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The Digest’s 2023 Multi-Slide Guide to Gevo

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Gevo addresses the market need of reducing greenhouse gas emissions with sustainable alternatives, and is commercializing the next generation of advanced, bio-based renewable fuels with sustainable aviation fuel, renewable premium gasoline, and renewable natural gas that

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Biomass to Liquid Fuels: We Need Commercial Scale Gen 2 Success

by Doug Rivers (Lee Enterprise Consulting/Biofuels Digest)  ... And while advances have been made in the materials handling and pretreatment of these feedstocks, commercial scale attempts produce ethanol have been met with multiple and highly visible failures measured in at least hundreds

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Unlocking the Future with Biofuels: A Pathway to Sustainable Mobility Transformation

by Jim Lane/Praj (REenergize! the Gulf Coast)  In an era defined by environmental concerns and the urgent need to transition towards renewable energy sources, ethanol has emerged as a key contender in shaping the future of sustainable energy. Its multifaceted role

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Lifting Up Production

by Katie Schroeder (Ethanol Producer Magazine) In recent years, many ethanol producers have started migrating toward a more diversified biorefining model as they adapt to changing markets and changing times. The enzymes industry has not only kept pace with this

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IIT-G Succeeds in Breaking down Woody Biomass for Conversion to Bioethanol Fuel

(The Meghalayan Bureau)  The IIT Guwahati scientists have shown the efficacy of a new type of endoglucanase called RfGH5_4 in breaking down lignocellulosic and hemicellulosic biomass for the eventual conversion to bioethanol fuel. Researchers of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati

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Shedding Light on Biointermediates

by Katie Schroeder (Ethanol Producer Magazine) Shoring up its provisions on biointermediates, the EPA is catching up with new and envisioned biofuel production goals. Following a workshop on the topic, Ethanol Producer Magazine spoke with a policy expert to learn

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Inflation Reduction Act Charts a New Course for US Biofuels Industry

by Corey Lavinsky (S&P Global) ... Though ethanol is mentioned only thrice in the lengthy law, ethanol producers will benefit from its carbon capture, utilization and storage provisions, clean fuel production credits, and incentives for ethanol-based sustainable aviation fuel. In addition, cellulosic

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BioFormate Bio-gasoline & SAF Blendstock: The Digest’s 2022 Multi-Slide Guide to Virent

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Virent, a subsidiary of Marathon Petroleum developed its BioForming technology to create fuels and chemicals from a wide range of naturally occurring, renewable resources. And now they teamed up with Johnson Matthey to bring to

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Composition and Yield of Non-Cellulosic and Cellulosic Sugars in Soluble and Particulate Fractions during Consolidated Bioprocessing of Poplar Biomass by Clostridium thermocellum

by Ajaya K. Biswal, Neal N. Hengge, Ian M. Black, Melani A. Atmodjo, Sushree S. Mohanty, David Ryno, Michael E. Himmel, Parastoo Azadi, Yannick J. Bomble & Debra Mohnen  (Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts) Terrestrial plant biomass is the primary renewable

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Net Zero Fuels and Products: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Gevo

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Gevo’s Chief Carbon and Innovation Officer, Paul Bloom, shared this illuminating slide guide at ABLC in San Francisco recently and is one you won’t want to miss. From feedstocks, land management practices, yields, lowering the

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Enzyme from Amazon Fungus Could Enhance Efficiency of Second-Generation Ethanol Production

by Maria Fernanda Ziegler (Agência FAPESP) Researchers at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in Brazil have found an enzyme from the Amazon fungus Trichoderma harzianum to be capable of breaking down biomass. Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are present

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New Energy Freedom Refinery to Produce Carbon-Negative Fuel from America's Ag Wastes

(New Energy Blue/PR Newswire) New Energy Blue announced its planned construction in Iowa of a biomass refinery designed to produce renewable carbon-negative automotive fuel, which replaces gasoline. "Our Iowa project can keep one million tons of CO2 out of the atmosphere every

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One-Step Peracetic Acid Pretreatment of Hardwood and Softwood Biomass for Platform Chemicals Production

Chandan Kundu, Shanthi Priya Samudrala, Mahmud Arman Kibria & Sankar Bhattacharya (Scientific Reports) Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive renewable resource to produce biofuel or platform chemicals. Efficient and cost-effective conversion systems of lignocellulosic biomass depend on their appropriate pretreatment processes.

