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Renewable Fuel Standard Program: Standards for 2018 and Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2019; Availability of Supplemental Information and Request for Further Comment (Deadline October 19, 2017)

Argentina, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Agency, Federal Litigation, Federal Regulation, Indonesia, Opinions, Policy
October 4, 2017

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Federal Register)  This document provides additional data and an opportunity to comment on that data and potential options for reductions in the 2018 biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel volumes, and/or the 2019 biomass-based diesel volume under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program. In a July 21, 2017 notice of proposed rulemaking, the EPA proposed certain reductions in the statutory volume targets for advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel for 2018, and requested comment on further reductions based on various considerations. This document presents additional data on production, imports and cost of renewable fuel and several options for how we may consider such data in establishing the final volume requirements using the waiver authorities provided by the statute.

Comments must be received on or before October 19, 2017.

Entities potentially affected by the July 21, 2017 proposed rule [1(the July proposal), should it become final, are those involved with the production, distribution, and sale of transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, renewable diesel, and biogas.

On July 21, 2017, EPA proposed reductions in the statutory volume targets for advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel using the cellulosic waiver authority in Clean Air Act (CAA) section 211(o)(7)(D).[2We proposed using the maximum reduction permitted under that authority (considering the proposed cellulosic volume requirement) to reduce the 2018 volume targets for advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel to 4.24 and 19.24 billion gallons, respectively, in part by placing a greater emphasis on cost considerations than we have in the past. We requested comment on possible additional reductions in advanced biofuel (with corresponding reductions in total renewable fuel) using the general waiver authority in CAA section 211(o)(7)(A) or other authorities. Similarly, we requested comment on whether EPA should, in the final rule, reduce the 2019 volume requirement for biomass-based diesel (BBD) [3to a level below the proposed level of 2.1 billion gallons.[4]

We did not specifically request comment in the proposed rule on a possible reduction of the 2018 volume requirement for BBD, which was set at 2.1 billion gallons in 2016.[5We did, however, request comment on the use of the general waiver authority or other authorities to reduce the advanced biofuel requirement for 2018, and BBD is not only nested within advanced biofuel but is also the predominant source of advanced biofuel. Therefore, considerations leading to a reduction of the advanced biofuel volume may also be relevant in reducing the 2018 BBD volume requirement. In this document we are providing additional information on renewable fuel costs and supply as well as possible options for the exercise of our waiver authorities based on these and other considerations.

We note that the statute also provides EPA the authority to waive a portion of the BBD standard if there is a significant renewable feedstock disruption or other market circumstance that would make the price of biomass-based diesel fuel increase significantly, and to make related reductions in the advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel volume requirements.[6In light of recent developments, described below, we seek comment on whether it would be appropriate to use this waiver authority in the final rule.

III. Cost and Supply of Advanced Biofuel

As EPA indicated in the July proposal, the cost of advanced biofuels is high on a per gallon basis compared to the petroleum fuels they replace. The expiration of the biodiesel tax credit in the U.S. at the end of 2016 has already impacted the effective price of biodiesel to blenders, as well as the price of biodiesel blends to consumers. While it does not appear that the expiration of the tax credit has had a direct impact on the price of unblended biodiesel (B100) in 2017, we expect that the expiration of the tax credit has had a significant impact on the effective price of biodiesel sold to blenders. This is because the biodiesel tax credit that expired at the end of 2016 was received by biodiesel blenders, rather than biodiesel producers. The price of biodiesel and EPA’s estimated effective price of biodiesel to blenders (net the $1/gallon tax credit when applicable) from January 2016 through August 2017 are shown in Figure III-1 below.[7We also expect the price of biodiesel used in the U.S. could increase further following a recent preliminary determination by the Department of Commerce that it would be appropriate to place countervailing duties of 41% to 68% on imports of biodiesel from Argentina and Indonesia.[8Cash deposits against preliminary duties are currently being collected, potentially impacting prices prior to a final determination. Such duties could also affect import volumes as pointed out in a recent letter from the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM).[9A final decision from the Department of Commerce and the International Trade Commission, which could include final countervailing duty orders, is scheduled for December 29, 2017.

The level of imports and exports can also affect the price of renewable fuel used in the U.S., and both imports and export volumes have varied considerably over the last several years. Based on data collected on RIN generation and retirement from the EPA-Moderated Transaction System (EMTS), we have determined gross domestic production and import and export volumes for advanced biofuels and biomass-based diesel for the years 2013 through 2016.[10Further details can be found in a memorandum to the docket.[11]

Table III-1—Supply of Advanced Biofuel

[million RINs]

  2013 2014 2015 2016
Gross domestic production 2,278 2,308 2,327 3,023
Imports 911 479 710 1,177
Exports 128 134 143 202

Table III-2—Supply of Biomass-Based Diesel

[million RINs]

  2013 2014 2015 2016
Gross domestic production 2,162 2,196 2,155 2,791
Imports 476 415 596 1,121
Exports 125 134 143 202

Commenters raised concerns that along with affecting prices of renewable fuels in the U.S., imports may also have an impact on the energy independence and security status of the U.S.[12Increasing the energy independence and security of the U.S. is one of the stated goals in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007, and the RFS program’s standards affect the volumes of both domestic production and imports. EPA requests comment on whether it is appropriate to consider possible impacts of these volumes on U.S. energy independence and security in setting the applicable standards under the RFS program, insofar as they impact those factors that we are permitted to consider and evaluate under the available waiver authorities, and/or the standard-setting authority for BBD.

