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An Energy Transition Needs Lots of Power Lines.

Business News/Analysis, Federal Agency/Executive Branch, Federal Legislation, Maine, Minnesota, Opinions, Policy, Sustainability, White House, Wisconsin
January 4, 2022

by Dan Gearino (Inside Climate News)  This 1970s Minnesota Farmers’ Uprising Tried to Block One. What Can it Teach Us? As the country moves toward a massive build-out of transmission lines, a decades-old rebellion offers a way through potential opposition. — If the United States is to make a transition to clean energy, it will need to build many more transmission lines—the thick wires that deliver power from rural areas, where there’s enough open space for wind and solar, to cities where the most power is consumed.

But the process of building those lines is likely to be fraught with conflict and delays, because people in rural and suburban communities often don’t want to see wires and tall metal towers in their backyards.

The arguments in that fight—over a 436-mile power line carrying power from a coal plant in central North Dakota to the suburbs of Minneapolis-St. Paul—started out with lawyers sitting around tables in government boardrooms but ended with protesters in frozen fields carrying rifles and baseball bats.

One of the lessons was that power companies need to engage the public early and be willing to change course in the face of well-reasoned criticism, as opposed to ramming through a project.

“You don’t ask for public opinion if you’re not going to listen,” said Will Kaul, who retired in 2017 as a vice president after a career with Great River Energy and its predecessor, Cooperative Power Association.

Opponents of a power line also need to be confident that the process is fair. George Crocker, an environmental advocate who was one of the leaders of the 1970s protest movement, said much of the outrage stemmed from a sense that big companies and the government had already made up their minds, and that any process was just for show.

To be able to support a grid that runs mostly on renewable energy, the United States needs to double, triple or even quadruple it’s transmission capacity, according to several recent studies. One of them, the Net-Zero America report from Princeton University, projected that the country would need to spend $360 to $390 billion on new transmission lines by 2030 to meet climate goals.

“We have this opportunity as a nation to tap into the best resources, but we need transmission to do that,” said Rob Gramlich, president of Grid Strategies, a consulting firm that focuses on transmission. The best resources, he said, are wind and solar obtained from the parts of the country that are the most windy and sunny.

The Biden Administration is hoping to set off a construction boom through increases in federal incentives for the lines, including $5 billion in the just-signed infrastructure bill, and proposals for much more. The bill also includes an expansion of federal authority to approve transmission projects in situations where states are standing in the way.  READ MORE

Opinion: Imagine Virginia’s icy traffic catastrophe — but with only electric vehicles (Washington Post)

Hydro Quebec suspends work in Canada on controversial energy corridor (Maine Public Radio)

Overwhelmed by Solar Projects, the Nation’s Largest Grid Operator Seeks a Two-Year Pause on Approvals — “It’s a kink in the system,” says one developer trying to bring solar jobs to coal country. “The planet does not have time for a delay.” (Inside Climate News)

Federal District Court Stops Cardinal-Hickory Creek Transmission Line Running Through Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge (Environmental Law and Policy Center)

New Report Finds Significant Benefits from Upgrading Existing U.S. Transmission Grid (American Council on Renewable Energy)

Report finds transmission grid upgrades would save $140 billion or more over next decade (Solar Power World Online)

Misinformation is derailing renewable energy projects across the United States (NPR; includes AUDIO)

FERC’s electric meeting–TEEING UP TRANSMISSION: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

FERC launches notice for transmission planning rulemaking (Politico)

The US has more clean energy projects planned than the grid can handle: Without major policy reforms and grid upgrades, much of the 1.4-terawatt queue of solar, wind and battery projects may never get built, two new reports find. (Canary Media)

Record Amounts of Zero-carbon Electricity Generation and Storage Now Seeking Grid Interconnection (Berkeley Lab)

Queued Up… But in Need of Transmission (U.S. Department of Energy)

THEIR DAY IN COURT (Politico’s Morning Energy)

