An Energy Transition Needs Lots of Power Lines.

Business News/AnalysisFederal Agency/Executive BranchFederal LegislationMaineMinnesotaNevadaOpinionsPolicySustainabilityWhite HouseWisconsin
January 04, 2022

by Dan Gearino (Inside Climate News)  This 1970s Minnesota Farmers’ Uprising Tried to Block One. What Can it Teach Us? As the country moves toward a massive build-out of transmission lines, a decades-old rebellion offers a way through potential opposition. -- If the United States is to make a transition to clean energy, it will need to build many more transmission lines—the thick wires that deliver power from rural areas, where there’s enough open space for wind and solar, to cities where the most power is consumed.

But the process of building those lines is likely to be fraught with conflict and delays, because people in rural and suburban communities often don’t want to see wires and tall metal towers in their backyards.


The arguments in that fight—over a 436-mile power line carrying power from a coal plant in central North Dakota to the suburbs of Minneapolis-St. Paul—started out with lawyers sitting around tables in government boardrooms but ended with protesters in frozen fields carrying rifles and baseball bats.


One of the lessons was that power companies need to engage the public early and be willing to change course in the face of well-reasoned criticism, as opposed to ramming through a project.

“You don’t ask for public opinion if you’re not going to listen,” said Will Kaul, who retired in 2017 as a vice president after a career with Great River Energy and its predecessor, Cooperative Power Association.

Opponents of a power line also need to be confident that the process is fair. George Crocker, an environmental advocate who was one of the leaders of the 1970s protest movement, said much of the outrage stemmed from a sense that big companies and the government had already made up their minds, and that any process was just for show.


To be able to support a grid that runs mostly on renewable energy, the United States needs to double, triple or even quadruple it’s transmission capacity, according to several recent studies. One of them, the Net-Zero America report from Princeton University, projected that the country would need to spend $360 to $390 billion on new transmission lines by 2030 to meet climate goals.

“We have this opportunity as a nation to tap into the best resources, but we need transmission to do that,” said Rob Gramlich, president of Grid Strategies, a consulting firm that focuses on transmission. The best resources, he said, are wind and solar obtained from the parts of the country that are the most windy and sunny.

The Biden Administration is hoping to set off a construction boom through increases in federal incentives for the lines, including $5 billion in the just-signed infrastructure bill, and proposals for much more. The bill also includes an expansion of federal authority to approve transmission projects in situations where states are standing in the way.  READ MORE

Opinion: Imagine Virginia’s icy traffic catastrophe — but with only electric vehicles (Washington Post)

Hydro Quebec suspends work in Canada on controversial energy corridor (Maine Public Radio)

Overwhelmed by Solar Projects, the Nation’s Largest Grid Operator Seeks a Two-Year Pause on Approvals -- “It’s a kink in the system,” says one developer trying to bring solar jobs to coal country. “The planet does not have time for a delay.” (Inside Climate News)

Federal District Court Stops Cardinal-Hickory Creek Transmission Line Running Through Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge (Environmental Law and Policy Center)

New Report Finds Significant Benefits from Upgrading Existing U.S. Transmission Grid (American Council on Renewable Energy)

Report finds transmission grid upgrades would save $140 billion or more over next decade (Solar Power World Online)

Misinformation is derailing renewable energy projects across the United States (NPR; includes AUDIO)

FERC's electric meeting--TEEING UP TRANSMISSION: (Politico's Morning Energy)

FERC launches notice for transmission planning rulemaking (Politico)

The US has more clean energy projects planned than the grid can handle: Without major policy reforms and grid upgrades, much of the 1.4-terawatt queue of solar, wind and battery projects may never get built, two new reports find. (Canary Media)

Record Amounts of Zero-carbon Electricity Generation and Storage Now Seeking Grid Interconnection (Berkeley Lab)

Queued Up… But in Need of Transmission (U.S. Department of Energy)

THEIR DAY IN COURT (Politico's Morning Energy)

 THE OFFSHORE WIND HAMMER:  (Politico's Morning Energy)

Backtracking on transmission competition --THE COMPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION COMPETITION  (Politico's Morning Energy)


DOE loan office director skeptical about pace of transmission buildout: The long-dormant Loan Programs Office has $40 billion in lending authority, making it a crucial part of the Biden administration’s clean energy push.   (Politico Pro/E&E News)

Europe’s electricity industry calls for €400bn investment in distribution grids (EurActiv)

Fierce local battles over power lines are a bottleneck for clean energy (CNBC)

Is Burying Power Lines Fire-Prevention Magic, or Magical Thinking? With power lines sparking more wildfires as climate change makes landscapes more flammable and drives a movement to “electrify everything,” a simple solution is gaining acceptance despite the cost. (Inside Climate News)

Wind expansion hindered by 'messy' local dynamics: Zoning restrictions could jeopardize as much as 77 percent of potential wind development areas in Iowa, according to a new study. The findings raise questions about how the nation can achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. (Politico Pro)

“Building a Better Grid” DOE Initiative Outlines Plan for Nationwide Transmission (Environmental and Energy Study Institute)

Why the Texas grid causes the High Plains to turn off its wind turbines: While wind farms in the region could help power and lower energy costs for at least 9 million homes, significant infrastructure upgrades would be needed to supply electricity from the region to other parts of the state. (Texas Tribune)

Modeling 'IRA' carbon cuts: Caveats, uncertainty and luggage -- Emissions models can understate the difficulty of rapidly reducing carbon dioxide this decade. Yet most observers are accepting at face value the Senate climate bill's promise to cut carbon almost in half. (E&E News/Politico Pro)

High court says Maine voters alone couldn’t stop CMP corridor (Bangor Daily News)

New England Power Line Moves Forward (World War Zero; includes VIDEOs)

Oil wish list or renewables boost? Manchin bill may be both -- The West Virginia Democrat's proposal could expand the network of transmission lines needed for clean energy — while leading to the construction of more fossil fuel projects. (E&E News/Politico Pro)

What Is Permitting Reform? Here’s a Primer on the Drive to Fast Track Energy Projects—Both Clean and Fossil Fuel -- It’s a return to Washington’s biggest energy debate, with Democrats and climate advocates divided among themselves, and mostly at odds with Republicans. (Inside Climate News)

$2.5B transmission line could 'unlock' shared renewables -- The planned project from Allete and Grid United would allow more energy to flow across the U.S., enabling the Midwest to send power to the West and vice versa. (Politico Pro)

Allete, Grid United plan $2.5B transmission line linking Western, Eastern interconnections (Utility Dive)

North Plains Connector transmission line will tie eastern and western US grid (Smart Energy International)

HVDC transmission line to connect three ISO regions -- The 385-mile North Plains Connector project to be built by 2029 will ease power transmission congestion and allow clean energy onto the grid. (PV Magazine)

Ice age fossils slow massive power line for renewable energy (E&E News Greenwire)

Maine transmission line is stalled despite court victories (E&E News Climatewire)


Excerpt from Inside Climate News: In the past, PJM’s energy project queue was dominated by a few large projects like big natural gas power plants. Now, PJM officials said, they are receiving a proliferation of smaller projects, each needing study.