EPA remains concerned about the high cost of advanced biofuels. As a result, and in light of the pending action on countervailing duties on imported biodiesel from Argentina and Indonesia which we believe could, if finalized, further increase the cost and/or decrease the supply of advanced biofuel in the U.S., we believe it is appropriate to request further comment on appropriate ways to determine the applicable volume requirements for 2018, and the BBD volume requirement for 2019.

IV. Possible Further Reductions of 2018 Volume Requirements

A. General Waiver Authority

Section 211(o)(7)(A) of the CAA provides that EPA, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Energy, may waive the applicable volumes specified in the Act in whole or in part based on a petition by one or more States, by any person subject to the requirements of the Act, or by the EPA Administrator on his own motion. Such a waiver must be based on a determination by the Administrator, after public notice and opportunity for comment that: (1) Implementation of the requirement would severely harm the economy or the environment of a State, a region or the United States, or (2) there is an inadequate domestic supply. We sought comment on the possible use of the general waiver authority in the proposal, and here are once again seeking comment in light of the data provided in Section III of this document and a possible revised interpretation of the inadequate domestic supply waiver authority, as discussed below. We also solicit further comment on our use of the general waiver authority under a determination of either inadequate domestic supply or severe economic harm to reduce volumes of renewable fuel.

1. INADEQUATE DOMESTIC SUPPLY

In the annual rule establishing the 2014-2016 renewable fuel standards, we determined that there would be an “inadequate domestic supply” of renewable fuel to consumers in 2016, and so exercised the general waiver authority to reduce volumes to levels we believed could be supplied.[13The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit recently ruled in a lawsuit challenging that rule that EPA improperly focused on supply of renewable fuel to consumers, and that the statue instead requires a “supply-side” assessment of the volumes of renewable fuel that can be supplied to refiners, importers and blenders. Americans for Clean Energy (“ACE”) v. EPA, 864 F.3d 691 (2017). Other components of EPA’s interpretation of “inadequate domestic supply” were either upheld by the court in ACE (e.g., EPA’s interpretation that carryover RINs are not part of the “supply” for purposes of this waiver authority) or were not challenged (e.g., EPA’s consideration of biofuel imports as part of the domestic supply). In response to the proposed 2018 standards, we received comments suggesting that EPA should interpret the undefined term “domestic” in “inadequate domestic supply” to account for only volumes of renewable fuel that are produced domestically.[14As we understand this suggestion, in determining the adequacy of supply, EPA would consider only whether there was an adequate supply of domestically produced volumes to satisfy the statutory volume targets. If there were not, EPA would be authorized to reduce the statutory Start Printed Page 46178applicable volumes. Having made the threshold finding that there was an inadequate domestic supply, EPA could consider the availability of imports as one factor among others in determining whether to exercise its discretion to use the waiver authority.

Some commenters suggested that this interpretation would rely on common dictionary definitions of “domestic,” as meaning “of, or relating to, or originating within a country and especially one’s own country,” [15or “[o]f or pertaining to one’s own country or nation; not foreign, internal, inland, `home.’” [16]Commenters suggested that this interpretation could lead to volume requirements providing greater stability and certainty for obligated parties; they noted the increasing uncertainty in international trade markets for biofuels, including the potential for disruptions in supply and duties being placed on these biofuels. These commenters suggested that by basing the volume requirements on the projected domestic supply of biofuels, EPA could set volume requirements that would better ensure the availability of renewable fuel for compliance.[17]

We note that this interpretation of the statutory phrase “inadequate domestic supply,” would not in any way limit the use of qualifying imported biofuel by obligated parties to ultimately comply with the annual percentage standards. Imported and domestically produced biofuels would still have the same opportunities to compete in the U.S. market as they do now. The interpretation would only affect the way in which EPA calculates the volumes used to set the percentage standards with which obligated parties must comply, by allowing EPA to consider the supply of domestically produced biofuels in deciding whether to use the general waiver authority. Once the standards were established, however, qualifying imported renewable fuel could still be used to comply with the established standards, exactly as it is currently.

We request comment on whether this interpretation would comply with the Court’s direction in ACE that we only consider “supply-side factors” in determining whether there is an inadequate domestic supply. Although the Court in ACE explained that EPA “may” or is “authorized” to consider renewable fuel imports as part of a supply-side assessment under this waiver authority,[18we note that these statements were made in the context of comparing supply-side considerations to demand-side considerations, and finding EPA’s demand-side consideration to be impermissible. Thus, the court’s statements may indicate the scope of permissible, but not required, interpretations, and not foreclose further consideration by EPA of the scope of appropriate supply-side considerations in light of the statute and the court’s decision.[19]

We believe there are a number of reasons why this interpretation of the phrase “inadequate domestic supply” may be appropriate. First, as noted by commenters, this interpretation may be consistent with a straightforward reading of the term “domestic supply” as referring to volumes of domestically-produced renewable fuels. Second, as also noted by commenters, basing EPA’s use of the general waiver authority on domestic supply only may better meet the energy independence and security purposes of EISA. Third, as EPA has noted in past rulemakings,[20it is extremely difficult to project volumes that can be made available in the U.S. through imports, and we believe that in light of this substantial uncertainty, that EPA could reasonably interpret the statute as allowing it the discretion to waive statutory applicable volumes on the basis of a more certain assessment of the likely supply of domestically-produced fuels.