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Biomass to Sugar Conversion Mechanisms: The Digest’s 2021 Multi-Slide Guide to Pretreatment and Enzymes for Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Get the latest on thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic reactions for biofuels and biochemicals production from Rajesh Gupta from Lee Enterprises Consulting in this illuminating slide guide. From lignocellulosic and algal biomass, comparison of popular pretreatment

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Earth Day Series Day 11: Microbial World for Renewable Fuels and Chemicals Production

by Anahita Bharadwaj* (Advanced Biofuels USA) The versatile world of microorganisms is a perfect source for the production of a variety of biobased fuels, chemicals and materials. Microorganisms have the ability to break down biomass, components of these biomass or other

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Separating Beer Waste into Proteins for Foods, and Fiber for Biofuels

(American Chemical Society/Phys.Org) ... Once all the flavor has been extracted from barley and other grains, what's left is a protein- and fiber-rich powder that is typically used in cattle feed or put in landfills. Today, scientists report a new

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Aemetis: Patent Award Enables Launch of ‘Carbon Zero’ Plants

(Aemetis/Ethanol Producer Magazine) Aemetis Inc. announced Jan. 15 that its exclusively licensed technology for the production of below zero carbon renewable fuel was awarded U.S. Patent No. 10907184 (to be published February 2, 2021), enabling the launch of Aemetis “Carbon Zero” production plants

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Novozymes Launches Fibrex Platform for Corn Fiber-to-Ethanol

(Novozymes/Ethanol Producer Magazine)  Novozymes today announced the launch of Fiberex, a comprehensive platform based on novel enzymes and yeast strains to convert corn fiber into ethanol. Fiberex is specifically aimed at breaking down tough fibers in the corn, providing producers

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15 Hot Tech Case Studies: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to The Digest’s #BetterWithBiology Top 15

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Everything’s better with biology, so here’s The Digest’s newly released Top 15 case studies of today’s hottest technology and new markets for traditional oil and gas refiners. What are our top picks? Spoiler Alert: The top 15

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Biomass Sugars to Hydrocarbon Biofuels: The Digest’s 2020 Multi-Slide Guide to Enzymatic Hydrolysis Development Efforts

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Reducing cost and improving manufacturability of the biomass sugar platform through Continuous Enzymatic Hydrolysis (CEH) technology is one of the goals for NREL. James D. McMillan from NREL shared the latest research developments at the

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Confessions of a Biorefiner: Green Plains’ Journey into the Land of High-Value Proteins, and the Who, What and Why of That

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) This week news came out of a partnership between Novozymes and Green Plains to use biological technology to extract more value from corn protein, at what used to be known as corn ethanol plants, but with

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US Patent Granted for Enzymes Developed by ICGEB-DBT Bioenergy Group

(International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology) A new cellulase preparation discovered by scientists at ICGEB, New Delhi has received a US patent award. This discovery is likely to provide a better alternative to the available option on the market for

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Alcohol School: Yancey Delivers D3Max Project Update

by Lisa Gibson (Ethanol Producer Magazine) Minimizing feedstock cost is one rule for a successful cellulosic ethanol project, according to Mark Yancey, chief technology officer for D3Max. “That can be a very large component of your project costs.” Yancey spoke Sept. 13

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Replacing the Barrel: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Conversion Technologies

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Developing efficient and economical biological and chemical technologies to convert biomass feedstocks into energy-dense liquid transportation fuels, such as renewable gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, as well as bioproducts, chemical intermediates, and biopower is the primary goal

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Vertimass Completes First Technology License To Alliance BioEnergy Plus Inc.