“Our system wasn’t designed to handle that kind of growth,” said Kenneth S. Seiler, vice president of planning at PJM.

About 2,500 projects are awaiting action by the grid operator, which is based in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, outside Philadelphia.

PJM officials are proposing a two-phased solution. 

They want to move to a new approval process that puts projects that are the most ready for construction at the front of the line, and discourages those that might be more speculative or that have not secured all their financing.

PJM officials said they have reached a reasonable consensus among their members for that plan. However, they are also proposing an interim period with a two-year delay on about 1,250 projects in their queue, and a deferral on the review of new projects until the fourth quarter of 2025, with final decisions on those coming as late as the end of 2027.

“We are taking a pause,” Seiler said of the grid operator’s proposal. “We are refining the process to deal with these smaller types of projects. We will catch up.”


Still, Seiler said he’s not certain whether PJM can attain the Biden goal of achieving 100 percent carbon-free electricity by 2035. PJM in December announced a study looking at how it could boost renewable energy mix to 50 percent by 2035. With nuclear energy in the region factored in, that could get the PJM grid to about 60 to 70 percent carbon free, he said.


National studies show grid operators across the country have a growing queue of energy projects, many that do not pan out and actually clog up the system. In 2021, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found that only 24 percent of projects nationally seeking connection from 2000 to 2015 were built, and completion percentages since then appeared to be declining.

Last year, Americans for a Clean Energy Grid, a national group advocating for modernization of high voltage transmission, made the case in a report that backlogs were “needlessly increasing electricity costs for consumers by delaying the construction of new projects which are cheaper than existing electricity production. Because most of these projects are located in remote rural areas, this backlog is harming rural economic development and job creation.”


Solutions are needed beyond what PJM has proposed, she (Gizelle Wray, senior director of regulatory affairs and counsel for the Solar Energy Industries Association) said, adding that the association hopes FERC will move the country toward better transmission and interconnection policies.


In addition to retooling its approval process, PJM should increase the size of its staff to meet the demand and urgency for renewable energy, Edelen (Adam Edelen, a former Kentucky state auditor who runs a company working to bring solar projects and jobs to ailing coal communities in Appalachia) said.

“Staffing is an issue,” conceded Seiler.

But Seiler said qualified engineers would need to be found. And then, he said, “it takes several years to train somebody to do a lot of this work.”  READ MORE


Excerpt from Environmental Law and Policy Center: “The U.S. District Court’s comprehensive decision concluding that approvals of the massive Cardinal-Hickory Creek transmission line violated environmental laws is well-grounded in law and supported by the facts”

Madison, WI – Four conservation groups – the National Wildlife Refuge Association, Driftless Area Land Conservancy, Wisconsin Wildlife Federation and Defenders of Wildlife – prevailed in a January 14 Opinion by the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin. The detailed Opinion said federal agencies’ approval of ATC, ITC and Dairyland Power’s proposed 102-mile Cardinal-Hickory Creek (CHC) transmission line violated federal environmental laws designed to protect the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires full and fair consideration of reasonable alternatives that are less environmentally damaging and less costly.

The Court’s Opinion stated: “The Utilities are pushing forward with construction on either side of the Refuge, even without an approved path through the Refuge, in order to make any subsequent challenge to a Refuge crossing extremely prejudicial to their sunk investment, which will fall on their ratepayers regardless of completion of the CHC project, along with a guaranteed return on the Utilities’ investment in the project.”  READ MORE


Excerpt from NPR: Yet every single rural utility-scale wind and solar project needs local or state approval to get built, says Sarah Mills, who researches rural renewable energy at the University of Michigan. And she says it's in those often-fractious discussions about approval that misinformation is sometimes halting and stalling the installation of the renewables the climate needs. "At the end of the day, if local governments are not setting rules that allow for the infrastructure to be sited, those policies cannot be achieved," Mills says.

Misinformation gets mixed up in decisions over renewable projects

Last year, a Department of Energy study found that setback regulations now represent the single-greatest barrier to securing locations for wind projects in the U.S. Setbacks limit how close wind projects can be to buildings, and Mills says they often make sense to reduce things such as noise and "shadow flicker," the moving shadows and strobing sunlight that turbines can cast onto buildings. But she says misinformation can fuel setbacks that are more stringent than needed and sometimes act as outright bans on renewable energy.

In Ohio, setbacks and other rules associated with renewable projects have historically been set at the state level. But in October, a new law, SB 52, went into effect giving counties the ability to make exclusion zones with no utility-scale wind and solar projects.

(Jeremy) Kitson, the science teacher, testified in support of the zones, arguing that turbines negatively affect property values.


But Ben Hoen, a researcher at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, says his more than 15 years of research has shown that wind turbines have little to no impact on nearby property values. Hoen says, "We have not found evidence of property value impacts despite studying it over multiple periods of time."


Hoen does say that studies in the Netherlands and United Kingdom have found some effects on property values, but they were far smaller than Kitson's reference to studies showing a 20%-40% depreciation.

In about half of states, regulations around how and whether to build rural utility-scale solar and wind are determined on the local level, Mills says. "These local officials are not necessarily experts in energy," she says. "And so when you have people coming and stating things as facts, especially if there's nobody fact-checking everything, right, it's difficult. They're certainly making decisions based on what they're hearing."


In recent years, some of the misinformation about renewable energy has come from former President Donald Trump, who frequently makes misleading and false anti-wind claims at his rallies and media appearances, including the untrue idea that wind turbine noise causes cancer.