We invite comment on this possible interpretation of the term “inadequate domestic supply,” and the possibility of applying this interpretation to reduce the final 2018 advanced biofuel volume requirement beyond the level proposed. In Section III of this document we provide data on the domestic production of advanced biofuels for 2013 through 2016. We solicit comment on data and methodologies we should use for estimating the 2018 supply of domestically-produced BBD and other advanced biofuels if we adopt this interpretation. We also invite comment on the potential impact on imports and the domestic production of advanced biofuel if EPA were to further reduce the proposed applicable volume of advanced biofuel on the basis of an interpretation of the term “inadequate domestic supply” as discussed in this section. We also request comment on whether and how EPA should consider the potential level of imports in determining whether to use its discretionary general waiver authority to reduce the required volume requirements should this interpretation be adopted.

Considering the nested nature of the standards, we also seek comment on the appropriateness of (and possible basis for) providing a reduction in the total renewable fuel applicable volume requirement commensurate with any reduction in the advanced biofuel volume requirement that may be finalized based on a reinterpretation of the inadequate domestic supply waiver authority as discussed in this section. We note that absent a commensurate reduction, the implied volume for conventional biofuels (i.e., the difference between advanced and total volumes), would exceed the 15 billion gallon implied cap that can be discerned from the statutory tables. We note that both the cellulosic waiver authority in CAA section 211(o)(7)(D) and the BBD waiver authority in section 211(o)(7)(E) stipulate that when nested cellulosic or BBD volumes, respectively, are waived under these authorities, that reductions in the advanced and total renewable fuel volume requirements are authorized. Similarly, due to the nested nature of the standards, advanced biofuel can be used to meet the total renewable fuel requirement. This program structure, established in EISA, suggests that, in general, a reduction in a nested renewable fuel type can justify a corresponding reduction in the other renewable fuel standard or standards that the fuel can also be used to meet. We seek comment on the extent to which EPA should interpret the inadequate domestic supply waiver authority in CAA section 211(o)(7)(A) as also authorizing EPA to make a commensurate reduction in total renewable fuel volumes when waiving advanced biofuel volumes on the basis of inadequate domestic supply.

2. SEVERE ECONOMIC HARM

Section 211(o)(7)(A)(1) of the CAA provides that EPA may waive the applicable volume based on a determination that implementation of the requirement would severely harm the economy or environment of a State, a region, or the United States. We received comments from several Start Printed Page 46179stakeholders suggesting that EPA should reduce volumes on the basis of severe economic harm.[21We note that EPA has previously expressed an interpretation of the severe economic harm waiver in denying petitions to exercise the waiver.[22We solicit comment on the appropriateness of this interpretation, as well as rationales and data to support approaches for identifying volumes that would be associated with severe economic harm, or other means of implementing this waiver authority consistent with the statutory provision. In particular, we seek input on whether there is information indicating that severe economic harm is occurring under current standards or would occur for any volume requirement that could be established in the current rulemaking [23and, if so, whether and how volumes should be adjusted to address such harm.

B. Biomass-Based Diesel Waiver Authority

CAA section 211(o)(7)(E)(ii) provides that if EPA determines that there is a significant renewable feedstock disruption or other market circumstance that would make the price of BBD increase significantly, EPA shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, and the Secretary of Agriculture, issue an order to reduce, for up to a 60-day period, the annual volume requirement for BBD by an appropriate quantity that does not exceed 15 percent. The statute also stipulates that EPA is authorized to reduce applicable volumes of advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel by the same or a lesser volume than the reduction in BBD. Also, the statute provides that EPA may provide additional 60-day waivers, with an appropriate additional reduction in the annual requirement of up to 15%, if EPA determines that the feedstock disruptions or circumstances warranting the initial waiver are continuing.

We note that the renewable fuels standards apply on an annual basis and compliance is determined three months after the end of the year. Waiving the standard for 60 days without adjusting the annual standard would provide no relief. We thus solicit comment on whether it would be appropriate to implement the provision by waiving the annual standard (in circumstances where use of the provision is authorized) by a volume that does not exceed 15%. Alternatively, it may be possible to implement the provision by allowing each refiner or importer to subtract from its compliance obligation calculations an amount of gasoline and diesel produced or imported during a specific 60-day period, subject to a 15% limitation on the reduction in their annual RVO. We note that the statute also allows for an extension of any initial waiver for additional 60-day periods if the feedstock disruption or other market circumstance persists. We invite comment on how to interpret and implement the BBD waiver provision consistent with the text and goals of the Act.

As described in Section III of this action, the price of biodiesel, particularly advanced biodiesel, has been impacted by the expiration of the federal tax credit at the end of 2016 and may be expected to be impacted further by the imposition of new duties on imports of biodiesel from Argentina and Indonesia.[24We seek comment on the likely result of these and any other factors on biodiesel prices, and the extent to which any expected price increases should be considered “significant” for purposes of the waiver authority in CAA section 211(o)(7)(E)(ii). We also seek comment on whether the relevant biodiesel prices are those paid by refiners, importers and blenders,[25and if so whether it is appropriate to consider the increase in the “effective price” of biomass-based diesel (net of any tax credit) to blenders for these purposes. We note that the 2018 BBD volume requirement was established by rule in 2016 at 2.1 billion gallons.[26Therefore, if EPA were to make the appropriate findings under the statute, CAA section 211(o)(7)(E)(ii) would authorize an initial waiver of up to 315 million gallons (15% as specified in the statute) of the 2018 applicable volume requirement of 2.1 billion gallon (resulting in an applicable volume as low as 1.79 billion gallons), with additional incremental reductions possible in 60 day intervals if the circumstances warranted.[27]