(Vertimass/Oil&Gas 360)  Vertimass' ethanol to renewable chemicals and jet fuel offers ethanol producers new product capabilities  --  Vertimass completed its first technology license agreement with Alliance BioEnergy Plus, Inc. in West Palm Beach, Florida, to produce renewable jet fuel along with Benzene, Toluene,

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Disruptive Technologies: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Praj Industries

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Praj Industries is an end-to-end solutions provider in the ethanol arena from concept to commissioning and feedstock handling to effluent treatment. They have technology and engineering solutions for biofuels, biochemicals and water. Dr. Pramod Kumbhar, Chief Technology

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Biomass Breakdown: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Sweetwater Energy

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Sweetwater Energy has developed a unique and patented technology for producing low-cost sugars and clean lignin fiber from multiple non-food plant materials to help meet the modern world’s increasing demand for biochemicals, bioplastics and biofuels. Jack Baron,

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Fermentable Sugar as a Raw Material for the Chemical Industry: First Generation as Sustainable as the Second – Significant Reduction in Greenhouse Gases for Both

(Bio-based News)  New study conducts quantitative and qualitative sustainability assessment of bio-based raw materials for the chemical industry An extensive sustainability study carried out by nova-Institute shows that first-generation fermentable sugar is just as advantageous for a sustainable raw materials strategy of

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Growth of Engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440 on Glucose, Xylose and Arabinose: Hemicellulose Hydrolysates and Their Major Sugars as Sustainable Carbon Sources

by Yan Wang, Felix Horlamus, Marius Henkel, Filip Kovacic, Sandra Schläfle, Rudolf Hausmann, Andreas Wittgens, Frank Rosenau (Global Change Biology Bioenergy)  Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant bioresource on earth containing polymers mainly consisting of D‐glucose, D‐xylose, L‐arabinose and further sugars.

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Growth of Engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440 on Glucose, Xylose and Arabinose: Hemicellulose Hydrolysates and Their Major Sugars as Sustainable Carbon Sources

by Yan Wang, Felix Horlamus, Marius Henkel, Filip Kovacic, Sandra Schläfle, Rudolf Hausmann, Andreas Wittgens, Frank Rosenau (Global Change Biology Global Energy)  Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant bioresource on earth containing polymers mainly consisting of D‐glucose, D‐xylose, L‐arabinose and further sugars.

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Renmatix, Gevo Ink Deal to Develop Cellulosic Hydrocarbons for Jet Fuel, Gasoline Markets

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  We have word bubbling up simultaneously from Pennsylvania and Colorado that Gevo and Renmatix inked a joint development agreement to evaluate the commercial feasibility of creating renewable jet fuel by integrating Renmatix’s Plantrose Process with Gevo’s

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Research Shows How Genetics Can Contribute for Advances in 2G Ethanol Production

(FUNDAÇÃO DE AMPARO À PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO/EurekAlert!)  The study focused three fungi species which produce enzymes with application in biomass degradation; scientists in Brazil reveal how these substances are regulated and how they can interact synergically. Production of second-generation

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Butanol from Forest Waste: The Digest’s 2018 Multi-Slide Guide to Advanced Fermentation of AVAP Sugars

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  The objective? To create an economically viable process for the production of butanol from the underutilized natural resources domestically available economically sustainable biofuel at or below DOE target selling price. And, suitable for roll-out in multiple regions containing

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NREL Research Finds a “Sweet Spot” for Engineering Better Biofuel Enzymes

(U.S. Department of Energy)  Added sugar takes on a whole new meaning in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) work to uncover the secrets behind one of nature’s most powerful tools—cellulose-degrading enzymes. -- Researchers at NREL are seeking to unlock the

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The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Industrial 5C and 6C sugars

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) The Digest had a well-received webinar on C5 and C6 sugars, featuring in-demand industry consultant David Dodds and Fluid Quip exec Jeffrey Robert — looking at transformative approaches to making sugars and the chemistry that we can