Other misleading ideas about renewable energy come from groups with ties to the fossil fuel industry, like the Texas Public Policy Foundation.


But Facebook is one of the biggest drivers of misleading content about renewable energy, says Josh Fergen, a researcher at the University of Minnesota Duluth.


Fergen's paper concluded that posts in the two Facebook pages were "increasing perceptions of human health and public safety risks related to wind by sharing news of disasters and misinformation over health assessment risks."


But Dahvi Wilson, vice president of public affairs for Apex Clean Energy, says her company is finding that across the country, local engagement is becoming increasingly difficult given community suspicions of renewable energy.

"I think for a long time, and maybe still in some places, developers thought, 'Well, we just need to give better information. We just need to give more information.' And it's like, 'it's so not about that at all!'" Wilson says. "It's about who you trust and if anybody's going to believe you if you're a company."   READ MORE


Excerpt from Canary Media:  The proposed wind, solar and battery projects seeking interconnection to U.S. transmission grids today are enough to bring the country to 80 percent carbon-free electricity by 2030. But based on historical trends, less than a quarter of those planned projects are likely to be built. 

And even the best-positioned projects that already have the land rights, construction financing and power-purchase contracts necessary to move forward are likely to face years of delay and potentially millions of dollars of grid upgrade costs before being able to connect to the grid. These barriers could prevent many planned projects from reaching completion — and block the country from decarbonizing fast enough to prevent the most devastating effects of global warming.


Entering a transmission interconnection queue is only one of many steps in the development process,” the report states. ​Projects must also have agreements with landowners and communities, power purchasers, equipment suppliers, and financiers, and may face transmission upgrade requirements.” 

And the trends on these fronts are getting worse, not better. Since 2015, the time it takes for projects to secure interconnection agreements has risen from about a year and a half to more than three and a half years in 2021, the report finds.


Transmission deployments have fallen from an annual average of 2,000 miles between 2012 and 2016 to an annual average of just 700 miles between 2017 and 2021

This lack of new transmission capacity combined with booming project queues has led to longer interconnection wait times, rising costs and uncertainties for projects seeking interconnection, as well as a greater proportion of projects withdrawing before they can secure interconnection agreements, according to LBNL data.


Multiple studies indicate the U.S. will need hundreds of billions of dollars’ worth of new transmission to integrate the amount of clean energy needed to decarbonize the grid. A similarly large body of research suggests that existing transmission development and interconnection policies are making it increasingly difficult for new clean energy projects to come online. 


But in order to prioritize these backlogged projects, PJM will also have to impose a two-year delay on about 1,250 other projects in the queue and will not accept applications for new projects until late 2025.


But other grid operators have been assigning almost all the costs of upgrading the grid to accommodate new wind and solar projects to the project developers themselves. 


That’s a problem, clean energy boosters say, because slow transmission expansion over the past half-decade has left many grids without enough capacity to absorb new generation. That, in turn, has led to new wind, solar and battery projects being saddled with the costs of grid upgrades that would benefit the system at large, including conventional forms of generation. 

Take the example of the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) and Southwest Power Pool (SPP), the country’s two Midwestern grid operators, which require new projects to pay between 90 to 100 percent of the cost of grid upgrades needed to interconnect them. Those upgrade costs have risen dramatically for recent interconnection queues, to $4.6 billion in upgrades for 10.4 GW of transmission in SPP and nearly $2.5 billion of upgrades in MISO South, according to September report by consultancy ICF on behalf of the American Council on Renewable Energy trade group.


But as long as individual projects are forced to pay for those upgrades, ​other users of the shared system are receiving [them] at little to no cost,” the report states.


Other groups have asked FERC to consider asking grid operators and the utilities that operate transmission grids to use more advanced technologies that could expand the capacity of the existing grid. These grid-enhancing technologies — dynamic line rating systems, advanced power flow controlstopology optimization and advanced conductors — could potentially double the amount of wind and solar power that can be brought online across the country in the coming years, according to recent studies.

Nevertheless, there’s a growing consensus among policymakers and regulators that the sheer scope of the clean energy buildout needed to reduce the carbon emissions from the U.S. electricity sector will require much more new transmission, no matter what.   READ MORE


Excerpt from Politico's Morning Energy: THEIR DAY IN COURT: Developers of a controversial hydropower transmission project in Maine will have their arguments heard today in court on the constitutionality of a ballot measure approved by state voters in November that nullified the project. The New England Clean Energy Connect would carry hydropower from Canada into the New England grid to power 1.2 million homes. But doing so would require cutting through 53 miles of forest to build new transmission lines.

Nearly 6 in 10 Maine voters backed the referendum last year — the most expensive ballot campaign in state history — to stop the project. The Maine Supreme Judicial Court will consider challenges to the referendum and other issues this afternoon.

The project has created strange alliances. Political foes have pushed for the project to proceed, with Democratic Gov. Janet Mills, former Republican Gov. and Mills’ 2022 challenger Paul LePage, and Energy Secretary Jennifer Granholm in favor of the $950 million plan. Meanwhile, some environmentalists and energy companies that would stand to lose money from the project coming on line have fought against it.  READ MORE


Excerpt from Politico's Morning Energy: THE OFFSHORE WIND HAMMER: The governors of New Jersey and Oregon are leaning hard into the Biden administration's offshore wind goals, but acknowledged obstacles to their vision during the Aspen Ideas: Climate conference in Miami on Tuesday.

Projects face opposition from commercial fishing interests and line-of-sight objectors, according to the governors. “We want to make sure that we’re not ignoring people,” New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy said. “Those [issues] are manageable in my opinion.”

Oregon Gov. Kate Brown also identified transmission lines as a “huge challenge for the entire Western region,” including how to construct them safely with the wildfire risk and in the right way, particularly for tribal communities. Murphy said he is optimistic about his administration’s commitment to 7,500 megawatts of offshore wind energy by 2035 despite the transmission challenges, but noted that “sometimes you have to, for lack of a better phrase, drop the hammer and use something like eminent domain.”

GRID GIRDS FOR CLEAN ENERGY WAVE: The largest organized power market in the U.S. released a report Tuesday that found the region, which stretches from the Mid-Atlantic to Chicago, expects to add more than 100,000 megawatts of onshore wind, offshore wind, solar and energy storage to the grid in the next 15 years. At the end of last year, the U.S. marked more than 200,000 megawatts of clean energy resources in total, according to the American Clean Power Association.