This statutory provision also indicates that EPA may reduce the applicable volume of renewable fuel and advanced biofuels requirement by the same or a lesser volume as the reduction in the BBD volume requirement. Were we to exercise this BBD waiver authority, we believe it would be appropriate to lower the advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel volumes by the same amount, since the predominant form of advanced biofuel is BBD and a reduction in the BBD volume requirement may have little or no impact on BBD prices if there is no commensurate reduction in advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel volumes. If the BBD volume requirement were to be reduced by 315 million gallons, an equivalent reduction in advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel would be 473 million ethanol equivalent RINs.[28This would bring the 2018 advanced biofuel volume requirement down from the proposed level of 4.24 billion gallons to 3.77 billion gallons and the 2018 total renewable fuel volume requirement from the proposed level of 19.24 billion gallons to 18.77 billion gallons.[29]

We request comment on the possible use of the waiver authority provided in CAA section 211(o)(7)(E)(ii) to reduce the 2018 volume requirement for BBD by as much as 315 million gallons, and to concurrently reduce the advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel volume requirements by as much as 473 million gallons. In particular, we seek data on recent BBD price increases and expectations for additional price increases, and we seek comment on the extent to which these price increases should be considered `significant” for purposes of the CAA section 211(o)(7)(E)(ii) waiver authority and the extent of a waiver (up to 15%) that would be necessary to address or avoid a significant price increase.

V. Consideration of Possible Reductions in the Biomass-Based Diesel Volume Requirement for 2019

The statute establishes applicable volume targets for BBD only through 2012. For years after those for which Start Printed Page 46180volumes are specified in the statute, EPA is required under CAA section 211(o)(2)(B)(ii) to determine the applicable volume of BBD, in coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture, based on a review of implementation of the program during calendar years for which the statute specifies the volumes and an analysis of the following factors:

1. The impact of the production and use of renewable fuels on the environment, including on air quality, climate change, conversion of wetlands, ecosystems, wildlife habitat, water quality, and water supply;

2. The impact of renewable fuels on the energy security of the United States;

3. The expected annual rate of future commercial production of renewable fuels, including advanced biofuels in each category (cellulosic biofuel and BBD);

4. The impact of renewable fuels on the infrastructure of the United States, including deliverability of materials, goods, and products other than renewable fuel, and the sufficiency of infrastructure to deliver and use renewable fuel;

5. The impact of the use of renewable fuels on the cost to consumers of transportation fuel and on the cost to transport goods; and

6. The impact of the use of renewable fuels on other factors, including job creation, the price and supply of agricultural commodities, rural economic development, and food prices.

The statute also specifies that the volume requirement for BBD cannot be less than the applicable volume specified in the statute for calendar year 2012, which is 1.0 billion gallons. The statute does not, however, establish any other numeric criteria, or specify how EPA should weigh the importance of the often competing factors, and the overarching goals of the statute when EPA sets the applicable volumes of BBD in years after those for which the statute specifies such volumes. In the period 2013-2022, the statute specifies increasing applicable volumes of cellulosic biofuel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel, but does not do so for BBD, instead specifying only a 1.0 billion gallon minimum and factors that EPA must evaluate in determining the volume requirement that EPA is to set.

We received comments on our July proposal requesting that EPA reduce the proposed applicable volume of BBD for 2019 due to the large volume of imported biodiesel and renewable diesel in recent years (See Table 2 for import volumes of BBD),[30which could affect our analysis of several of the factors listed above. Additionally, on August 28, 2017, the Department of Commerce published a preliminary determination that countervailing subsidies are being provided to producers and/or exporters of biodiesel from Argentina and Indonesia, and began requiring cash deposits equal to the subsidy rates.[31These subsidies ranged from 50%-64% for biodiesel from Argentina and 41%-68% for biodiesel from Indonesia.[32If finalized, the determination would have a direct impact on the cost of biodiesel imported from these countries, and could ultimately lead to increased cost to consumers of transportation fuel and the cost to transport goods, and/or could lead to reduced imports from these countries and potentially more limited supplies in the United States.

In our proposed assessment of the statutory factors listed above, we noted that the proposed BBD standard for 2019, if finalized, would not likely impact the advanced biodiesel and renewable diesel supply to the U.S. market. Instead, the higher advanced biofuel volume requirement would be the determinant, and the market would supply more advanced biodiesel and renewable diesel than the BBD standard would require. We further noted in the July proposal our expectation that the historic trend in establishing the advanced volume requirements (i.e., annual increases) would continue into 2019, and the current production levels and costs for different types of advanced biofuel led us to believe that the same volume of BBD would likely be produced and imported to satisfy the anticipated 2019 advanced biofuel standard regardless of the applicable volume of BBD we ultimately required for purposes of the 2019 BBD standard. Any differences in the production and import of BBD were expected to be marginal and uncertain as BBD competes with other advanced biofuels in meeting the 2019 advanced biofuel volume. We proposed a level that we reasoned would provide a level of guaranteed support to the BBD industry, while also ensuring an opportunity under the advanced standard for the further development and marketing of non-BBD advanced biofuels that might have superior environmental characteristics or cost implications. As noted above, we are now also soliciting comment on options for reducing the 2018 advanced biofuel volume requirement. If we determine that it is appropriate to use one of the waiver authorities discussed above to reduce the required volume of advanced biofuel in 2018, it is possible that similar considerations would lead us to provide reductions of the 2019 advanced biofuel volume requirement for similar reasons. A lower required volume of advanced biofuel in 2019 could result in the proposed required volume of BBD for 2019 (2.1 billion gallons or 3.15 billion ethanol-equivalent RINs) driving demand for advanced biodiesel and renewable diesel, and could provide insufficient room under the advanced standard for non-BBD advanced biofuels to compete for market share within the advanced biofuel category and an inappropriate level of guaranteed support to the BBD industry.