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Chemistry, Not Biology: The Digest’s Multi-Slide Guide to C5 and C6 Sugars

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Four axioms start this presentation by David Dodds, on C5 and C6 sugar opportunities, at a breezy pace: If you are making a molecule from another molecule, you are a chemist, doing chemistry. Synthetic biology is merely

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Aachen Team Develops Framework for Model-Based Formulation of Biofuel Blends with Tailored Properties

(Green Car Congress)   A team at RWTH Aachen University has developed a framework for the model-based formulation of biofuel blends with tailored properties by considering the fuel’s molecular composition as the fundamental design degree of freedom. A paper on their

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Industrial Sugars from Waste: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Comet Biorefining

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Earlier this month, we reported that Comet Biorefining had successfully closed an investment round to fund its proposed cellulosic sugar production facility using stover and wheat straw as feedstock. PM Equity Parnership, the corporate venture and private

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Scientists at IIT Kharagpur Find a Way to Extract Biofuel from Common Aquatic Weeds

(Tech2) Scientists at Indian Institute of Technology – Kharagpur have unlocked the secret to ramp up yields of biofuel sourced from commonly found aquatic weeds such as water hyacinths. In a new study published on December 1 in Nature Scientific Reports,

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Fortress Paper Announces Hemicellulose Separation Project at Its Dissolving Pulp Mill

(Fortress Paper/Lesprom.com) Fortress Paper Ltd. announces a strategic supplement to the already announced birch usage project (the "Birch Project") at the Fortress Specialty Cellulose Mill aimed at extracting hemicellulose from underutilized species such as birch (the " Hemicellulose Project"). The Hemicellulose Project

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Low Cost Cellulosic Sugars, Hydrogen: The Digest’s 2016 Multi-Slide Guide to Electrosep

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Amidst all the discussion this week of deal-making in cellulosic and sugar-based fuels — the likes of Tesoro-Virent and Lufthansa-Gevo — we were intrigued by this slide deck on a pathway to low-cost cellulosic sugars and

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Petroleum Today, Bio Tomorrow, BIOFOREVER

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In Belgium, the BIOFOREVER  consortium of 14 European companies emerged from stealth with the news that they have started their demonstration project for the conversion of woody biomass to value adding chemical building blocks. BIOFOREVER intends

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Leaf Resources (ASX: LER) Joint Venture to Develop Five Projects with World-Class Project Ceveloper Claeris, LLC

(Leaf Resources)  Leaf Resources Ltd (ASX: LER, “Leaf” or “Leaf Resources”) is pleased to announce the signing of binding legal agreements with US-based project developer Claeris, LLC (“Claeris”), to establish a joint venture (JV) entity, Leaf Development, LLC (“Leaf Development”), for the purpose

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What’s New and Important About C5 and C6 Sugars?

by Lorenz Bauer (Lee Enterprises Consulting, Inc./Biofuels Digest)  What’s up with C5 and C6 sugars? Given that a significant portion of the several billion dollars spent on renewable fuels spending involves these molecules, it is not surprising that progress is

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Renmatix Turns Biomass into Sugars for Industrial Use

(NewBIO/Cooperative Extension System)  Technology patented by Renmatix enables the manufacture of industrial sugars from biomass on a scale that is commercially cost-effective. Table of Contents Introduction From Biomass to Sugars Benefits of Supercritical Water Customers Rebuild Biorefiners based on Plantrose™ Process

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The New Sugars: The Digest’s 2016 Multi-Slide Guide to 5C and 6C sugars

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  As part of March Madness, we held a well-attended webinar on the markets and makers of 5C and 6C sugars, from pilot to player. Here below is a slide deck presented on the day.  The recorded

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Chempolis’ Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Heads for Commercial-Scale in India

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Chempolis’ multi-year quest to build cellulosic ethanol in India finds a happy landing.  --  In India, €110 million joint venture cellulosic ethanol project of Chempolis Ltd and Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL) is moving towards construction