In order to accommodate the large wave of resources, the PJM Interconnection grid operator will need to make significant grid upgrades, expecting to cost over $3 billion, the report found. To plan for the expected glut of clean energy resources, PJM will conduct several studies outlining potential transmission build-out scenarios over the next year, as well as work to fix the region’s clogged interconnection queue.  READ MORE


Excerpt from Politico's Morning Energy: FERC OFFICIAL AIMS TO TACKLE NIMBYISM: Elin Katz, FERC’s director of the relatively new Office of Public Participation, is thinking about how to avoid more disorderly forms of public engagement that have plagued FERC and the power sector in recent years — such as demonstrations and lawsuits against new energy infrastructure, including pipelines. She also hopes to better educate the public about the benefits of electric transmission in particular to mitigate the “NIMBYism” often associated with the large-scale power lines needed to decarbonize the power grid.

“One of my main goals is to provide a constructive outlet for public concerns,” she said during a webinar hosted by utility transmission group WIRES. “We've seen a lot of what I consider more disruptive activities around when the public becomes concerned about energy or infrastructure.”

Katz also said questions remain around whether the office would provide intervenor funding — a program that would cover expenses for lower-budget groups to participate in FERC proceedings. FERC commissioners would have to approve such a mechanism, and there remains a lot of questions around how that program would be funded if it were to be adopted, she said. “To me, it's more about is this a good idea, is there a workable model? And then if there is, is there money to pay for it?”  READ MORE


Excerpt from Politico Pro/E&E News: The director of the Energy Department’s Loan Programs Office questioned the country's ability to build out its transmission infrastructure in time to meet President Joe Biden's goal of producing 100 percent carbon pollution-free electricity by 2035 — calling for an "an honest conversation" about the clean energy transition.

Jigar Shar pointed to research Wednesday that says the United States will need to rapidly expand its transmission systems to reach decarbonization targets or expand nuclear power.

“The only thing harder to build than nuclear in this country is transmission,” Shah said during an energy storage policy forum hosted by the American Clean Power Association on Wednesday. "We're not going to 3 to 5x transmission in this country. I don't understand who in this room actually thinks that's going to happen by 2035. The lines that we're building right now were started 12 years ago."

Context: Shah, a former clean energy entrepreneur and founder of SunEdison, said the clean energy industry has “grown up,” which has meant a new responsibility to answer the “tough questions” about the energy transition as the U.S. aims to decarbonize the power system by 2035.  READ MORE


Excerpt from EurActiv: Jean-Bernard Lévy, the chairman and CEO of French utility EDF and current president of power industry association Eurelectric, has urged EU countries to invest in distribution grids in order to sustain Europe’s move towards climate neutrality.

“We consider that between now and 2030, about €400 billion of investments are needed in distribution grids,” Lévy said during the Eurelectric Power Summit last Wednesday (15 June).

Alongside this, Lévy called for easier access to EU funds and faster permitting procedures to speed up construction of new power lines.

“It’s not all about solar farms and wind energy,” he added, “it is also about transmission and distribution.”


However, Eurelectric President Lévy highlighted the need to maximise hydrogen production within Europe in order to avoid depending on foreign suppliers.

“This would still be an H2 dependency,” he warned.

“We could agree that it could be quite risky that in 20 years, all of a sudden, we discover that there is a problem in one of the countries which is so important for the supply [of hydrogen]. All of a sudden we find ourselves in the same situation as what has happened when Russia invaded Ukraine,” he added.    READ MORE


Excerpt from E&E News/Politico Pro: Emissions modeling comes with caveats and limitations. Here's one: It can take more than a decade to build an interstate transmission line to connect renewable energy generation to major metropolitan areas. Yet most models assume many of these projects will be built by 2030.

In other words, emissions models can understate just how difficult it will be to rapidly reduce emissions this decade. Modelers themselves are generally open about that fact.  READ MORE


Excerpt from E&E News Greenwire: The federal review of a key transmission line to connect commercial-scale solar projects in Nevada to millions of households has been delayed by months over concerns about a likely route across a national monument designed to protect thousands of ice age fossils.

The 470-mile-long Greenlink West transmission line would stretch along Nevada’s western boundary, from Las Vegas north to Reno, carrying as much as 4,000 megawatts of mostly renewable electricity from dozens of proposed solar projects in the state.

The Bureau of Land Management last spring began an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the proposal by NV Energy that has already sparked a flurry of solar project applications along its presumed path. The Greenlink West project is a priority for the Biden administration as it works to expand the power grid to support green energy projects often located in remote areas.


But the draft environmental review originally set to be released for public comment in January has been delayed, likely until May, due to NV Energy's proposal to place the line across 1.5 miles of the Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, according to a senior Interior Department official with knowledge of the situation who was granted anonymity because they are not authorized to speak publicly.

BLM is leaning toward making the proposed route across the monument its "preferred alternative" in the draft EIS, advancing plans to place as many as 12 power-line poles within the monument managed by the National Park Service, the official said. The line would run 5 feet inside the monument near the road that splits the north and south units of the 22,650-acre monument, which was established by Congress in 2014 to protect the fossils of long-extinct species like the Columbian mammoth and the sabertooth cat.

Conservation groups are already raising alarms about the possibility of the power line disturbing fossils, saying the federal government should prioritize preservation along with energy transmission.   READ MORE


Comments are closed.

More than 50,000 articles in our online library!

Use the categories and tags listed below to access the nearly 50,000 articles indexed on this website.