In addition to these considerations, we seek comment on the extent to which the successful BBD industry requires the proposed level of guaranteed support, or if the advanced standard together with a significantly lower BBD standard would be sufficient for that purpose while advancing the goals of energy independence and security by providing additional encouragement for the growth of other types of advanced biofuels. 

We request comment on how EPA should take into consideration the costs of biodiesel and the factors that influence those costs, together with other relevant factors discussed above or which commenters may wish to bring to our attention, in setting the appropriate required volume of BBD for 2019. We also request comment on what the volume requirement should be, noting that it could be equal to or greater than the statutory minimum of 1.0 billion gallons.    READ MORE

Biofuel groups implore Trump to stop EPA from harming US workers  (Biodiesel Magazine)

US biofuel groups ask Trump to rein in EPA on changes to blending mandate (Platts)

Nebraska Ethanol Board Official Concerned about RIN Proposal (WNAX; includes AUDIO)

EPA Proposes Further Cuts in Biofuels Under RFS (Energy.AgWired.com)

EPA blindsides biodiesel industry with ‘outrageous’ proposed cuts (Biodiesel Magazine)

Iowa Biodiesel Board urges Trump to stop EPA from gutting RFS (Biodiesel Magazine)

EPA, ethanol industry clash over potential changes to Renewable Fuel Standard program (Washington Times)

Biofuel groups ask Trump to continue to grow the RFS (Biomass Magazine)

Biofuel Groups Urge Trump to Support RFS (National Corn Growers Association)

Skor responds to reports EPA may change policy on RINs, exports (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

NBB ON PROPOSED BIODIESEL CUTS: DIFFERENT PRESIDENT, SAME EPA (Brownfield Ag News)

RINs tumble after US EPA says weighing 2018 biofuels blending mandate cut (Platts)

EPA Is Said to Weigh Ethanol Rule Change That Could Aid Icahn (Bloomberg)

EPA opens comment period on proposal to reduce 2018, 2019 RVOs (Biomass Magazine)

US biodiesel industry calls for Trump to act on EPA (Biofuels International)

EPA opens comment period on proposal to reduce 2018, 2019 RVOs (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

Senators urge Pruitt to issue strong 2018 RFS RVOs (Ethanol Producer Magazine)

Renewable fuel regulation doesn’t put ‘America First (Washington Examiner; includes VIDEO)

