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Greenspeed Research + Tires = New World Record

Competitions, Contests, Education, Green Racing, Idaho, Utah
September 22, 2017

by Dave Schenker (Greenspeed Research)  We Did It!  THE SHORT VERSION   —  With the last borrowed tire and wheel returned to its rightful owner, the Greenspeed Research adventures of Speed Week 2017 came to a close with an official speed record in hand

Under your sponsorships, donations, and support, the GsR name is now in the Southern California Timing Association’s official record book. And Dave now has lifetime membership in SCTA’s much sought after Bonneville 200mph Club. 

We beat the 215.091mph record at an average speed of 219.411mph in the C/DT Class. Beating a decade-long record for diesel trucks. We have set world records in the past, but none of them outstanding enough to warrant official SCTA recognition. 

So it is time to once again offer huge thanks to all who have supported GsR over the last six years in this pursuit. We definitely could not have found this success without each and every one of you along the way. 

You are now sponsors of a team that holds 2 world records and literally changed the rulebook for landspeed racing in the pursuit of showcasing the viability of plant based energy sources.

 

THE LONG VERSION

Getting Prepped

As you might remember, last year we had a catastrophic engine failure in the vegetable oil engine, and our common rail engine had bad leakdown from Speed Week 2013. This meant we had to build two new engines. As usual, our plan would be to take both engines to the Salt: one to run 100% pure vegetable oil and one to run diesel and bio-diesel. 

SLS Diesel in Denver, CO built both of these engines for us with the parts from our high-end suppliers:

CP-Carrillo rods

MAHLE pistons and gaskets

Clevite bearings

Garrett turbochargers

Dynomite Diesel injectors

FASS fuel system

Farrell Diesel injection pump

Fluidampr crank balancers

Hamilton Cams camshafts (air and fuel), head (for the vegetable oil engine), valve springs, and pushrods

Ferrea valves

Harland Sharp rockers

DEI thermal products

All held together with Vibrant Performance tubing, hoses, fittings, and clamps, all filled with Driven Racing Oils, and some last minute parts from Advanced Auto Boise.

*Sadly, because FedEx lost a brand new camshaft, the vegetable oil engine could only get partially finished at SLS (more on that later). 

Once both engines were built and back in Idaho, the diesel engine was installed in the landspeed truck, and we were off to Adrenaline Truck Performance in Meridian, ID for some dyno tuning. 

While was in Colorado with the engines, Patrick was re-pinning the Painless Performance wiring harness to run the 2006 ECM from Big Twin Diesel (it was designed for 2003-2005 ECMs). This would allow us to take advantage of the benefits offered by a more advanced tuning software package. Using this software, Adrenaline Truck Performance was able to develop a 900+ hp tune with zero smoke on their in-house dyno. Bravo!

With that, it was time to swap to the vegetable oil engine. We needed to get it to the dyno, get it tuned, head to the salt with it installed and beat the petroleum diesel record with 100% vegetable oil before swapping the common rail back in and going for broke with diesel. 

Vegetable Oil Engine Issues

Unfortunately, FedEx lost the brand new Hamilton camshaft for the vegetable oil engine. We started talks with FedEX for compensation but without time to source a replacement, the cam from last year’s engine would have to be cleaned, inspected, and put in. 

Two days were spent trying to get the vegetable oil engine to start consistently with the old cam installed. We were able to get it fired and warmed up enough for a head re-torque. It took way more time than it should have. 

Once the engine cooled it took an afternoon of further coaxing, checking and re-checking timing for it to fire again. By then it was late Friday afternoon, Speed Week was in full swing and we had lost the window to get the vege-engine on the dyno. The next window would cost us two days of Speed Week. 

We assessed the situation and decided to head to the Salt with the un-tuned engine. The salt didn’t earn the nickname “the great white dyno” for nothing – time to put that to the test.