Our Sponsors
FREE Subscription! Advanced Biofuels USA events calendar; policy and actions; education newsletters
Advanced Clean Fleets Rule 100 octane 100% SAF (Sustainable Aviation Fuel) 103 octane 105 octane 108 octane 109 octane 110 octane 113 octane 119 octane 2016 US House and Senate Campaigns 2016 US Presidential Campaign 2018 US Senate and House Campaigns Other Election Activities 2020 Election 2022 Election 2022 US Senate and House Campaign 2024 Election 2nd generation biofuels 3-D 3D printing 3rd generation biofuels 4-H 40A 40B 45Q 45V 45X 45Z 48C 4th generation fuels 7% solution 81 Octane 84 octane 85 octane 87 octane 88 octane 89 octane 90 octane 91 octane 92 octane 93 octane 94 octane 95 octane 96 octane 98 octane A20 (20% methanol/bioethanol) abu Abu Dhabi acacia acetate acetic acid acetone acid acid hydrolysis adaptive evolution additional carbon additionality adequate/inadequate domestic supply Administrative Procedure Act adsorption Advanced Biofuel Payment Program advanced biofuel prices Advanced biofuels advanced biofuels production Advanced Clean Cars II Rule (ACC and ACCII) Advanced Clean Trucks Rule advanced ethanol advanced ethanol tax credit advertising campaign aerobic digestion aerosols Affordable Clean Energy Program (ACE) afforestation Afghanistan Africa AGARDA (Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority) agave aggregation Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) agricultural economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural waste/residue Agriculture agrivoltaic/agrovoltaic agroforestry agrofuels agronomy Air Force air pollution control Air Pollution Policy air quality Aircraft engine emissions airports Alabama Alaska Albania albedo Alberta albizia alcohol fuel cells alcohol fuels alcohol-to-diesel alcohol-to-jet (ATJ)/ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) alfalfa algae algae contamination algae cultivation algae extraction algae harvesting algae parity algae separation algal biofuels Algeria Algiers alkaline exchange membrane (AEM) alkanes alkenes alkylate alligator fat almond almond hulls shells alternative energy vehicles alternative fuels Alternative Fuels Credit alternative fuels excise tax credit Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (AFTC) aluminum Amazon American Indian Tribes American Le Mans Series (ALMS) ammonia ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) ammonia terminal amylose anaerobic digestate anaerobic digester/digestion and Energy Use in Transportation Model Angola anhydrous ethanol animal bedding animal fat animal feed animal waste Antactica Antarctica antibiotics antitrust apple Appropriations APR (Aqueous Phase Reforming) aquaculture aquatic organisms Arabidopsis arabinose ARCA Archaea Architecture Arctic Argentian Argentiina Argentina Arizona Arkansas Armenia Army Corps of Engineers aromatics aromatics price ARPA-C ARPA-E ARPA-Terra arrandi artificial intelligence Aruba Asia Asia Pacific asphalt/bitumen ASTM ASTM 6866 ASTM D1655 ASTM D2880 ASTM D396 ASTM D4054 ASTM D4806 Denatured fuel ethanol ASTM D4814 ASTM D5798 ASTM D6751 ASTM D7467 (B6-B20) ASTM D7544 ASTM D7566 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons) ASTM D7862 ASTM D7875 ASTM D7901 (DME-Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Purposes) ASTM D8076 ASTM D8181 ASTM D975 ASTM E3050 Denatured Ethanol for Cooking ASTM E3146 ASTM standards ASTM WK55232 (D02) ASTM WK63392 ATJ-SPK (Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene) Atlantic Canada atmosphere Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Australia Australian pine Austria Auto manufacturer automotive aviation aviation fuel (SAF) benefits aviation fuel (SAF) mandates aviation fuel (SAF) price aviation fuel (SAF) production aviation fuel (SAF) pumps/delivery aviation fuel (SAF) tax credit aviation fuel (SAF) terminal Aviation Fuel/Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) Aviation Gasoline/AvGas avocado award awards/recognition Azerbaijan. b B0 B10 B100 B11 B12 B12.5 B13 B14 B15 B16 B17 B19 B2 B20 B24 B25 B3 B30 B30RD10 B33 B35 B4 B40 B49 B5 B50 B50RD50 B6 B7 B70 B75 B8 B80 B98 B99 Babados nut tree babassu bacteria bagasse Bahamas Bahrain bamboo banana banana stems Bangladesh bankruptcy Barbados barge barley barley fiber barley protein barley straw Basque batteries Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) bauxite beauty leaf tree beaver beer bees Belarus Belgium Belize Benin benzene Bermuda Bhutan big bluestem big data Big Food Big Oil/Oil Majors BIGoil billion ton study bio Bio LPG (Bio Liquid Petroleum Gas) bio-based diesel benefits bio-based economy Bio-CNG pumps Bio-CNG/RNG terminal bio-LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG Pumps (Liquified Natural Gas) Bio-LNG terminal bio-natural gas bio-NGV (natural gas for vehicles) bio-oil/pyrolysis oil bio-SPK (bio derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene) biobased Biobased Markets Program biobased materials Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program biochar biochemical conversion BioChemicals/Renewable Chemicals biociiesel bioconversion Biocrude/Green Crude/SynCrude biodegradable biodiesel biodiesel blend wall biodiesel EN 14214 Biodiesel Fuel Education Program biodiesel pipeline biodiesel prices biodiesel production biodiesel pumps biodiesel quality biodiesel standards biodiesel tax credit biodiesel technologies biodiesel terminal biodiversity bioeconomy bioelectricity bioelectrochemical conversion bioenergy Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) biofoundry Biofuel biofuel cells biofuel consumption Biofuel Crops biofuel distribution Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership (BIP) biofuel producer tax credit biofuel production biofuel tax credit Biofuels Directive biofuels education Biogas Biogas pipeline Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline Biogasoline/Renewable Gasoline pumps biogenic carbon biogenic emissions Bioheat biohydrocarbons biohydrogen BioIsoprene BioMADE biomanufacturing biomass Biomass Carbon Removal and Storage (BiCRS) Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) biomass hydrolysis biomass recalcitrance Biomass Research and Development initiative (BRDI) biomass sorghum Biomass to Liquid (BTL) biomass transportation biomaterials bioplastics biopower Biopreferred bioproducts biopropene bioprospecting BioRefineries/Renewable Fuel Production Biorefinery Assistance Program (BAP) old 9003 Biorefinery Renewable Chemical Biobased Product Mfgr Assistance 9003 Program BioRenewable-1 (BR-1) BioSNG Biotechnology birch bitter orange black carbon black grease black liquor black locust black soldier fly Blend wall blender blender pumps Blenders Credit blending blendstock blockchain blue carbon boat fuel boiler/furnace fuel Bolivia bolt-on Bonaire bonds book-and-claim border tax Borneo Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana BQ-9000 Brachiaria bracken brackish water brash Brassica Brazil breweries brine British Columbia broker brown grease brownfields Brunei Btu's BTX (Benzene Toluene Xylene) Bu12.5 Bu16 Budget building block chemicals Bulgaria bunker bunker oil Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Burkina Faso Burma Burundi buses Business and Industry Program (B&I) business law business resources Business/General Aviation butadiene butandeiol (bio-BDO) Butane butanediol butanol emissions butanol/biobutanol butyl acetate butylene butyric acid by c C1 C2 C21 C3 sugar C5 sugar C6 sugar Cabo Verde cactus cactus pear cagaita calibration California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Cambodia Camelina camels Cameroon Canad Canada Canary Islands canary reed grass canarygrass candle nut cannabis canola straw Canola/Rapeseed cap-and-invest cap-and-trade capybara capybras carbohydrates carbon carbon capture and storage (CCS) carbon capture and utilization (CCU) carbon cost carbon credit carbon credit markets carbon cycle carbon debt Carbon Dioxide (CO2) carbon efficiency carbon emissions carbon fiber carbon insets Carbon Intensity (CI)/Carbon Footprint carbon life cycle carbon markets Carbon Monoxide (CO) carbon negative carbon neutrality carbon offsets carbon pipeline carbon price carbon recycling carbon removal carbon sink carbon standard carbon tax Carbon tax border adjustments carbon tax-and-dividend carbon terminal carbon user fee Carbon Utilization and Biogas Education Program carbon-14 testing carbon-efficient fuels carbon/CO2 sequestration carcinogens cardoon Caribbean carinata carinata/brassica carinata carob CAS Registry cashew cashew apple CASI Cassava cassava price cassava pulp cassava stalk castor bean castor stalk catalysis catalysts catalytic decarboxylation catalytic hydrothermal conversion catalytic hydrothermal conversion-to-jet (CHCJ) catalytic hydrothermal gasification catalytic hydrothermolysis jet CHJ pathway cattails cattle cavitation CBD (cannabidiol) CBG (compressed biogas) cell culturing cellulase enzymes cellulose cellulosic