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Cellulosic Tax Credit cellulosic waiver credit cement Central African Republic Central America Certificate Program certification certification fuels cetane Chad change in soil condition charging stations Chesapeake Bay chicken feathers chickens Chile China chitin CIA circular economy citrus citrus greening disease Citrus Peel Clean Air Act (CAA) clean diesel Clean Power Plan (CPP) climate change Climate Change Adaptation climate change effects climate change mitigation climate legislation climate smart agriculture closed-loop system Clostridium thermocellum cloud point clover CNG Conversion kit co co-generation co-location co-operative Co-op Extension co-processing co-products CO2 Sequestration coal Coal and Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) coastal habitat conservation coastal hay Coast Guard cobalt cock's foot cocoa Coconut coffee coffee cherries coffee grounds coffee pulp cold-tolerance cold flow college/university Colombia Colorado Columbia combined heat and power (CHP) Comment Request commercial flights commercialization commissioning Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) commodity trading common reed Community activity community college Community involvement community scale Community Wood Energy Program competition compliance compost Compressed Natural Gas (CNG / R-CNG) compression-ignition engine compression ratios computer simulation concrete condensate Congo Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Connecticut Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) construction and demolition waste/debris consumer education contamination contest contrails conversion technology cooking fuel cook stoves cooperatives COP21 COP22 COP23 COP24 copper coppice cordgrass corn-based products corn/maize corn bran Corn cobs corn ethanol corn fiber corn growers corn harvest corn kernel corn meal corn oil corn oil/distillers corn oil (DCO) corn prices corn stalks corn stover corn supply corn surplus Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards corporate social responsibility corrosion corruption CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) cosmetics Costa Rica cotton cotton seed hulls cotton seed oil cottonseed oil cotton stalk cottonwood Council on Environmental Quality cover crops cow rumen cracking Crambe crimes Croatia crop crop insurance cropland croton crowdfunding crude oil Cuba cup plant currency/foreign exchange policy curriculum cutworm caterpillars cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) cylindro Cyprus Czech Republic d d-3 D-3 (cellulosic) RINs D-4 (bio-based diesel) RINs D-5 (advanced biofuel) RINs D-6 (renewable fuel) RINs D-7 RINs (Cellulosic Diesel) D-8 (proposed) RINs dairy waste dandelion DARPA date palm date palm pits Dates DC DDGS (distiller’s dried grains with solubles) dead zone decanol decision-support tool deep water drilling Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Defense Production Act deficit definitions deforestation defossilization Delaware DeltaWing demonstration scale/unit Denmark densify density Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Commerce Department of Defense (DOD) Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Department of Labor Department of the Interior Department of Transportation (DOT) depolymerization depots dextrose diatoms diesel diesel-range hydrocarbons diesel-to-biodiesel conversion diesel fuel blendstock diesel prices diethyl ether digest Digital Biology dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment DIN 51605 DIN EN 15376 (Ethanol blending component) direct-to-fuel directed evolution direct injection Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Conversion (DSHC) dispense distillation distilled biodiesel distributed/centralized distribution distribution capacity distribution waiver divers diversification divestment DME (dimethyl ether) Dominica Dominican Republic double cropping Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drop-in biofuels/hydrocarbons drought drought-resistant drought tolerant dual cropping Dubai duckweed e E. coli E0 E0 price E1 E2 E3 E5 E5 price E6 E7 E8 E10 E10 price E12 E15 E15 price E15 pumps E20 E20 price E20 pumps E22 E25 E25 pumps E27 E30 E30 capable E30 certification fuel E30 optimized E30 price E30 pumps E35 E40 E50 E55 E80 E85 E85 conversion kit E85 optimized engines E85 price E85 pumps E90 E92 E95 E97 E98 E100 E100 conversion kit earthquakes East Africa Eastern Europe economic development Economic Development Administration economic modeling economic policy economics Ecuador ED95 education educational tour EERE efficiency Egypt Electric aircraft Electric Car/Electric Vehicle (EV) electric grid electricity electricity/power generation electricity price electrochemical electrochemical cell electrofuels electrolysis electrolytic cation exchange electromethanogenesis (ME) Elephant grass/Napier grass elephants El Salvador embargo emissions emissions standards EN 228 EN 590 EN 15751 EN 15940 EN 16709 end-of-life end user Energy Bill energy cane energy crops energy density energy dominance energy grasses energy independence Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) Energy Information Administration (US EIA) energy law energy policy energy reserves Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) energy security Energy Security Trust energy storage enforcement engine Engine/Fuel Co-optimization Engine Development engineering engine problems England entrepreneur environment Environmentalists environmental justice environmental policy Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) enzymatic conversion enzymatic hydrolysis enzyme production enzyme recycling enzymes Enzyme solicitation EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) equipment eRINs/electric pathway Eritrea EROEI erosion control EROWI esterification Estonia ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) ethane ethanol ethanol/bioethano ethanol/bioethanol ethanol/methanol synthesis ethanol benefits ethanol blends/ethanol flex fuels ethanol blend wall ethanol emissions ethanol fire ethanol fuel cells ethanol hybrid ethanol pipeline ethanol prices ethanol production ethanol pumps ethanol tax ethanol terminal ethanol tolerance Ethiopia Ethiopian mustard ethylene ets eucalyptus Euglena European Emissions Trading System (ETS) European Union (EU) Export externalities extremophiles F-24 F-34 F-76 (Marine Diesel) F-T FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Farm Bill Farm Bureau farm equipment farmers farming farm policy Farm to Fleet Farm to Fly farnesane farnesene Fats fecal sludge Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) federal land Federal Railroad Administration Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) feed Feed In Tariffs (FIT) feed prices Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers feedstock logistics feedstock material feedstock prices Feedstocks feedstock storage feedstock transportation fermentation ferry fertilizer F Factor fiber Fiji Financing Finland Fischer-Tropsch/FT Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) fish feed fish oil fish waste fit for purpose flameleaf sumac flavors flax fleets fleshings flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) Flightpath flight tests flixweed/tansy/herb-Sophia flood-prone soil Florida flue gas FOG (Fats/Oils/Grease) follow-the-crop food food and Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and fuel food policy food prices