 THE OFFSHORE WIND HAMMER:  (Politico’s Morning Energy)

Backtracking on transmission competition –THE COMPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION COMPETITION  (Politico’s Morning Energy)

FERC OFFICIAL AIMS TO TACKLE NIMBYISM: (Politico’s Morning Energy)

DOE loan office director skeptical about pace of transmission buildout: The long-dormant Loan Programs Office has $40 billion in lending authority, making it a crucial part of the Biden administration’s clean energy push.   (Politico Pro/E&E News)

Europe’s electricity industry calls for €400bn investment in distribution grids (EurActiv)

Fierce local battles over power lines are a bottleneck for clean energy (CNBC)

Is Burying Power Lines Fire-Prevention Magic, or Magical Thinking? With power lines sparking more wildfires as climate change makes landscapes more flammable and drives a movement to “electrify everything,” a simple solution is gaining acceptance despite the cost. (Inside Climate News)

Wind expansion hindered by ‘messy’ local dynamics: Zoning restrictions could jeopardize as much as 77 percent of potential wind development areas in Iowa, according to a new study. The findings raise questions about how the nation can achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. (Politico Pro)

“Building a Better Grid” DOE Initiative Outlines Plan for Nationwide Transmission (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)

Why the Texas grid causes the High Plains to turn off its wind turbines: While wind farms in the region could help power and lower energy costs for at least 9 million homes, significant infrastructure upgrades would be needed to supply electricity from the region to other parts of the state. (Texas Tribune)

Modeling ‘IRA’ carbon cuts: Caveats, uncertainty and luggage — Emissions models can understate the difficulty of rapidly reducing carbon dioxide this decade. Yet most observers are accepting at face value the Senate climate bill’s promise to cut carbon almost in half. (E&E News/Politico Pro)

 

Excerpt from Inside Climate News: In the past, PJM’s energy project queue was dominated by a few large projects like big natural gas power plants. Now, PJM officials said, they are receiving a proliferation of smaller projects, each needing study.

“Our system wasn’t designed to handle that kind of growth,” said Kenneth S. Seiler, vice president of planning at PJM.

About 2,500 projects are awaiting action by the grid operator, which is based in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, outside Philadelphia.

PJM officials are proposing a two-phased solution. 

They want to move to a new approval process that puts projects that are the most ready for construction at the front of the line, and discourages those that might be more speculative or that have not secured all their financing.

PJM officials said they have reached a reasonable consensus among their members for that plan. However, they are also proposing an interim period with a two-year delay on about 1,250 projects in their queue, and a deferral on the review of new projects until the fourth quarter of 2025, with final decisions on those coming as late as the end of 2027.

“We are taking a pause,” Seiler said of the grid operator’s proposal. “We are refining the process to deal with these smaller types of projects. We will catch up.”

Still, Seiler said he’s not certain whether PJM can attain the Biden goal of achieving 100 percent carbon-free electricity by 2035. PJM in December announced a study looking at how it could boost renewable energy mix to 50 percent by 2035. With nuclear energy in the region factored in, that could get the PJM grid to about 60 to 70 percent carbon free, he said.

National studies show grid operators across the country have a growing queue of energy projects, many that do not pan out and actually clog up the system. In 2021, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found that only 24 percent of projects nationally seeking connection from 2000 to 2015 were built, and completion percentages since then appeared to be declining.

Last year, Americans for a Clean Energy Grid, a national group advocating for modernization of high voltage transmission, made the case in a report that backlogs were “needlessly increasing electricity costs for consumers by delaying the construction of new projects which are cheaper than existing electricity production. Because most of these projects are located in remote rural areas, this backlog is harming rural economic development and job creation.”

Solutions are needed beyond what PJM has proposed, she (Gizelle Wray, senior director of regulatory affairs and counsel for the Solar Energy Industries Association) said, adding that the association hopes FERC will move the country toward better transmission and interconnection policies.