Tire 1 (of 5)

About 1 o’clock in the morning, somewhere near the Nevada border (middle of the desert in August), a trailer tire disintegrated in a 4th of July level display of sparks. The rig made it safely to the side of the road and no fires were started. But, we found ourselves without our usual spare tires. 

“Luckily” the other tow rig had sprung a fuel leak in the last town and was just finishing their repairs. They were able to find a replacement tire on their way back to us.

Also “luckily”, we had a healthy stock of ether (starter fluid) since the landspeed truck had been so hard to start earlier. This was used to seat the bead on the new spare tire after mounting/dismounting with prybars/etc (needless to say, this year we will be putting in a tire tool request to Snap-on and double checking that the spares are, in fact, packed). 

The Salt

It’s always a great feeling to pass from pavement to salt. It’s like the clock is stopped, and for a brief week it is just you, a blinding sea of white, and a sudden city of custom vehicles and racers. The only rules are the rules that matter and going (safely) as fast as you can. Everyone is rooting for you and everyone gets along.

2017 was no different. With the pit set up and the truck through tech inspection (with some new bits from DJ Safety and looking awesome with it’s new wrap from Signs2u), work continued on the vegetable oil engine. 

After more diagnostic tests on the engine’s timing, we discovered the timing was changing every time the engine would finally fire up. The only way we figured this could happen is if the camshaft had sheared the key in last year’s violent shutdown. Unfortunately, this is something unlikely to be caught with a visual inspection. 

It was now Monday and we still hadn’t taken a run. The whole team had their heads buried in the truck from before the sun came up (with some sweet ECCO LED lights keeping everything bright) until we would get kicked off the salt, all while hearing racers roar down the courses behind us, at speeds over 400mph. We were all eager to get to the start line and there was no sense in blowing an engine if we could avoid it. So, we had to throw in the towel on our hopes of beating petroleum diesel with vegetable oil for Speed Week 2017. BUT, we did have another engine for a reason

Racing 

With all hands on deck we swapped the engines. You can watch a time-lapse video of the action here: https://youtu.be/JR5Cn_EOcGo. By early Tuesday afternoon, the truck was fired up and ready to push to the start line.

There were over 550 entrants this year, and the lines for the course were packed. The SCTA had prepped 3 courses (long, short, rookie) and they were all getting used. While salt conditions in general are improving, they are far from “good” yet, but the SCTA officials made the best of it. (If you feel so inclined, visit http://savethesalt.org to see if there is a way for you to help restore this unique natural wonder.) 

Last year, our landspeed truck went 209mph at about 3000rpm on 100% vegetable oil. We knew we would have no issues this year finding speed on diesel or bio-diesel. 

First Run

First run on the new engine netted a top speed of 202mph at just over 3000rpm. Temps were great, truck handled well, all systems go, just needed more daylight. 

The lower speed with higher rpms was a little troubling though. After some sleuthing and another round of system checks we found the torque converter lockup and overdrive switches had been mislabeled. Face -> palm. It was an easy fix.

With those straightened out, we were ready to head back out, but the day was over.

Second Run

We were back in line Wednesday morning and had a clean pass, but only got about 180mph out of the truck. Dave said it felt as though it wasn’t shifting into overdrive, or at least didn’t shift OUT of overdrive while slowing down. 

Maybe this is would explain the lower speeds? 

Dave got on the phone with Ultimate Transmission and discussed the possibilities. Dave (at Ultimate) was ready to make the trek to the Salt from Boise, tools and parts in hand, to fix any issues we had. He gave a list of things to try first. 

One of these things was pulling the overdrive unit and inspecting it. Up on jack stands the truck went, and overdrive unit dropped out. Thanks to modern technology (a video call to Dave in the next state), we were able to decide all was well with the overdrive unit. It was shortly back in the truck and back to the start line for another run before the end of the day. 