food processing waste food safety food security food vs biomaterials/bioplastics food vs fuel food waste forage forage sorghum forecasts foreign oil forest Forest Biomass for Energy forest biotechnology forest residue/waste Forest resources forestry Forest Service fossil carbon fossil fuel fracking fractionation fragrance France franchise fraud Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) free fatty acids (FFA) fructose fruit FT-SKA fuel additives fuel cells fuel economy fuel efficiency fuel injection fuel mixtures fuel molecules fuel oil fuel performance fuel prices Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) fuel registration Fuel Retailers fuel testing fuel transportation fuel use fuel wholesaler fully burdened cost fund funding fungus/fungi Furanics furfural fusel oils Future Farmers of America (FFA) Gabon Gambia gas-to-liquid (GTL) gasification gasoline gasoline-range hydrocarbons gasoline baseline gasoline consumption gasoline mandate gasoline markets gasoline price gas prices gas tax/highway user fee General Services Administration general waiver authority generators genetically engineered yeast cells genetically enhanced microbes genetically modified organism (GMO) genome Georgia Georgia (country) geothermal Germany Gerogia Ghana GHG (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) giant cane Giant Reed/Arundo GIS glass tubing gliricidia sepium global rebound effect global warming global warming potential glucose glycerin glycerin standards glycerol goats Government Accountability Office (GAO) government investment government subsidies grains grain sorghum/milo grain speculators GRAND-AM grants grants-local grants-state grapefruit grapes graphene GRAS (generally regarded as safe) Grasses grasshoppers grease Great Green Fleet Great Lakes Greece green/black economy green chemistry green economy green house facility Green Jobs Green New Deal Green Racing GREET model Grenada gribble groundnut ground nut growers gua beans Guam guar Guatemala guayule Guinea Gulf states Gumweed (grindelia squarosa) Guyana GWP h Haiti Halophytes harvesting harvest site processing Hawaii hazardous waste HDCJ health health benefits health effects heat-tolerance heating oil/fuel heat of combustion heat of vaporization hedging HEFA (Hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) HEFA50 hemicellulose hemicellulosic sugars Hemp hemp oil hemp seed herb HFS-SIP hibiscus High Octane Fuel (HOF) High Octane Fuel Standard High Octane Vehicles (HOV) high performance regular high school project Highway Bill highway rights-of-way Highway Trust Fund history ho hog farmers hombayniya homogeneous-charge compression-ignition Honduras honey locust Honge tree nuts Hong Kong hops horse bedding Horse manure horticulture Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HPF (High Performance Fuels) HRJ human rights Hungary Hurricane Sandy HVO (Hydrotreated vegetable oil) HVO100 Hybrid aircraft hybrids hydrocarbon fuels hydrofaction hydrogen hydrogenation hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) hydrogen fuel cells hydrogenolysis hydrogen pumps hydropower hydroprocessing hydropyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization hydrothermal liquefaction hydrothermal treatment Hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) hydrotreating hydrous ethanol hypoxia zone Iceland Idaho Illinois illuppai ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) import/export incinerator ash India Indiana Indian beech tree Indian grass indirect effects indirect emissions indirect fuel use change indium Indonesia industrial ethanol industrial sugars industrial waste industrial waste gases IndyCar 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Carter Jobs jojoba Jordan JP-4 JP-5 JP-8 JP-10 juniper jute K-12 Education Kabakanjagala kamani Kansas Kans grass Karanja Kazakhstan kelp Kemiri Sunan kenaf Kentucky Kenya kerosene ketones kinggrass Kiribati Knowledge Discovery Framework Korea Kosovo kudzu kukui nut kulpa Kuwait Kygryzstan labels Labrador lactose Lake County lamp oil landfill methane Landfills land ownership land prices land rights landscape land subsidence land tenure land transfer land use land use change land use policy Laos Latin America Latvia LCFS (Low Carbon Fuel Standard) lead Leadtree Lebanon legislation Legislation-Federal Legislation-State lemna lend-lease Lesotho lesquerella leucaena Liberia Libya licensing lichens life cycle analysis (LCA) lignin Lignocellulosic Biofuel lignocellulosic sugars Lipid liquefaction liquidation liquid petroleum gas (LPG) liquid transportation fuels Liquified Biogas (LBG) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) lithium Lithuania litigation Litigation-Federal Litigation-State livestock loan guarantees loans lobbying loblolly pine locomotives lodgepole pine logistics long-term contracts Louisiana low carbon emissions Low Emission Vehicle Standards (LEV) low sulfur diesel lubricants lumber mill Luxembourg Luxemburg lysis M15 M50 M100 macadamia macauba Macedonia Madagascar magnesium mahua Maine maize Malawi Malaysia Mali mallees Malta mamona management changes mandates manganese mango mangrove Manitoba mannose manure maple maps marginal land Marine/Maritime Biofuel marine algae Marine Corps Marine Gas Oil (MGO) market forces marketing markets/sales market share Marshall Islands Maryland Masdar Institute Massachusetts Master Limited Partnership (MLP) Mauritius Mazda meat mechanics training medical waste MEEC membranes mergers and acquisitions mesquite methanation methane/biomethane methane leaks Methanol/Biomethanol/Renewable Methanol Mexico Michelin GreenX Challenge Michigan micro-crop microalgae microbe microbiology microorganizms microwave Mid-Atlantic Middle East Midwest mileage military military policy military reserves military specifications military strategic flexibility military strategy military use of biofuels millennium fruit millet millettia pinnata milo stover minerals mining Minnesota miscanthus misfueling missile fuel Mississippi Missouri mixed prarie mobile refinery modeling modular molasses mold molybdenum Monaco mongongo Montana Montenegro moose morama Moringa tree Morocco morula motorcycles MOVES (motor vehicle emissions simulator) modeling system MOVES2014 Mozambique MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) muck multi-fuel municipal/city mushroom mushroom substrate mustard seed Myanmar n-butanol nahar Namibia nanocatalysts nanocellulose nanomaterials nano particles naphtha/bionaphtha NASCAR National Academies of Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Guard National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institutes of Health 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NTSB nucle nuclear Nunavut nutraceuticals nutrient credit trading nutrient management nutrients nutrition nut shells oak oat hulls oats oat straw Obama Obligated Parties/Point of Obligation (PoO) ocean-based energy Oceania octane octane price/value octanol off-take agreements Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Ohio oil oil embargo oil exploration oil monopoly oil price parity oil prices oil production oil refineries oil replacement Oils oil sands oil seed oil seed crops oil speculators oil spill oil subsidies oil taxes Oklahoma olefins olive cake olive pits olives olive water Oman Omega-3s on-farm algae production on-farm biodiesel on-farm ethanol production on-farm natural gas production on-farm processing one pound waiver onion waste online courses Ontario OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) open fuel standard open pond optimized flex fuel vehicles orange peel orchard grass orchard prunings Oregon organic solar cells OSHA Overseas Private Investment Corporation overview overview/survey course oxygen oxygenate ozone p Pakistan Palau palm palm biomass palm fatty acid distillate palm fiber palm fronds palm kernel palm kernel oil palm kernel shell palm oil palm oil mill effluent (POME) palm oil prices palm waste Paludiculture/peatland cultivation Panama panda pandas panic grass papaya paper Papua Papua New Guinea paraffins Paraguay parity partial waiver particulates pasture land Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) patents pathways Paulownia paulownia tree payments peaches peak oil peanut peanuts/groundnuts peas pectin pellets Pennsylvania pennycress/stinkweed pentane pentanol pentose perennial grains perennial grasses performan Performance permitting Peru pest-tolerance pesticide-tolerance pests petition pharmaceuticals phase separation Philippines phosphorus photobioreactor photosynthesis phragmites pigeon pea pilot scale pine pineapple pine beetle pine nut pinion pipelines Pistacia chinensis PLA plant cell research plant cell walls plant oil plastic plastic-to-jet Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) plume grass Poland Policy politics pollinators pollution pollution control polyfuel polymer polymerization polysaccharides pomace pomegranates pongamia pongamia pinnata poplar poppy population control Portable refinery Portugal poster sessions potamogeton potassium potato poultry litter power-to-gas prairie grasses pre-processing precision farming/agriculture precursors/biointermediates premium gasoline Pretreatment pretreatment equipment price price of water prickly pear Prince Edward Island private educational business process flow diagram producer tax credit Production tax credit productivity project insurance propagating propane propanol property insurance protectionism protein protests public comments public health policy Puerto Rico pulp Pulp/Paper Mill pump retrofit kit pumps pungam Punnai tree PVO pyrolysis Q-RIN QAP Qatar quality assurance Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) quality improvement quantum dots Quebec Queensland quote of the week R33 rabbits race radiata pine Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing railroad rainforest RAND rare earth metal RD20 RD30 RD99 RD100 rea reclaimed mine lands recycled oil recycled plastics recycling red red algae redcedar Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation refineries reforestation regenerative braking regulations Regulations-Federal Regulations-State Regulatory Enhancement Growth Support (REGS) Reid vapor pressure (RVP) remediation remediation rice straw Renewable Chemical renewable chemical producer tax incentive renewable chemical production tax credit Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel/Paraffinic Diesel Renewable Diesel/Green Diesel price renewable diesel pumps renewable diesel tax credit renewable diesel terminal Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Directive (RED and RED II) Renewable Energy for America Program Renewable Energy Standard Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-Dense Liquids (REFUEL) renewable fuel renewable fuel oil (RFO) Renewable Fuels Directive (EU) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) revisions/repeal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS and RFS2) renewable gasoline blendstock renewable hydrogen renewable marine diesel Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) price Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) pumps Renewable Portfolio Standards Renewable Power Standard renewable propane Renewable Synthesized Iso-Paraffinic Fuels (SIP) renewable volume renewable volume obligation (RVO) replacement molecules Repowering Assistance Program repurpose research and development research facility resiliency resource depletion retail return on investment R Factor RFI RFS "reset" RHD100 Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) Rhode Island Ricardo rice rice bran oil rice hulls rice husks rice straw RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) RIMPAC RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) RINs markets RINs price risk management RJ-4 RJ-6 RME (rape methyl ester) RME180 RNA roadmap rocket fuel Romania RON (Research Octane Number) rotation crops royalties RSF2 RTP (rapid thermal processing) rubber rumen ruminants rural development Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative Russia Russian olive rutabaga Rwanda rye Rye grass s saccharification Safer and Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles (SAFE) safety safflower sago sago pond weed SAIC SAK sales Salicornia salt-tolerant saltbush saltcedar sal tree salt water Sanctions Santa Monica sardine oil Saskatchewan Saudi Arabia sawdust scale up Scandinavia scholarships/fellowships Science Advisory Board (SAB) Science Policy Scotland scum sea level rise seashore mallow seawater Seaweed/Macroalgae seaweed cultivation Section 526 Securiti Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) seed husks Senegal Serbia sesame sewage Seychelles shale gas shale oil sheep shipping shipping containers shipworm Sierra Leone silica Silphie/cup plant/Indian cup 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Reserve straw students sub-Saharan Africa sub-sim (substantially similar) succinic acid sucrose Sudan sugar sugar-to-biodiesel sugar-to-farnesane sugar-to-jetfuel Sugar Beets/Energy Beets sugar cane sugar cane prices sugar cane straw Sugar kelp sugar palm sugar platform sugar prices sugars sugars-to-fats sugar standards sulfur Sumatra sunflower supercritical fluid supercritical hydrolysis supply agreements supply chain Supreme Court surahart Suriname sustain Sustainability Swaziland Sweden sweetgum sweet potatoes Sweet sorghum swine waste Switchgrass Switzerland sycamore syngas syngas fermentation synthetic biology synthetic diesel synthetic gasoline synthetic methane Syria Tailoring Tailoring Rule Taiwan Tajikistan tall fescue tall oil tallow tallow tree Tamarix tank cars tankers tanker trucks Tanzania tariffs taro tar sands Tasmania tax benefit tax credit taxes tax incentives tax parity tax policy tea teach-the-teacher teacher teacher resources teacher training technical course 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Auto Club Unleaded 88/E15 urbanization urban sprawl Uruguay USAC US Agency for International Development (USAID) USAID US Army USD USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) used cooking oil (UCO) used railroad ties US ethanol exports US Geological Survey US Product Safety Commission Utah utility model Uzbekistan value chain vanadium Vancouver Vanuatu Vatican VEETC vegetable oils Velocys Venezuela Vermont video Vietnam vinasse vinegar vineyard waste Virginia Virgin Islands. virgin oils viruses VLSFO (very low sulfur fuel oil) volunteers w waiver Wales warranty Washington Washington DC waste waste-to-chemicals Waste-to-Energy waste-to-fuel waste alcohol Waste CO2 waste heat waste management waste oil waste paper waste vegetable oil waste water water water consumption water footprint water hyacinth watermeal watermelon water pollution water quality water treatment weather well-to-wheel West Africa Western Australia West Java West Virginia wet distillers grain wet extraction What You Can Do 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