In addition to retooling its approval process, PJM should increase the size of its staff to meet the demand and urgency for renewable energy, Edelen (Adam Edelen, a former Kentucky state auditor who runs a company working to bring solar projects and jobs to ailing coal communities in Appalachia) said.

“Staffing is an issue,” conceded Seiler.

But Seiler said qualified engineers would need to be found. And then, he said, “it takes several years to train somebody to do a lot of this work.”  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Environmental Law and Policy Center: “The U.S. District Court’s comprehensive decision concluding that approvals of the massive Cardinal-Hickory Creek transmission line violated environmental laws is well-grounded in law and supported by the facts”

Madison, WI – Four conservation groups – the National Wildlife Refuge Association, Driftless Area Land Conservancy, Wisconsin Wildlife Federation and Defenders of Wildlife – prevailed in a January 14 Opinion by the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin. The detailed Opinion said federal agencies’ approval of ATC, ITC and Dairyland Power’s proposed 102-mile Cardinal-Hickory Creek (CHC) transmission line violated federal environmental laws designed to protect the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires full and fair consideration of reasonable alternatives that are less environmentally damaging and less costly.

The Court’s Opinion stated: “The Utilities are pushing forward with construction on either side of the Refuge, even without an approved path through the Refuge, in order to make any subsequent challenge to a Refuge crossing extremely prejudicial to their sunk investment, which will fall on their ratepayers regardless of completion of the CHC project, along with a guaranteed return on the Utilities’ investment in the project.”  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from NPR: Yet every single rural utility-scale wind and solar project needs local or state approval to get built, says Sarah Mills, who researches rural renewable energy at the University of Michigan. And she says it’s in those often-fractious discussions about approval that misinformation is sometimes halting and stalling the installation of the renewables the climate needs. “At the end of the day, if local governments are not setting rules that allow for the infrastructure to be sited, those policies cannot be achieved,” Mills says.

Misinformation gets mixed up in decisions over renewable projects

Last year, a Department of Energy study found that setback regulations now represent the single-greatest barrier to securing locations for wind projects in the U.S. Setbacks limit how close wind projects can be to buildings, and Mills says they often make sense to reduce things such as noise and “shadow flicker,” the moving shadows and strobing sunlight that turbines can cast onto buildings. But she says misinformation can fuel setbacks that are more stringent than needed and sometimes act as outright bans on renewable energy.

In Ohio, setbacks and other rules associated with renewable projects have historically been set at the state level. But in October, a new law, SB 52, went into effect giving counties the ability to make exclusion zones with no utility-scale wind and solar projects.

(Jeremy) Kitson, the science teacher, testified in support of the zones, arguing that turbines negatively affect property values.

But Ben Hoen, a researcher at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, says his more than 15 years of research has shown that wind turbines have little to no impact on nearby property values. Hoen says, “We have not found evidence of property value impacts despite studying it over multiple periods of time.”

Hoen does say that studies in the Netherlands and United Kingdom have found some effects on property values, but they were far smaller than Kitson’s reference to studies showing a 20%-40% depreciation.

In about half of states, regulations around how and whether to build rural utility-scale solar and wind are determined on the local level, Mills says. “These local officials are not necessarily experts in energy,” she says. “And so when you have people coming and stating things as facts, especially if there’s nobody fact-checking everything, right, it’s difficult. They’re certainly making decisions based on what they’re hearing.”

In recent years, some of the misinformation about renewable energy has come from former President Donald Trump, who frequently makes misleading and false anti-wind claims at his rallies and media appearances, including the untrue idea that wind turbine noise causes cancer.

Other misleading ideas about renewable energy come from groups with ties to the fossil fuel industry, like the Texas Public Policy Foundation.

But Facebook is one of the biggest drivers of misleading content about renewable energy, says Josh Fergen, a researcher at the University of Minnesota Duluth.

Fergen’s paper concluded that posts in the two Facebook pages were “increasing perceptions of human health and public safety risks related to wind by sharing news of disasters and misinformation over health assessment risks.”