biofuel Cellulosic biomass cellulosic diesel Cellulosic ethanol cellulosic ethanol price cellulosic feedstock cellulosic production tax credit cellulosic sugars Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program Certificates of Origin (COs) certification certification fuels cesium cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations CHCJ-5 chemical-looping hydrogen method Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile Chili China chitin chp chromium chufa/cyperus esculents/nutsedge CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel clean air Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel clean fuel production tax credit Clean Fuel Standard/Policy (CFS) Clean Power Plan (CPP) Clean Trucks Plan Clean Water Act climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart/conservation agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover cmelina CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location Co-op Extension co-operative co-processing co-products CO2 neutral fuels CO2Removal Certificates (CORCs) coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Coast Guard coastal habitat conservation coastal hay cobalt cock's foot coco cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold flow cold-tolerance college/university Colombia Colorado combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning commo Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement/engagement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compliance credits compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/R-CNG/bioCNG) compression ratios compression-ignition engine computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology Cook Islands cook stoves cooking fuel cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 COP25 COP26 COP27 COP28 COP30 copper coppice cordgrass corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus corn syrup corn-based products corn/maize Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality county cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crassulacean acid metabolism plants (CAM) crimes criteria pollutants Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant cuphea currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cusi cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs d-5 D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs D20 (20%DME) D5 (5%DME) dairy waste dandelion DARPA date kernel oil date palm date palm pits date palm waste Dates DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization defossilize Dehydration Delaware DeltaWing demonstration demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose dfdsffsfdfsf diatoms diesel Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices Diesel R5 diesel with renewables diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diethyl ether digital Digital Biology diisobutylene (DIB) dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct air capture direct injection direct ocean capture Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) direct-to-fuel directed evolution dispense distillates distillation distilled biodiesel distilled palm methyl ester (DPME) distilleries distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver diversification divestment DME/rDME (dimethyl ether)/renewable DME DMF (2.5-dimethylfuran) Dominican Republic double cropping drawdown Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought tolerant drought-resistant dry ice dual cropping Dubai duckweed e e-diesel e-LNG (synthetic/electro Liquified Natural Gas) e-methanol e-NG (synthetic natural gas) E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E10 E10 certification fuel E10 price E100 E100 conversion kit E12 E13 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E2 E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E3 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E4 E40 E40 conversion kit E40 pumps E5 E5 price E50 E55 E6 E7 E75 E78 E8 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecosystems Services Ecuador ED7 (7% ethanol 93% diesel) ED95 education Education Series 3030 educational business private educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt El Salvador Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric car/Electric Vehicle (EV) Prices electric grid electricity electricity price electricity/power generation electricity/power transmission electrocatalysis electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels (e-fuels) electrofuels (e-fuels) prices electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) electrons Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants embargo eminent domain emissions emissions standards EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 EN 228 EN 590 EN228 (standard pump gasoline) end user end-of-life Endangered Species Act (ESA) Energy Bill energy cane energy consumption energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy prices energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine Development engine problems Engine/Fuel Co-optimization engineering England enhanced oil recovery (EOR) entrepreneur environment environmental impact study (EIS) environmental justice/socially inclusive environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) Environmentalists Enzymatic enzymatic conversion enzymatic depolymerization enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling Enzyme solicitation enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPACT (Energy Policy Act) Equatorial Guinea equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea erosion control EROWI (Energy Return on Water Invested) ESG (Environmental Social Governance) esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) etha ethane ethanol ethanol benefits ethanol blend wall ethanol blended diesel ED ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol emissions ethanol ether diesel fuel ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol to gas ethanol tolerance Ethanol-to-Gasoline (ETG) ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol2G Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethyl levulinate (EL) ethylbenzene ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) eutrophication executive order executive order--state externalities extremophiles f F Factor F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) Fair trade False Claims Act FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farmers farming farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Reserve Bank Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices feedstock storage feedstock terminal feedstock transportation Feedstocks fermentation ferry fertilizer fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SPK/A) Fischer-Tropsch/FT fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose Fixed Base Operator (FBO) flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleet turnover Fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) flight tests Flightpath flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste for forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil Foreign Policy forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources Forest Service forestry forklifts Formate fossil carbon fossil fuel Frace fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud free fatty acids (FFA) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) freight/cargo French French Guiana fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel fuel additives fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon gallium Gambia games gas prices gas tax/highway user fee gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gasoline-range hydrocarbons Gemany General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal German Germany Gerrmany Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane giant kelp Giant King Grass Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect Global South global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats gorse Governance practices) Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government resources government subsidies grain sorghum/milo grain speculators grains GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene graphite GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green bonds green chemistry Green Deal EU green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing Green Recovery green/black economy Greenland GREET Greenhouse Gases Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model Grenada gribble growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guerbet reaction Guinea Guinea Bissau Gulf states gulmohar Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP gypsum h Haiti Halophytes harvest site processing harvesting Hawai'i hay hazardous waste hazelnut HBIIP Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program HDCJ HDO-SAK (hydro deoxygenated synthetic aromatic kerosene) health health benefits health