Third Run

Still only about 180mph. What the heck??? Are the tires spinning? Is there a loose connection in torque converter or overdrive wiring?? It definitely feels like it’s shifting when it’s supposed to. The course was super bumpy and soft in places, but it should still have been going faster. 

Back in the pit, Patrick did some calculations. Theoretically, 3000rpm is 187mph and 3500rpm is 225mph. This confirmed what we knew, so Dave just had to go faster, simple as that. Sheesh DAVE. 

We rushed back to the start line but got there about 15 minutes too late for another run. We left the truck at the start so we could get on course early in the morning.

Fourth Run – Tire 2 (of 5)

The team showed up Thursday morning ready to tear the course a new one and see how fast the truck could go. 

The truck pulled hard off the line and reached 140mph in no time. That was when the passenger rear tire burst. It didn’t take long for the exposed steel wheel to start digging into the salt and send the truck off course. It started to turn and slide to the left. The teammates in the support truck looked on worried. 

Dave was able to yank the parachute quick enough to keep the truck from spinning, or worse, flipping.

An SCTA course worker pushed the truck to a spot safely off course and the course was reopened. As we limped back to the return road with our mangled tire and wheel (and MOON EYES wheel cover that now resembled a fruit bowl), we witnessed the next vehicle spin out and roll at the same spot. The driver was okay. 

The next thing we heard over the radio was the officials closing the course so they could move it over to a fresh spot. It would be freshly groomed salt, AND WE DIDN’T HAVE A TIRE AND WHEEL TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF IT!!!

Face -> palm.

Slow Rolling

Everybody was in a little shock by the time we regrouped at the pit. Lots of poking and prodding at the shredded tire, with blown minds at how destroyed and bent the wheel was. Through all that, the chassis remained stout, with suspension fully outfitted with FK Rodends bearings holding everything together. We were also thanking our lucky stars the BAER Brakes rotors and calipers narrowly escaped damage.

Jen repurposed one of her Greenspeed flags into an “I need a tire” flag and fastened it to our comically small pit bike. Dave took the pit bike for a search down the pit lanes for anybody with a spare tire/wheel combo that would fit. 

A few trips up and down the pits and no luck. 

Dave stopped at the radio tower and was offered some airwaves to get the word out. 

Still no luck. 

Back in the pit, things were looking pretty low. The team was watching another record setting opportunity slip through our fingers from an equipment failure. It is the nature of the racing.

Even a few SCTA volunteers reached out on our behalf. The biggest problem was that it was Thursday afternoon (Speed Week ends Friday at noon). The place looked like a ghost town compared to even a day before. 

At about 4pm on Thursday afternoon, with less than 18 hours before the end of Speed Week 2017, Dave got on the mini bike for one last effort. One more loop around the pits, stopping and talking with anybody who even looked like they would have a tire. 

On the way back, with one more trailer to pass by, gold was struck. The Jack Rogers team, which campaigns a trailer full of Camaros at the Salt every year, was tearing into one of their cars with the whole team. Every single one of their cars was sitting on a tire/wheel combo exactly like ours. 

“You guys happen to have a spare?” 

“Sure do.” was the answer. “As long as Kristin can ride that mini bike”. 

With a deal like that, who could say no?? Dave ended up getting a ride back to the GsR pit (with the new tire) from a member of their pit crew who was on the Salt for the first time – and had flown all the way from Australia just for Speed Week. This is also the nature of the racing.

As you might imagine, there were a few smiles and hollers when three people and a tire showed up back at the GsR pit. We had a wheel!!

As soon as it was mounted, Chief (car) Inspector Kiwi Steve was called to re-inspect the truck and sign off on our “yellow card”. With that done, we were on our way to the start line! Again, we made it about 15 minutes too late for another run that day.

Back to camp.

Friday 

Friday is a special day on the Salt. There are almost no people left, the pits are sparse, and racing is over at 11am. 

Every other day of the race, if you qualify for a speed record, you go to impound overnight and attempt a record run first thing the following morning. In the mornings, the air is cooler and the vehicles have had a chance to rest overnight. 