But Dahvi Wilson, vice president of public affairs for Apex Clean Energy, says her company is finding that across the country, local engagement is becoming increasingly difficult given community suspicions of renewable energy.

“I think for a long time, and maybe still in some places, developers thought, ‘Well, we just need to give better information. We just need to give more information.’ And it’s like, ‘it’s so not about that at all!'” Wilson says. “It’s about who you trust and if anybody’s going to believe you if you’re a company.”   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Canary Media:  The proposed wind, solar and battery projects seeking interconnection to U.S. transmission grids today are enough to bring the country to 80 percent carbon-free electricity by 2030. But based on historical trends, less than a quarter of those planned projects are likely to be built. 

And even the best-positioned projects that already have the land rights, construction financing and power-purchase contracts necessary to move forward are likely to face years of delay and potentially millions of dollars of grid upgrade costs before being able to connect to the grid. These barriers could prevent many planned projects from reaching completion — and block the country from decarbonizing fast enough to prevent the most devastating effects of global warming.

Entering a transmission interconnection queue is only one of many steps in the development process,” the report states. ​Projects must also have agreements with landowners and communities, power purchasers, equipment suppliers, and financiers, and may face transmission upgrade requirements.” 

And the trends on these fronts are getting worse, not better. Since 2015, the time it takes for projects to secure interconnection agreements has risen from about a year and a half to more than three and a half years in 2021, the report finds.

..

Transmission deployments have fallen from an annual average of 2,000 miles between 2012 and 2016 to an annual average of just 700 miles between 2017 and 2021

This lack of new transmission capacity combined with booming project queues has led to longer interconnection wait times, rising costs and uncertainties for projects seeking interconnection, as well as a greater proportion of projects withdrawing before they can secure interconnection agreements, according to LBNL data.

Multiple studies indicate the U.S. will need hundreds of billions of dollars’ worth of new transmission to integrate the amount of clean energy needed to decarbonize the grid. A similarly large body of research suggests that existing transmission development and interconnection policies are making it increasingly difficult for new clean energy projects to come online. 

But in order to prioritize these backlogged projects, PJM will also have to impose a two-year delay on about 1,250 other projects in the queue and will not accept applications for new projects until late 2025.

But other grid operators have been assigning almost all the costs of upgrading the grid to accommodate new wind and solar projects to the project developers themselves. 

 

That’s a problem, clean energy boosters say, because slow transmission expansion over the past half-decade has left many grids without enough capacity to absorb new generation. That, in turn, has led to new wind, solar and battery projects being saddled with the costs of grid upgrades that would benefit the system at large, including conventional forms of generation. 

Take the example of the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) and Southwest Power Pool (SPP), the country’s two Midwestern grid operators, which require new projects to pay between 90 to 100 percent of the cost of grid upgrades needed to interconnect them. Those upgrade costs have risen dramatically for recent interconnection queues, to $4.6 billion in upgrades for 10.4 GW of transmission in SPP and nearly $2.5 billion of upgrades in MISO South, according to September report by consultancy ICF on behalf of the American Council on Renewable Energy trade group.

But as long as individual projects are forced to pay for those upgrades, ​other users of the shared system are receiving [them] at little to no cost,” the report states.

Other groups have asked FERC to consider asking grid operators and the utilities that operate transmission grids to use more advanced technologies that could expand the capacity of the existing grid. These grid-enhancing technologies — dynamic line rating systems, advanced power flow controlstopology optimization and advanced conductors — could potentially double the amount of wind and solar power that can be brought online across the country in the coming years, according to recent studies.