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Chempolis, Avantha Partner to Offer Cellulosic Technology

(Chempolis, Ltd.)  Chempolis Ltd., a Finland-based biorefining technology corporation, has entered into partnership with Avantha Group’s research wing Avantha Centre for Industrial Research & Development to offer technology to India to extract ethanol from various agricultural residues for blending with petrol. India is

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C5 Is the New C6

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Goodbye glucose, hello xylose. The X-Factor in the advanced bioeconomy might just be a sugar that starts with an X.  ...  When we think about C5s — that are liberated by new technologies from the cellulosic

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NREL's Min Zhang Keeps Her "Bugs" Happy, Leading to Biofuel Breakthroughs

(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Scientist Min Zhang has a special relationship with Zymomonas mobilis, a rod-shaped bacterium that has bioethanol-producing capabilities. Of her 80 peer-reviewed papers and 21 U.S. patents in the field of biochemistry

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Seeking Better Biofuels

by Melody M. Bomgardner (Chemical & Engineering News)  Researchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute transform biomass into energy-rich fuel molecules  --   ..  JBEI researchers are zeroing in on concepts that others have decided are too difficult or would take too

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Diamond in the Rough: The Digest’s 2015 8-Slide Guide to Cobalt’s Technology

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Cobalt Technologies was commercializing cellulosic biobutanol, a versatile platform molecule for the renewable chemicals and fuels.  The Company’s technology efficiently converts diverse non-food feedstocks – initially, lignocellulosic extracts from woody biomass and sugar cane bagasse

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8 Ways around the Big, Bad Oxygen Problem in the Advanced Bioeconomy Parts 1 and 2

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  In the terrestrial world, oxygen is colorless, odorless, and try to get through an hour without some.  In the Bioeconomy Cinematic Universe, oxygen is harder than steel, heavier than a black hole, and higher than

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Barley Straw Shows Potential as Transport Biofuel Raw Material

(EurekAlert!/University of Eastern Finland)  The hemicellulose sugars of barley straw can be effectively fermented into biobutanol, when starch is added during the pre-treatment or fermentation process, shows a new University of Eastern Finland study. Seeking to find alternatives to ethanol as

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Poplar-Based Bioethanol Production Awaits Spike In Price Of Crude

by Bruce Dorminey (Renewable Energy World)  As the world’s fastest growing temperate tree species, poplar can add a dozen feet annually and reach maturity in as few as four years.  One of its hybrids, populus x generosa, has the widest

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API Announces First Commercial Implementation of GreenBox+ Technology

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ... Backed by a $10M investment from Natural Resources Canada’s Investments in Forest Industry Transformation (IFIT) program and an additional $4.4M from the Québec Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, the Cabano plant

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Cascades Announces Major Investments in Biorefinery Project at Cabano Plant

(Cascades/PRNewswire) Cascades Inc. (TSX: CAS), a leader in the recovery of recyclable materials and manufacturing green packaging products and tissue paper, is pleased to announce the company's investment in a new technology at its Norampac – Cabano facility. This innovative

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US Poised for Biobased Chemicals Breakout, Says National Research Council

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Though challenges remain, particularly in affordable feedstock, the US National Research Council says “Despite impressive recent and projected growth, the manufacturing of chemicals using biological synthesis and engineering could expand even faster.” ... In Washington, the National

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4 minutes with…Basil Karampelas, President, American Process

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  We’ve developed 2 proprietary biorefinery technologies producing low-cost cellulosic sugars from non-food based biomass. Our Green Power+ technology produces low-cost cellulosic sugars from the hemicelluloses. AVAP technology produces cellulosic sugars from cellulose and hemicelluloses. Our

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Extreme Energy, Supercritical Water, Nanostuff and Biofuels

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  At the frontier of exotic temperature and pressures, even everyday materials like water begin to act strangely in ways that can drive energy transformation.   New work in nanocatalysts may make those frontiers more accessible, and