So what happens if you qualify Friday morning? You go to impound for an hour or two, then straight back out to race! We were under the gun (and a lot of sun) to get it done. 

For the Greenspeed Team, Friday is reminiscent of our very first trip to the salt flats back in 2011. We made our first run ever as a team at exactly 11am on Friday. The SCTA officials kept the course open for us and made us take another run to get the “rookie run” out of the way. The SCTA officials are just as dedicated to their budding racers as they are the race.

Fifth and Fast Run

With all systems go, and no reason to not go fast, Dave left the start line. Time to let the landspeed truck open up.

He hit a whopping 223mph. Besting the existing record of 215.091mph. This meant Team Greenspeed’s first trip to impound for inspection and examining data collected with all the Automation Direct sensors and ISSPRO gauges. We were paying close attention to the intercooler water temps, as that was a major issue last year. All was well though, as the new Davies-Craig water pumps were doing their job.

It was an undeniable qualifying run and a first glimpse at the 200mph Club. 

We could smell the win. 

But it is only a win if we pass the impound inspection and make the defending run with a combined greater average-speed than the existing record. Many an engine has blown or other problems have plagued teams on their defending run. We were excited, sun burned, and buzzing with nerves. 

Sixth and Winning Run

As we left impound, we were in a line of the final and few racers on the salt, including our friends at Salty Box racing with a similar truck in a larger engine class. The handful of us pushed our landspeed racers to the start line. The Salt was empty of other racers and the last of the pits were packed and heading for the road. 

Dave smashed the pedal through the final run down the 5-mile course, monitoring the RPMs, temp, and pressure. Everything just worked. The team heard the record winning speeds announced between mile 4 and 5 as Dave exited the end of the course. Dave did not know the team had beat the record until Jen and Patrick nearly tackled him to the ground in congratulations. 

Next Up: Beat our own record with a new cam in the vegetable oil engine. 

Postscript: Tire 3, 4 & 5

As we celebrated back at the pit, the team found a leak in the front tire of the landspeed truck on the same side as the earlier blown rear. It held out long enough to get the record. On close inspection, with damage seen to two tires on the same side of the vehicle, it’s likely the vehicle encountered some kind of debris on the course. Very lucky there weren’t bigger issues!

On the way home, the trailer blew two more tires. You may be wondering “what the heck were these people thinking???” Well, the tires were not overloaded, just 20+ years old. What would have been a 6-hour ride home became 12. And we went through a lot more ether… The good news is we now have all new tires on the trailer! 

Overall, we are incredibly happy with this years results. The truck is now a proven record setter, and we WILL be going back to the Salt to chase vegetable oil AND bio-diesel top speeds. The team was careful to make sure there would be room for more records by not blowing the current one out of the water. We did get a chance to visit with a new (extremely high dollar) Diesel Truck team with some lofty goals. Competition is beginning to be a thing with diesel vehicles out on the Salt, and we are super stoked about it! 

The LSR truck is also a close contender (2 mph away!) of not only being the fastest at the salt flats but also being able to claim the fastest diesel powered pickup (from any event) in the world! 

Thank you all for your continued support, and a very special thank you to all the Volunteers at both the Southern California Timing Association and Bonneville Nationals for all their hard work in putting on such a special event. 

 Pics to follow.

 Sincerely,

The Greenspeed Research Team  READ MORE

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fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility green Jo Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrofaction hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insects insurance integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 Jetfuel (Sustainable Alternative Jetfuel (SAJF)/Renewable Jetfuel (RJF) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kero kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquid liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco Mongolia mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Transportation Safety Board Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gasoline natural gas prices natural gas vehicles Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick Newfoundland new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds NTSB nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming regulation regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable d Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail retrofit return on investment R Factor RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed-to-wheel seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore sisal SK slash Slovakia 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students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustai Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) 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