Nevertheless, there’s a growing consensus among policymakers and regulators that the sheer scope of the clean energy buildout needed to reduce the carbon emissions from the U.S. electricity sector will require much more new transmission, no matter what.   READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: THEIR DAY IN COURT: Developers of a controversial hydropower transmission project in Maine will have their arguments heard today in court on the constitutionality of a ballot measure approved by state voters in November that nullified the project. The New England Clean Energy Connect would carry hydropower from Canada into the New England grid to power 1.2 million homes. But doing so would require cutting through 53 miles of forest to build new transmission lines.

Nearly 6 in 10 Maine voters backed the referendum last year — the most expensive ballot campaign in state history — to stop the project. The Maine Supreme Judicial Court will consider challenges to the referendum and other issues this afternoon.

The project has created strange alliances. Political foes have pushed for the project to proceed, with Democratic Gov. Janet Mills, former Republican Gov. and Mills’ 2022 challenger Paul LePage, and Energy Secretary Jennifer Granholm in favor of the $950 million plan. Meanwhile, some environmentalists and energy companies that would stand to lose money from the project coming on line have fought against it.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: THE OFFSHORE WIND HAMMER: The governors of New Jersey and Oregon are leaning hard into the Biden administration’s offshore wind goals, but acknowledged obstacles to their vision during the Aspen Ideas: Climate conference in Miami on Tuesday.

Projects face opposition from commercial fishing interests and line-of-sight objectors, according to the governors. “We want to make sure that we’re not ignoring people,” New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy said. “Those [issues] are manageable in my opinion.”

Oregon Gov. Kate Brown also identified transmission lines as a “huge challenge for the entire Western region,” including how to construct them safely with the wildfire risk and in the right way, particularly for tribal communities. Murphy said he is optimistic about his administration’s commitment to 7,500 megawatts of offshore wind energy by 2035 despite the transmission challenges, but noted that “sometimes you have to, for lack of a better phrase, drop the hammer and use something like eminent domain.”

GRID GIRDS FOR CLEAN ENERGY WAVE: The largest organized power market in the U.S. released a report Tuesday that found the region, which stretches from the Mid-Atlantic to Chicago, expects to add more than 100,000 megawatts of onshore wind, offshore wind, solar and energy storage to the grid in the next 15 years. At the end of last year, the U.S. marked more than 200,000 megawatts of clean energy resources in total, according to the American Clean Power Association.

In order to accommodate the large wave of resources, the PJM Interconnection grid operator will need to make significant grid upgrades, expecting to cost over $3 billion, the report found. To plan for the expected glut of clean energy resources, PJM will conduct several studies outlining potential transmission build-out scenarios over the next year, as well as work to fix the region’s clogged interconnection queue.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico’s Morning Energy: FERC OFFICIAL AIMS TO TACKLE NIMBYISM: Elin Katz, FERC’s director of the relatively new Office of Public Participation, is thinking about how to avoid more disorderly forms of public engagement that have plagued FERC and the power sector in recent years — such as demonstrations and lawsuits against new energy infrastructure, including pipelines. She also hopes to better educate the public about the benefits of electric transmission in particular to mitigate the “NIMBYism” often associated with the large-scale power lines needed to decarbonize the power grid.

“One of my main goals is to provide a constructive outlet for public concerns,” she said during a webinar hosted by utility transmission group WIRES. “We’ve seen a lot of what I consider more disruptive activities around when the public becomes concerned about energy or infrastructure.”

Katz also said questions remain around whether the office would provide intervenor funding — a program that would cover expenses for lower-budget groups to participate in FERC proceedings. FERC commissioners would have to approve such a mechanism, and there remains a lot of questions around how that program would be funded if it were to be adopted, she said. “To me, it’s more about is this a good idea, is there a workable model? And then if there is, is there money to pay for it?”  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from Politico Pro/E&E News: The director of the Energy Department’s Loan Programs Office questioned the country’s ability to build out its transmission infrastructure in time to meet President Joe Biden’s goal of producing 100 percent carbon pollution-free electricity by 2035 — calling for an “an honest conversation” about the clean energy transition.

Jigar Shar pointed to research Wednesday that says the United States will need to rapidly expand its transmission systems to reach decarbonization targets or expand nuclear power.