effects heat of combustion heat of vaporization heat-tolerance heather heating oil/fuel Heavy Duty Truck Rule heavy duty vehicles (HDV) hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 helicopters hemicellulace enzymes hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb hexanol HFO (Heavy Residual Fuel Oil) hibiscus high blend renewable fuels (HBRF) High Hydrogen Content Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HHC-SPK) High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Gasoline (HOG) high octane low carbon (HOLC) fuel High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project high sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) high-octane/low-carbon (HOLC) liquid fuels Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Hong Kong Honge tree nuts hops horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 HVO20 HVO30 Hybrid aircraft hybrid buses hybrid locomotive hybrid ships hybrids hydrocarbon fuels Hydrocarbon-Hydroprocesed Esters and Fatty Acids (HC-HEFA-SPK) hydrodeoxygenation hydrodiesel hydrofaction hydroformylation hydrogen aircraft hydrogen carrier hydrogen combustion engines hydrogen fuel cells hydrogen leaks hydrogen pipeline hydrogen price hydrogen pumps/fueling stations hydrogen tax credit hydrogen terminal Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Hydrogen/Renewable Hydrogen Price hydrogenase hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogenolysis hydropower Hydroprocessed fermented sugars to synthetic isoparaffins (HFS-SIP) hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal gasification hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrotreatment hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois Illiois illuppai ILUC (Indirect/Induced Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indian beech tree Indian grass Indiana indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial burners industrial ethanol industrial gases industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar infographic Infrastructure inhibitors innovation insecticide/pesticide insects insurance integrated biorefineries integrated food/energy systems intellectual property Inter-American Development Bank inter-crop interactive map intercropping internal combustion engine internal combustion engine/gasoline engine ban International international balance of payments International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) International Sustainability and Carbon Certification model(ISCC) International Trade International Trade Administration International Trade Commission Internships inulin invasive species Investing investment tax credit Invvesting ionic liquids Iowa IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iran Iraq Ireland iridium iron iron oxide IRS (Internal Revenue Service) IS 1460 ISO 8217 (marine distillate fuel standard) ISO 9000 isobutanol isobutanol price isobutanol pump price isobutene isobutylene isomerisation isooctane isooctene isopropanol Israel Italy Ivory Coast JAA jackfruit Jamaica jamelão Japan jatobá Jatropha Jersey Jerusalem artichoke jet jet A Jet A-1 jet B Jetfuel (Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)) Jimmy Carter Jobs Joint Office of Energy and Transportation jojoba Jordan JP-10 JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 juniper Just A MInute Just Transition jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kalanchoe kamani Kans grass Kansas Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati knotweed Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa kusum Kuwait Kygryzstan labels labor policy Labrador lactic acid lactose Lake County lamp oil land ownership land prices land rights land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy landfill methane Landfills landscape Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree leaf ant Lebanon lecithin legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena levulinic acid Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) light rail lignin Lignin Ethanol Oil (LEO) Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars lime Lipid liquefaction liquid liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels liquidation Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Biogas (LBG) pumps liquified biomethane (LBM) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louis Louisiana low c low carbon emissions low carbon octane standard (LCOS) Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel low sulfur fuel low sulfur marine fuel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg lysis M100 M15 M3 M50 ma macadamia macauba Macedonia machine learning machinery macororo Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali mallees Malta Malyasia mamona management changes mandates mangaba manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land marine algae Marine Corps Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) Marine Fuel Oil Marine Gas Oil (MGO) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel (SMF) price Marine/Maritime Bio and Renewable/Sustainable Fuel Terminal Marine/maritime renewable fuel terminal/bunkering market forces market share marketing markets/sales Mars Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute mass balance standard Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritania Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane leaks methane/biomethane methanization methanol fuel cells methanol price Methanol-to-Jet (MTJ-SPK) Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol methylbutenol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbial electrosynthesis microbiology microorganisms/microbes microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels milk permeate millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover mineralization minerals mining Minn Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molinia molybdenum MON (Motor Octane Number) Monaco Mongolia mongongo monitoring/measuring reporting verifiction (MRV) Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles motors MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 MOVES3 (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator model) Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed mvr Myanmar n-butanol n-butene nahar Namibia nano nano particles nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials naphtha/bionaphtha/renewable naphtha naphthene NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Environmental Policy Act National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oilheat Research Alliance National Park Service National Research Council National Science Foundation (NSF) national security National Security Council National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Native American tribes natural gas Natural Gas Act natural gas input natural gas prices natural gas vehicles natural gasoline Navy Nebraska neem negative carbon emissions neodymium Nepal net energy balance Netherlands Nevada New Brunswick new fuel approval New Guinea New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New South Wales New York New Zealand Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador next generation biofuels next generation vehicles NHRA drag racing Nicaragua nickel Niger Nigeria nipa sap nitrate leaching nitrates nitrogen Nitrogen fertiliser nitrogen starvation nitrous oxide (N2O) Niue NO2 noodles nopal North Africa North America North Carolina North Dakota North Korea Northeast northern catalpa Northern Ireland Northern Territory Northwest Territories Norwary Norway Nova Scotia NOx (nitrogen oxides) noxious weeds nuclear Nunavut nut shells nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition oak oat hulls oat straw oats Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Science Technology and Policy (OSTP) Offices of Inspector Generals offtake agreements Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil p oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes oil/gas terminals Oils Oklahoma olefins oligomerization olive cake olive oil olive pits olive water olives Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm ammonia production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing on-site hydrogen production one p one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontaio Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond opportunity zones optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) osage orange OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course owa oxygen oxygenate ozone Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm trunk sap palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Indonesia Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay Paris Agreement parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peach shell peaches peak oil peak oil demand peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin peela kaner pellet pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose pequi perennial grains perennial grasses Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests pet food petition petroleum pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photoelectrocatalysis photoelectrochemical photolysis photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot pilot scale pine pine beetle pine needles pine nut pineapple pinion Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin (PHMSA) pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Flex Fuel Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poand podcasts Poland poli Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyethylene polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter/waste power power-to-x/gas/liquid prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating Propane/Biopropane/Renewable Propane propane/renewable propane pumps propanol property insurance propylene protectionism protein protests proton exchange membrane (PEM) public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps/fueling station pungam Punnai tree pyrolysis pyrolytic liquefaction Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week r R Factor R100/RD100 R33 R5 R95B5/RD95B5 R99/RD99 rabbits race radiata pine radish leaves Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rain tree rainforest ranchers RAND rare earth metal/critical minerals RD10 RD100 RD20 RD3 RD30 RD50 RD55 RD80 RD80B20 RD99 reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) refineries reforestation Reformate regenerative braking regenerative farming Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) Regulated Emissions regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit renewable diesel pipelines Renewable Diesel Production renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/HVO/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED/RED II/RED III) Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) renewable volume obligation (RVO) REnova RenovaBio replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program Republic of Congo repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion resurrection grass retail retrofit return on investment Reverse Water-gas Shift RFI (Request for Information) RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island rhododendron Ricardo rice rice bran rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice price rice straw/paddy straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA (Ribonucleic acid) RNG tax credit roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rosin rotation crops royalties RP-1 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rubber seeds rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Rural Renewable Energy Pilot Program rushes Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda ry rye Rye grass rye straw s saccharification SAF pipeline SAF10 SAF30 SAF40 Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago pond weed SAIC sal tree Salicornia salt water salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar Samoa Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy scooters Scotland scum sea level rise seaports seashore mallow seawater seaweed cultivation Seaweed/Macroalgae second-generation biofuel income tax credit Section 526 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks seed-to-wheel Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale shale gas shale oil shark oil sheep shellfish shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silage silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup silver silver maple simarouba Singapore Singpore sisal SK slash Slovakia Slovakia/Slovak Republic Slovenia sludge Small Business Administration Small Business Innovatin Research (SBIR) small engines small refinery exemption (SRE) smog smokestack soap soapstock Social social benefit investing social cost social value social venture Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) soi soil soil amendments soil carbon soil health soil microbial biomass solar energy solar energy-to-chemical conversion solar fuel solar thermochemical hydrogen (STCH) solaris solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Solomon Islands Solutions solvent liquefaction Somalia soot sorghum sorghum oil sorghum stover South Africa South America South Australia South Carolina South Dakota South Korea South Pacific South Sudan Southeast Asia Southern Africa Soviet Union SOx (Sulfur oxides) soy meal soybean prices soybeans Spain spartina specifications Spekboom Spent Bleaching Earth Oil (SBEO) sprawl spruce Sri Lanka Stakeholders standards start-up State Department Statistics steam explosion steam methane reformation steam reformation steel stevia stillage storage tanks Straight (pure) Vegetable Oil (SVO or PVO) stranded assets Strategic Bioenergy Reserve STrategiv Petroleum Reserve straw students su sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar Sugar Beets/Energy Beets Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugar standards sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel sugarcane sugarcane prices sugarcane straw sugars sugars-to-fats sulfur Sumatra sunflower sunflower stalks supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Surface Transportation Board Suriname Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum sweetgum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas (synthesis gas) syngas/gas fermentation SYNHH synthesised aromatic kerosene (SAK) synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic kerosene synthetic liquified gas (SLG) synthetic methane/e-methane synthetic natural gas Syria Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree tamanu/nyamplung Tamarix tank cars tank-to-wheel tanker trucks tankers Tanzania tar sands tariffs taro Tasmania tax benefit tax credits tax incentives tax parity tax policy taxes tea teach teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training tech transfer technical course Technical Readiness Levels techno-economic analysis technology transfer telephone utility poles Tennessee termites terpenes terrestrial carbon testing Texas textbook Thailand theft therapeutics Thermal catalytic depolymerization (TCD) thermal deoxygenation thermocatalytic conversion thermochemical conversion thermochemical liquefaction Tibet Tier 3 Tier 4 tilapia tillage Timor-Leste tires tobacco tobacco tree Togo Tokyo toluene Tonga tool Toronto torrefaction totai Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) trade trade dispute/discrimination trade group trade organization Trade Policy trade secrets training trains transesterification transgenics transition Transportation Fuels Policy Transportation Fuels Policy--Municipal Transportation Fuels Policy--State Transportation Policy travel policy Treasury Department trees Trinidad and Tobago triticale trucks tubers tugboats tung tunicate Tunisia Tunsia Turkey U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Uganda UK (United Kingdom) UK Emission Trade Scheme (UK ETS) Ukraine Ukriane UL (Underwriters Laboratory) ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel) Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO) underground storage tanks (UST) UNESCO UNIDO (United National Industrial Development Organization) United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Nations (UN) United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) United States Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 uranium urban sprawl urbanization Uruguay US Agency for International Development (USAID) US Army US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission USAC USAID USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used motor oil used railroad ties ustain Utah utilities utility model Uzbekistan value chain Value Stack vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils vehicles miles traveled (VMT) Velocys Venezuela Vermont vetiver Victoria video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virgin Islands. virgin oils Virginia viruses vlsfo VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volatile fatty acids (VFA) volunteers VTOL (vertical take-off and landing aircraft) Vulcanol w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel wastewater water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth water policy water pollution water quality water treatment water vapor watermeal watermelon wax weather well-to-wheel West Africa West Coast West Java West Virginia Western Australia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do wheat wheat bran wheat fiber wheat prices wheat straw wheatgrass whey whisky white grease White House wildlife habitat willow wind energy wine wastage/grape marc winter crops Wisconsin Wisdonsin women Wood woody biomass World Bank World Trade Organization (WTO) Wyoming XTL xylan xylene xylose yard waste yeast yellow grease yellowhorn tree Yemen Yields Yukon Zambia Zanzibar zein zeolites Zimbabwe zinc zoning

© 2008-2023 Copyright Advanced BioFuels USA. All Rights reserved.