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The One-Stop, Get It Hot, Biobased Candy Men: Midori and Low-Cost Cellulosic Sugars

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  ... Midori reports they have broken through on a 100-year quest for low-cost cellulosic sugars. And found a way to turn your cotton tees into sugars, too. About a year ago, a little-known company called Midori Renewables

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Biofuels’ 10 Scariest Challenges: Part 2 of 2

by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest)  Upstream, downstream, processing, policy, finance – opportunities and challenges abound in the bioeconomy – but which challenges are the most intractable and daunting of them all?   In today’s part 2, #5 through #1. 5. The blend

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Rochester Institute of Technology Students Learn About Sweetwater’s Plant-Sugar Mixture for Production of Biofuels

(AZOCleanTech)  A collaboration between Rochester Institute of Technology’s Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences and Sweetwater Energy Inc. will give students experience with the Rochester-based company that has a sweet and sustainable niche. Sweetwater Energy provides its industry partners with

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Better Biofuels

by James Hataway  (UGA Research)  ... Li Tan was examining some of the sugars, proteins and polymers that make up plant cell walls, which provide the structural support and protection that allow plants to grow. Yet his samples contained a mixture of

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Powerful Enzymes Create Ethanol from Agricultural Harvest Waste

(Science Daily)  The mainly EU-funded DISCO project coordinated by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed powerful enzymes, which accelerate plant biomass conversion into sugars and further into products such as bioethanol. The project's results include lignin-tolerant enzymes and

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New Biofuel Conversion Process Cuts Costly Separating Step

(University of Wisconsin-Madison)  Using a biomass-derived solvent, University of Wisconsin-Madison chemical and biological engineers have streamlined the process for converting lignocellulosic biomass into high-demand chemicals or energy-dense liquid transportation fuel. Their new method eliminates the need for costly pretreatment steps that

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Sugar Rush: The Race Is on to Commercialize Low-Cost, High-Quality Sugars from Nonfood Sources

by Bryan Sims (Biorefining Magazine)  The biorefining industry is hungry for a low-cost, high-quality and readily available supply of sugar feedstock from nonfood biomass sources. A number of pure-play sugar technology developers and manufacturers like Renmatix, Virdia (formerly HCL CleanTech),

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The Promise of Biotechnology Is Here Today, and Dyadic Is Determined to Make a Difference

(CFOCEO Magazine)  ...Interview conducted by: Lynn Fosse, Senior Editor, CEOCFO Magazine, Published - April 20, 2012 ...C1 is a very unique fungus we found in the Russian soil in an alkaline lake in the early 1990’s. We selected that fungus because

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Sermatec Zanini and GeoSynFuels, LLC Form Strategic Alliance

(Sermatec Zanini and GeoSynFuels, LLC)  Sermatec Zanini and GeoSynFuels, LLC (GSF) have announced the formation of a strategic alliance for the development and commercialization of GSF’s proprietary cellulosic ethanol technology. The strategic alliance allows Sermatec Zanini to earn an equity position

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SUNY Researchers Optimizing Efficient Biobutanol Pathway

by Bryan Sims (Biorefining Magazine)  A team of researchers at State University of New York (SUNY) College of Environmental Science and Forestry are experimenting with different strains of microorganisms to efficiently ferment sugars, extracted from woody biomass, into biobutanol and

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Butane butanediol butanol emissions butanol/biobutanol butyl acetate butylene butyric acid by c C1 C2 C21 C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cactus pear cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canad Canada Canary Islands canary reed grass canarygrass candle nut cannabis canola straw Canola/Rapeseed cap-and-invest cap-and-trade capybara capybras carbohydrates carbon carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber carbon insets Carbon Intensity (CI)/Carbon Footprint carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon pipeline carbon price carbon recycling carbon removal carbon sink carbon standard carbon tax Carbon tax border adjustments carbon tax-and-dividend carbon terminal carbon user fee 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pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 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