“The only thing harder to build than nuclear in this country is transmission,” Shah said during an energy storage policy forum hosted by the American Clean Power Association on Wednesday. “We’re not going to 3 to 5x transmission in this country. I don’t understand who in this room actually thinks that’s going to happen by 2035. The lines that we’re building right now were started 12 years ago.”

Context: Shah, a former clean energy entrepreneur and founder of SunEdison, said the clean energy industry has “grown up,” which has meant a new responsibility to answer the “tough questions” about the energy transition as the U.S. aims to decarbonize the power system by 2035.  READ MORE

 

Excerpt from EurActiv: Jean-Bernard Lévy, the chairman and CEO of French utility EDF and current president of power industry association Eurelectric, has urged EU countries to invest in distribution grids in order to sustain Europe’s move towards climate neutrality.

“We consider that between now and 2030, about €400 billion of investments are needed in distribution grids,” Lévy said during the Eurelectric Power Summit last Wednesday (15 June).

Alongside this, Lévy called for easier access to EU funds and faster permitting procedures to speed up construction of new power lines.

“It’s not all about solar farms and wind energy,” he added, “it is also about transmission and distribution.”

However, Eurelectric President Lévy highlighted the need to maximise hydrogen production within Europe in order to avoid depending on foreign suppliers.

“This would still be an H2 dependency,” he warned.

“We could agree that it could be quite risky that in 20 years, all of a sudden, we discover that there is a problem in one of the countries which is so important for the supply [of hydrogen]. All of a sudden we find ourselves in the same situation as what has happened when Russia invaded Ukraine,” he added.    READ MORE

 

Excerpt from E&E News/Politico Pro: Emissions modeling comes with caveats and limitations. Here’s one: It can take more than a decade to build an interstate transmission line to connect renewable energy generation to major metropolitan areas. Yet most models assume many of these projects will be built by 2030.

In other words, emissions models can understate just how difficult it will be to rapidly reduce emissions this decade. Modelers themselves are generally open about that fact.  READ MORE

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cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel Cook Islands cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D5 (5%DME) D20 (20%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel diesel with renewables digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel direct air capture directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol E. coli E0 E0 price E2 E3 E4 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E75 E78 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED95 education educational business private educational tour Education Series 3030 efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electricity price electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electroly electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) end user Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylbenzene ethylene ethyl levulinate (EL) ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication externalities extremophiles f F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flavors flax Fleets fleet turnover fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon games gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasificatio gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawai'i hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrids Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrocarbon fuels hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen hydrogen aircraft hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogenolysis hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps hydrogen terminal hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesi Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica Japan jatobá Jatropha Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lpg lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M3 M15 M50 M100 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandate mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts mass balance standard Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methan methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks methani methanization Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methanol fuel cells methanol price Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha NASCAR National 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biofuels next generation vehicles Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota Northeast Northern Ireland Northern Territory North Korea Northwest Territories Norway Noth Dakota Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil/gas terminals oil embargo oil exploration oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil ref oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay 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pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal potassium potato poultry litter/waste power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R5 R33 R99/RD99 rabbits race radiata pine radish leaves railroad rainforest rain tree RAND rare earth metal RD10 RD20 RD30 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 RD100 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/REDIII) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel 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(Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower SAF pipeline sago pond weed SAIC SAK Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shipping shipping containers Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solaris solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota Southeast Asia Southern Africa South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soybean prices soybeans soy meal Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) subsid succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugarcan sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland syngas syngas/gas fermentation synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung Tamarix tank-to-wheel tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer tech transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale truck trucks tubers tugboats tung tunicate Tunisia Turkey UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) UK Emission Trade Scheme (UK ETS) Ukraine UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United Nations (UN) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont vetiver Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses vlsfo VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment wax well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheatgrass wheat prices wheat straw whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin women Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization 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