E News)

 

Excerpt from Agri-Pulse:  electric vehicle plant on Tuesday, is getting pushback from Republicans on a couple of fronts. Republican Sen. Chuck Grassley of Iowa prefers to focus on biofuels. “Unfortunately, many of my colleagues on the other side of the aisle have their heads stuck in the sand when it comes to renewable energy sources that are already available.”  READ MORE

 

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Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos 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mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio- Renewable Fuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD80 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar red ii Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solid oxide fuel cell Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool tools Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Fuels Policy; carbon removal Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsi Wisconsin Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc

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